Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> vol. 42 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. MAIN FINDINGS: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning) through the motivation for sport consumption (individual - and game related factors) was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a) related to and b) associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African football spectators. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Football clubs should tailor spectator experiences around both individual and game related spectator motives in order to develop experiences associated with intrinsic psychological reward. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study contributes to consumer psychology research relating to the motives associated with the consumption of football within South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>The validation of a workplace incivility scale within the South African banking industry</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Workplace incivility holds consequences for both individuals and organisations. Managers are becoming increasingly aware of this phenomenon. Currently, there is no workplace incivility scale validated for use within the South African context. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability and validity of the adapted workplace incivility scale by Leiter and colleagues for use within South Africa. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: As it is currently difficult to measure workplace incivility within the South African context because of the lack of a valid and reliable scale, it is necessary to validate such a scale. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional research approach was used for the study. Convenience sampling (N = 345) was used within the South African banking industry. Specifically, the factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity and predictive validity were investigated in order to establish the overall validity of the scale. MAIN FINDINGS: The results confirmed that the scale showed a three-factor structure as best-fitting with acceptable reliability coefficients. Furthermore, discriminant validity could be shown between workplace incivility and workplace bullying, that is, supporting that these two constructs are not the same phenomenon. In terms of relationships, colleague incivility did not significantly predict any of the outcome variables and instigated incivility only being a negative predictor of job satisfaction and a borderline statistically significant negative predictor of work engagement. However, supervisor incivility predicted all the outcomes negatively. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Based on the results, workplace incivility should be addressed because of the harmful effects it can have, not only on employees but also on organisations. It is therefore necessary for managers to create awareness of workplace incivility in order to ensure that it does not integrate within the organisational culture and affect individual and organisational performance. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study contributes to the limited research available in South Africa regarding workplace incivility by providing a scale that is valid and reliable. <![CDATA[<b>The relevance of the psychometrist category as a professional resource: Training-related issues</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The professional status of psychometrists places them in a position where they can provide a specialist function independently and their services should therefore be relevant to a variety of settings. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim was to explore if the training of student psychometrists contributes to the relevance of this category in terms of the demographic profile of student psychometrists, the scope of services potentially provided by them and the content of training programmes. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: There is a paucity of research on training in the psychometrist category. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Data were obtained from the files of a cohort of student psychometrists who were registered in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Africa (UNISA). Follow-up surveys on training and work contexts were conducted amongst these students and their in-practice supervisors to confirm and supplement the data. In addition, a survey on the national availability of training programmes for psychometrists was conducted at South African universities. MAIN FINDINGS: Gender and racial skewness in terms of the demographic profile of the UNISA students seemed to reflect a national trend. In terms of the scope ofservices, training opportunities and perceived job opportunities for psychometrists seemed limited and despite the utilisation of the skills area in all the applied contexts, concerns related to the sectors being served were identified. With regard to the content of the training programmes, students and in-practice supervisors expressed a need for greater preparation in test use before related practical experience takes place. The importance of the university's involvement during the practicum was also emphasised. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Recommendations are made regarding the structure and content of training programmes. This information could be applied in adapting existing programmes and in developing new programmes. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Ultimately, these recommendations could contribute to the value of the psychometrist category as a professional resource relevant to a variety of settings. <![CDATA[<b>The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS) within the South African context</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To determine the psychometric properties of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS) within the South African context. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: No reliable and valid scale for workplace boredom was available in South Africa at the time of the current research. Boredom at work has been found to affect organisations negatively in other countries. Insights are needed into workplace boredom and how it affects the outcomes of organisations in South Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional research approach was utilised. A random convenience sample (N = 490) was obtained from organisations within the manufacturing and logistics sector. In order to validate the DUBS, the factor structure, construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity) and scale reliability were investigated. A mediation model was also tested with structural equation modelling to ascertain predictive validity. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that the one-factor structure of the DUBS could be confirmed and that this factor had acceptable reliability. In terms of convergent validity, all of the item indicators loaded significantly on the workplace boredom construct, and the relationship between workplace boredom and work underload revealed that they were positively correlated with medium effect size. Furthermore, work engagement and organisational commitment were correlated negatively in terms of practical significance with workplace boredom. A structural mediation model showed that work underload was significantly and positively associated with boredom, which in turn had significant negative relations to both work engagement and organisational commitment. No significant direct relations were found from work underload to either work engagement or organisational commitment. Instead, bootstrapping showed that there was an indirect-only relationship from work underload to work engagement and organisational commitment through workplace boredom - indicating full mediation. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Management should not neglect workplace boredom, as results indicate that it may adversely impact work engagement and organisational commitment. Therefore, workplace boredom should be a concern not only for individuals, but also for the organisation at large. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the limited research available on workplace boredom in South Africa by providing evidence of acceptable psychometric properties for a workplace boredom scale. <![CDATA[<b>Antecedents of perceived graduate employability: A study of student volunteers in a community-based organisation</b>]]> ORIENTATION: There is growing interest in understanding the factors that contribute to graduates' employability, but limited local knowledge. International research has pointed at volunteering as one avenue for enhancing employability, and this study presents results that looked at volunteering in the context of employability in a South African sample. RESEARCH PURPOSE:This study aimed at investigating motivations to volunteer, perceived graduate competencies, extent of participating in volunteering, along with gender and faculty of registration, as antecedents of perceived graduate employability among student volunteers and to compare the relative contributions of these antecedences in predicting perceived employability. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional research design and a quantitative data collection method were used. The relative weights analysis was conducted to answer the research question. MAIN FINDINGS: Overall, the results demonstrated, firstly, that different sets of predictors statistically significantly predict Perceived External Employability and Perceived Internal Employability, respectively. In the case of Perceived External Employability, a biographical predictor (faculty of registration) is the strongest predictor, whereas in the case of Internal Employability, a questionnaire measurement (of Social Motivation) comes out on top. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The social motivation factor as a predictor of perceived internal employability suggests that the more students valued the social interactions brought about by their volunteering activities, the better they saw themselves equipped for employment. This gives some weight to the argument that engaging in volunteer activities can help equip students with competencies that make them more prepared for the world of work. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study provided support for the construct validity of the scale for the measurement of perceived employability and evidence that different sets of predictors contribute to perceived internal and external employability. <![CDATA[<b>Positives and Negatives: Reconceptualising Gender Attributes within the Context of the Sex role Identity and Well-Being Literature: An Examination within the South African Context</b>]]> ORIENTATION: There is a lack of research examining both positive and negative sex-based traits and sex role identities. Previous research has predominantly focused on positive sex role identities and their relationship to various outcome variables. Findings for such research have not always been consistent. It has been argued that research that only examines positive identities is methodologically flawed and that the inconsistent findings in such research may be attributable to the fact that the research conducted has not examined the extent to which individuals may have adopted negative sex role identities. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: With few exceptions, sex role identity (SRI) has been measured exclusively in terms of positive characteristics only. There is a dearth of research investigating both positive and negative sex role identities, particularly within the South African context. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to explore the extent to which individuals adopt both positive and negative sex-based traits and sex role identities. A theoretical argument is made for examining positive and negative gender attributes followed by a discussion of seven empirical studies, which demonstrate that significant proportions of samples are adopting negative sex role identities. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This research was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a convenience sampling method across seven different samples. A total of 3462 employees participated in this research. A revised version of the Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire (EPAQ-R) and a demographic survey were used to collect the data. MAIN FINDINGS: Across all seven samples, a significant proportion of the respondents adopted negative sex role identities. These findings suggest that there is a need to measure both positive and negative identities in research on SRI. The proportion of respondents across the seven samples that adopted negative identities ranged from 44% to 49% whilst 46% to 54% indicated the adoption of positive identities. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: This research is important as it highlights that investigations of SRI must assess both positive and negative sex role identities. Negative SRIs may have implications for critical individual and organisational outcomes. Furthermore, measures that assess both positive and negative identities may have implications for organisational processes, such as recruitment, selection and training, learning and development. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings of this research contribute to the South African body of literature investigating sex role identities. The present study's finding of a high proportion of individuals endorsing negative identities has implications for future research. Future research needs to explore the relationship between both positive and negative identities and a wide variety of individual and organisational well-being indicators. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the impact of information and communication technology on employees' work and personal lives</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Technology has become part of society's everyday functioning, changing rapidly and providing widespread mobility. Employees are moving towards a continually connected lifestyle, a situation in which information and communication technology (ICT) seem to have become omnipresent. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The overall objective of this research was to investigate the influence of ICT on employees' work and personal lives. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The impact of ICT on the work and personal lives of employees has never been researched before, which motivated the current study. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A qualitative research design, with a sample of 25 employees, was followed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data, and the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and processed through thematic analyses. MAIN FINDINGS: Five themes with sub-themes were extracted: The positive and negative experiences of ICT both within the work and personal lives of employees, the increased expectations brought about by ICT usage, and the role of ICT on relationships. Findings highlighted that although ICT are generally perceived as positive, employees should make a conscious decision in managing their ICT to decrease the negative impact thereof on their work and personal lives. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Overall, the general positive experiences of ICT outweigh the negative experiences, and findings almost suggest that as the quantity of communication increased, the quality of conversations decreased. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE ADD: This study provides a holistic understanding of the impact of ICT on the work and personal lives of employees. <![CDATA[<b>The psychological well-being manifesting among master's students in Industrial and Organisational Psychology</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Psychological well-being among master's students is seen as a contributing factor towards having a meaningful, enjoyable and productive experience as a student. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative description of the psychological well-being experiences of first-year students in a part-time coursework master's degree in Industrial and Organisational Psychology (IOP) in order to foster an empathetic understanding of their experiences. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The understanding of their master's students' psychological well-being experiences will assist university IOP departments in facilitating the appropriate psychological containment to students and the optimisation of their resilience towards meaningfully completing their first year and perhaps also their master's degree. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Qualitative research was conducted within a hermeneutic interpretive stance. Data were gathered from a focus group with 10 conveniently chosen participants. Thematic content analysis provided eight themes, which were interpreted and linked to the literature on psychological well-being. MAIN FINDINGS: Student distress caused by job demands leads to languishing and feeling overwhelmed. In contrast, student eustress resulting from job resources leads to flourishing, consisting of self-efficacy, locus of control and optimism. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: University IOP departments can use the information towards understanding their master's students' psychological well-being experiences, which could assist in the students' successful and timeous completion of their studies. CONTRIBUTION: The study contributes to the literature on master's students' real negative and positive experiences and psychological well-being, which university departments often deny or dismiss as idiosyncratic. <![CDATA[<b>Work-family conflict based on strain: The most hazardous type of conflict in Iranian hospitals nurses</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Work and family conflicts continuously and negatively affect employees' performance. Previous research has mostly studied the impact of the two distinct dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) on health outcomes, whereas the impact of more specific dimensions of these two general types of conflict on health outcomes is little known. Therefore, we now need to also measure the impact of more specified types of these conflicts on health outcomes. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to propose a causal model of the effects of six different types of WFC (time, strain and behaviour) and FWC (time, strain and behaviour) on the mental and physical health of hospital nurses to identify the most hazardous type of conflict they faced. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: This research was conducted to outline which specific type of WFC or FWC is able to act as the strongest antecedent of mental and physical health in nurses. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Three hundred and eleven nurses from six hospitals were selected by simple random sampling. Data were collected using a Carlson WFC scale as well as an SF-36 mental-physical health scale based on a cross-sectional research design. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling and SPSS. MAIN FINDINGS: The final model showed that, firstly, the effects of WFC types (time, strain and behaviour) on health outcomes were much greater than the effects of FWC types (time, strain and behaviour). Secondly, WFC and FWC based on strain were stronger predictors of health outcomes. Finally, strain-based WFC was identified to be the most hazardous type of conflict in our study. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: These findings can be employed by hospital managers to block all the potential factors that may increase strain-based WFC in the workplace. Moreover, this study helps hospitals to use special educational programs directed at reducing strain-based WFC. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This research clearly revealed that a specific type of WFC may more likely influence the health situation of nurses. <![CDATA[<b>Best practice guidelines for the use of the assessment centre method in South Africa (5th edition)</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Assessment Centres (ACs) have a long and successful track record in South Africa when used for selection and development purposes. The popularity of the approach is mainly attributable to the ACs' numerous strengths, which include the perceived fairness, practical utility and strong associations with on-the-job performance. To maintain the integrity of the AC, it is important for practitioners and decision makers to apply the method in a consistent and standardised manner. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the report is to provide practitioners and decision makers with practical guidelines and concrete procedures when using ACs as part of the organisation's human resource management strategy. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The past decade has seen significant advances in the science and practice of ACs. Now in its fifth edition, the revised Guidelines seek to provide important information to practitioners and decision makers on a number of factors when used in conjunction with the AC method, namely, technology, validation, legislation, ethics and culture. MAIN FINDINGS: The Guidelines provide specific suggestions and recommendations for using technology as part of the manner of delivery. Issues of culture, diversity and representation are also discussed. New features of the Guidelines include more concrete guidance on how to conduct a validation study as well as unpacking several ethical dilemmas that practitioners may encounter. Of critical importance is a position statement on the use of ACs in relation to new legislation (Employment Equity Amendment Act, Section 8, clause d) pertaining to psychometric testing. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The Guidelines serve as a benchmark of best practice for practitioners and decision makers who intend on, or are currently, using ACs in their organisations. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: In the absence of formal standards governing the use of ACs in South Africa, the Guidelines provide an important step towards establishing standardisation in the use of the AC method. The Guidelines provide (1) guidance to industrial and organisational psychologists, organisational consultants, human resource management specialists, generalists and the Department of Labour, and others designing and conducting ACs; (2) information to managers deciding whether to introduce AC methods; (3) instructions to assessors taking part in the AC; (4) guidance on the use of technology and navigating diverse cultural contexts; and (5) a reference for professionals on best practice considerations in the use of the AC method. <![CDATA[<b>How can work be designed to be intrinsically rewarding? Qualitative insights from South African non-profit employees</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Intrinsic rewards are personal, psychological responses to the work that employees perform, which stem from the manner in which their work is designed. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study sought to discover in what ways non-profit employees are psychologically rewarded by the nature of their work tasks. The use of a qualitative approach to data collection and analysis ensured that in-depth responses from participants were gained. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Intrinsic rewards are of particular importance to non-profit employees, who tend to earn below-market salaries. This implies that their motivation originates predominantly from intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic rewards; yet, research into this area of rewards is lacking. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted using a sample of 15 extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees working within South Africa. Thematic analysis was utilised in order to generate codes which led to the formation of five intrinsic rewards categories. MAIN FINDINGS: Intrinsic rewards were classified into five categories, namely (1) Meaningful Work, (2) Flexible Work, (3) Challenging Work, (4) Varied Work and (5) Enjoyable Work. These rewards each comprise of various subcategories, which provide insight into why such work is rewarding to non-profit employees PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Traditional performance management systems should be re-evaluated in the non-profit sector to shift focus towards intrinsic rewards, as opposed to focusing only on the use of extrinsic rewards such as incentives to motivate employees. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study provides a qualitative understanding of how extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees perceive their work to be intrinsically rewarding, which bridges the empirical gap pertaining to intrinsic rewards within this sector. <![CDATA[<b>Enhancing the well-being of support services staff in higher education: The power of appreciation</b>]]> ORIENTATION: A literature search for studies on the well-being of support staff of higher education institutions (HEIs) produced very little results. Appreciation was then used to identify elements that might enhance the well-being of a selected HEI's support staff. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim was to explore the strengths of a selected HEI that might serve as driving forces for enhancing its support staff's well-being MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The lack of research on the well-being of support staff motivated the study. A need was identified to explore driving forces that might enhance their well-being. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A literature review guided by theoretical perspectives and theories on staff well-being was conducted. Subsequently, a qualitative action research design involving an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) workshop with support staff of an institution was followed. MAIN FINDINGS: The following strengths that might serve as driving forces for enhancing the well-being of the institution's support services staff were identified: hard-working and dedicated support staff, positive relations among colleagues, a willingness to adapt to change, good remuneration and benefits, job security and a supportive work environment. Appreciative Inquiry was found to be well suited for identifying such strengths, as opposed to methods that focus on identifying problems or weaknesses of an organisation. As a result of this study, the relevant institution might react and build on these identified strengths towards promoting the well-being of its support staff. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Institutions should make an effort to enhance staff well-being. The results of the study could also be used to encourage HEIs to use AI to establish optimal staff well-being. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE ADD: The study confirmed the power of appreciation to identify the strengths that might serve as driving forces for enhancing the well-being of support staff of an HEI. <![CDATA[<b>Towards engagement: A comparison of fan groups in the context of a major South African football club</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The commercial growth of sport clubs is often a direct consequence of the level of engagement of its fans. However, limited research has been done to understand how the engagement experience of these fans could be enhanced. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this research was to evaluate whether differences exist amongst groups of sport fans in terms of their levels of engagement. This is conducted on the basis of customer engagement - relationship marketing - and market segmentation theories, and in an effort to inform practical strategies that could be used to leverage engagement. By establishing that differences do exist between segments of sport fans, practical strategies could be developed based on such differences. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional, quantitative design was utilised in this study. A convenience sample of 430 adult fans of one of South Africa's largest and best supported professional football clubs participated in the study. Two fan groupings were compared, namely fans who belonged to a formal supporters' branch of the club versus fans who did not, and fans who frequented the social media platforms of such club versus fans who did not. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and latent variable modelling were implemented to compare groups of fans in terms of sport fan engagement. Measurement invariance was reviewed to compare the equivalence of measurement between the groups. MAIN FINDINGS: Statistical analysis revealed greater levels of fan engagement amongst fans that form part of formal supporters' branches as well as amongst fans who regularly visit the sport club's social media platforms. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: By making use of supporters' branches and social media, practical engagement strategies are available to professional sport clubs that seek to enhance the engagement experience of their fans. These strategies could assist clubs in developing customised intervention programmes specifically for this purpose. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study puts forward practical suggestions with regards to engagement strategies that professional sport clubs can consider in their efforts to enhance the commercial performance of their teams through greater engagement. <![CDATA[<b>Two decades of qualitative research in Psychology, Industrial and Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Management within South Africa: A critical review</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Qualitative research is marked by phenomenal growth and development over the years. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This article aims to offer insight into the emerging qualitative methodologies used in the fields of Psychology, Industrial and Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Management. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The value of qualitative organisational research has been recognised since the 1970s. Regardless of its perceived value, national and international trends show a greater tendency for quantitative research. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This article investigates qualitative articles (n = 242) published over two decades in the South African Journal of Industrial Psychology (SAJIP), South African Journal of Psychology (SAJP), and the South African Journal of Human Resource Management (SAJHRM). More specifically, a content analysis was conducted to highlight the trends of paradigms, designs and analysis methods employed in the studies. MAIN FINDINGS: Although there seems to be a slight increase in qualitative publications over the years, qualitative studies show a lower volume than its counterparts. The SAJIP published the least qualitative articles when compared to the SAJP and SAJHRM. There is a pattern of preference for specific paradigms and methods in all the journals. Overall, all the journals carry a large number of articles that do not specifically state their paradigmatic alignment or the designs they used, while some articles omits the methodology used in the studies altogether. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The results indicate a clear need for increased exposure to qualitative methodology, both by publishing more qualitative studies in local journals and by providing formal training opportunities. A publication does not solely rely on authorship, but also on a review process. Therefore certain adjustments in this process may lead to more and better qualitative publications in future. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This article provides a critical analysis of the current trends and developments in qualitative research conducted in Industrial and Organisational Psychology (IOP) research in South Africa. The study identifies dominant methodologies in use, and thereby identifies possible opportunities to expand the 'methodological menu' of IOP research. <![CDATA[<b>Impression management within the Zulu culture: Exploring tactics in the work context</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Impression management tactics are utilised differently by people depending on the situation and the others around them. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify the impression management tactics Zulu people display when they want to impress people in a work context. MOTIVATION FOR THIS STUDY: Organisations are competing for talented employees and people who contribute to the return on investment for the organisation. Individuals display impression tactics to influence the perceptions of others in the workplace, especially pertaining to performance appraisals and promotional opportunities. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: The social constructivism paradigm was employed in conducting this study, following a phenomenological approach. The research sample consisted of 30 Zulu-speaking individuals from various organisations who were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The researcher used thematic analysis to analyse the data. MAIN FINDINGS: The main findings in this study included impression management tactics that are used by Zulu people when attempting to impress people in the work context. The findings were divided into different categories (colleagues and supervisor). Conscientiousness, interpersonal amiability, opennessand relational action are the themes that were reported as the most common impression management features people display at their workplace with colleagues. Themes that were reported when impressing a supervisor include conscientiousness, integrity, relational action and skilfulness. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: This study provides organisations with knowledge on the impression management tactics utilised by isiZulu employees. The nature of this information enables management to not misinterpret the use of certain tactics and will lead to more understanding and resilience by organisations and colleagues when working with isiZulu individuals. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the body of knowledge concerning impression management tactics within the South African context. The findings of this study might assist management to invent tools that are effective to identify impression management tactics, not just in the Zulu culture but within numerous other cultures in the South African spectrum. <![CDATA[<b>Authentic leadership and organisational citizenship behaviour in the public health care sector: The role of workplace trust</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The orientation of this study was towards authentic leadership and its influence on workplace trust and organisational citizenship behaviour in the public health care sector. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of authentic leadership on organisational citizenship behaviour, through workplace trust among public health care employees in South Africa. The objective was to determine whether authentic leadership affects organisational citizenship behaviour through workplace trust (conceptualised as trust in the organisation, immediate supervisor and co-workers. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Employees in the public health care industry are currently being faced with a demanding work environment which includes a lack of trust in leadership. This necessitated the need to determine whether authentic leadership ultimately leads to extra-role behaviours via workplace trust in its three referents. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design was used with employees the public health care sector in South Africa (N = 633). The Authentic Leadership Inventory, Workplace Trust Survey and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale were administered to these participants. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated that authentic leadership has a significant influence on trust in all three referents, namely the organisation, the supervisor and co-workers. Both trust in the organisation and trust in co-workers positively influenced organisational citizenship behaviour. Conversely, authentic leadership did not have a significant influence on organisational citizenship behaviour. Finally, authentic leadership had a significant indirect effect on organisational citizenship behaviour through trust in the organisation and trust in co-workers. Trust in the organisation was found to have the strongest indirect effect on the relationship between authentic leadership and organisational citizenship behaviour. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The main findings suggest that public health care institutions would benefit if leaders are encouraged to be more authentic as this might result in increases in both trust among co-workers and in the organisation. Consequently, employees might be more likely to exert additional effort in their work. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Limited empirical evidence exists with regard to the relationship between authentic leadership, workplace trust in its three referents and organisational citizenship behaviour. This study aimed to contribute to the limited number of studies conducted. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the notion of a 'capability for uncertainty' and the implications for leader development</b>]]> ORIENTATION: With uncertainty increasingly defining organisational contexts, executive leaders need to develop their 'capability for uncertainty' - the ability to engage with uncertainty in their organisational context and to lead others, while simultaneously managing their own experience of uncertainty. However, what constitutes such a holistic 'capability for uncertainty' is not clear. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose was to gain an understanding of what constitutes a capability for uncertainty. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Gaining an understanding of what components constitute leaders' capability for uncertainty would provide a basis for determining what interventions would be relevant for developing leaders towards achieving such a capability. Research approach, design and method: An interpretive qualitative approach was adopted, using interpretative phenomenological analysis to gain an understanding of what capability executive leaders developed through their lived experience of uncertainty. Two purposive samples of six executive leaders from two different South African companies (a private company and a state-owned company), which had both been experiencing long-term organisational uncertainty prior to and up to the time of the study, were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. MAIN FINDINGS: The executives all developed their capability for uncertainty through lived experiences of uncertainty, to a greater or lesser extent. Five components were identified as constituting a holistic capability for uncertainty, as follows: a sense of positive identity, an acceptance of uncertainty, effective sense-making, learning agility and relevant leadership practices during organisational uncertainty. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations need to target and design leader development interventions to specifically develop these components of a holistic capability for uncertainty in executives and leaders, enabling them to engage more effectively with uncertainty and to more positively manage their experience of uncertainty in these increasingly turbulent times. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The key contribution is the identification of five crucial components constituting a capability for uncertainty, which can be used to inform leadership development interventions designed to develop such capability in leaders. <![CDATA[<b>Personal growth initiative among Industrial Psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Personal growth initiative (PGI) is an important characteristic of workplace counsellors. Industrial and organisational (I-O) psychologists often assist employees with counselling for work-related and personal problems, and therefore PGI is an important research topic for this profession. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure the PGI of I-O psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa, as well as to explore differences in PGI between demographic groups. MOTIVATION: According to the scope of practice for psychologists, growth and development of employees form part of an I-O psychologist's responsibilities. PGI is an important characteristic of I-O psychologists as it enables them to efficiently assist employees in growth and development processes. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A purposive non-probability sample (N = 568) of I-O psychology students was taken from a higher education institution in South Africa. A biographical questionnaire and the personal growth initiative scale (PGIS) were used as measuring instruments. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated that (1) the PGIS is a valid and reliable measure of PGI, (2) PGI is prevalent amongst I-O psychology students and (3) PGI differs between certain demographic groups. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings of this study will assist in the future development of a training programme for I-O psychology students to equip them with the counselling skills they need to function in a counselling role. CONTRIBUTION: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the importance of PGI for I-O psychology students. The study will also assist higher education institutes to adapt their training programmes in order to prepare I-O psychology students for their role as counsellors. More knowledge will also be provided with regard to the functioning of the PGIS. <![CDATA[<b>The psychometric properties of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) as measures of mindfulness and their relationship with burnout and work engagement</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Given the increasing interest in mindfulness in the workplace, recent research recommends that the psychometric properties of existing mindfulness measures be evaluated in terms of convergent and predictive validity RESEARCH PURPOSE: The research purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the 15-item (short version) Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the 14-item (short version) Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) in parallel on a South African sample. Furthermore, the research aimed to investigate the convergent validity between the FMI and MAAS as well as their relationship to burnout and work engagement (predictive validity MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Organisational scholars must investigate the most appropriate instruments for measuring mindfulness in the workplace. Doing so would allow an eventual meta-analysis on the construct and its relationships and utility in the workplace. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY: For this study, a quantitative cross-sectional survey research design was employed. Convenience sampling was chosen and 497 participants applying for admission to a management and leadership degree programme at a South African Business School participated in the study. All participants of the sample are employed at either private or public institutions. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the convergent validity of the instruments. Cronbach's alpha was utilised in determining the reliabilities of the instruments. The product-moment correlation by Pearson was used to compare the two instruments in terms of their relationship to burnout and work engagement. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine whether the FMI and MAAS are significant predictors of burnout and work engagement (predictive validity). MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that the short versions of both the FMI and the MAAS are valid and reliable unidimensional measures of mindfulness. The findings showed that the two instruments are moderately correlated, providing adequate evidence of convergent validity. With regards to predictive validity, both the FMI and MAAS showed statistically significant relations with burnout and work engagement. Yet, the MAAS showed higher correlations with these constructs. A similar picture emerged with regards to the stepwise multiple regression results. The MAAS was the only significant predictor of burnout, explaining 12% of the variance. Both the MAAS and FMI were significant predictors of work engagement. The MAAS explained 13% of the variance in work engagement while the FMI explained 3% of the variance PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Given these results, the MAAS currently seems to be a more appropriate measurement of mindfulness in the workplace given its ability to better predict work engagement and burnout than the FMI. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study has provided much needed empirical evidence on the psychometric properties of the FMI and MAAS as measures of mindfulness on a South African sample. <![CDATA[<b>The systems psychodynamic experiences of organisational transformation amongst support staff</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The unconscious impact of organisational transformation is often neglected and even denied. This research revealed the manifestation and impact of high levels and different forms of anxiety experienced by employees during transformation. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study and describe the manifesting systems psychodynamic behaviour amongst support staff during organisational transformation. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Organisational transformation is mostly researched from a leadership viewpoint. Little research data are available on the experiences of support staff on the receiving end of decisions about and implementation of transformation. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A qualitative approach within the phenomenological hermeneutic interpretive stance was used. The research was set in a government organisation. A semi-structured interview with four conveniently and purposefully chosen support staff members was thematically analysed using systems psychodynamics as theoretical paradigm. MAIN FINDINGS: Four themes manifested, namely de-authorisation and detachment, being bullied and seduced by leadership, the organisation in the mind as incompetent, and a dangerous and persecutory system. In the discussion, the basic assumptions and relevant constructs are interpreted PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the transformation experiences of support staff could assist the industrial psychologist to facilitate appropriate support in coaching more junior staff towards increasing wellness and work performance. CONTRIBUTION: Organisational transformation is highlighted as an anxiety provoking experience especially on the lower levels of the organisation. Its potentially deep and complex psychological impact could possibly derail parts of the system if not managed in a psychologically contained manner. <![CDATA[<b>Bias and equivalence of the Strengths Use and Deficit Correction Questionnaire</b>]]> ORIENTATION: For optimal outcomes, it is suggested that employees receive support from their organisation to use their strengths and improve their deficits. Employees also engage in proactive behaviour to use their strengths and improve their deficits. Following this conversation, the Strengths Use and Deficit Correction Questionnaire (SUDCO) was developed. However, the cultural suitability of the SUDCO has not been confirmed. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the bias and structural equivalence of the SUDCO. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: In a diverse cultural context such as South Africa, it is important to establish that a similar score on a psychological test has the same psychological meaning across ethnic groups. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was followed to collect data among a convenience sample of 858 employees from various occupational sectors in South Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: Confirmatory multigroup analysis was used to test for item and construct bias. None of the items were biased, neither uniform nor non-uniform. The most restrictive model accounted for similarities in weights, intercepts and means; only residuals were different PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The results suggest that the SUDCO is suitable for use among the major ethnic groups included in this study. These results increase the probability that future studies with the SUDCO among other ethnic groups will be unbiased and equivalent. CONTRIBUTION: This study contributed to existing literature because no previous research has assessed the bias and equivalence of the SUDCO among ethnic groups in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>An investigation into the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being</b>]]> ORIENTATION: South African studies investigating the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-being (RPWB) are needed to ensure that the instrument is valid and reliable within the South African context. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the RPWB within two South African samples. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Although a substantial number of studies have been undertaken, results regarding the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being are inconclusive. There is a dearth of information in relation to South African studies examining the scales' factor structure. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A quantitative research approach using a cross-sectional field survey design was utilised. An adult working group (n = 202) was selected using convenience sampling, and a student group (n = 226) was selected by means of purposive non-probability sampling. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted to examine the factor structure. MAIN FINDINGS: The preferred model was a two-factor model where all the positively worded items were grouped in the first factor and all the negatively worded items were grouped in the second factor PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The factor structure of the original RPWB was not satisfactorily replicated and remains seemingly unsettled. The utility of negatively worded items should be considered carefully, and alternatives such as mixed response options and phrase completion should be explored. The scales should be used with caution. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study contributes to the literature concerning the factor structure of the RPWB with an emphasis on the South African context. It contributes to ensuring that researchers and practitioners use a valid and reliable instrument when measuring psychological well-being. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of a total reward system of work engagement</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Work engagement is critical for both employees and employers. With the reported downward spiral of engagement levels worldwide, organisations are recognising that in order to address this, attract best talent and keep employees motivated, they need to shift their attention to total reward strategies. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The overall purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between total rewards and work engagement in a South African context and to determine which reward categories predict work engagement. The study further endeavoured to determine whether gender and age had a moderating effect on the relationship between total rewards and engagement. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Statistics report that less than 30% of all working people are optimally engaged in their work. Considering that individuals spend more than a third of their lives at work committing themselves emotionally, physically and psychologically - research indicates that employees are no longer satisfied with traditional reward systems and want to feel valued and appreciated. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: In this quantitative, cross-sectional research design using a non-probability convenience and purposive sampling strategy, 318 questionnaires were collected and analysed from financial institutions in Gauteng in which opinions were sought on the importance of different types of rewards structures and preferences, and how engaged they are in their workplace. The 17-item UWES and Nienaber total reward preference model were the chosen measuring instruments. MAIN FINDINGS: A small statistically significant correlation (r = 0.25; p < 0.05; small effect) was found between total rewards and work engagement, and 12% of the variance of work engagement was explained. Only performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Although small, the significant correlation between total rewards and work engagement implies that total rewards are important motivators for employees in the workplace. Of the total rewards scales tested, only performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement, suggesting that more research is needed. Organisations seeking to implement total reward strategies should pay specific attention to which strategies have an impact on work engagement. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Organisations must take cognisance that factors such as performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement and should be considered as part of their total reward offerings. <![CDATA[<b>Indian husbands' support of their wives' upward mobility in corporate South Africa: Wives' perspectives</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Spousal support is a crucial area to explore, particularly due to the increased prevalence of dual-career couples in South Africa and the dynamics facing them. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to explore Indian wives' perceptions regarding the support they receive from their husbands and the impact that such support has on their career progression. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The limited qualitative research available globally on the subject and the dearth of research that focuses on Indian professional females in the South African context motivated the study. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A qualitative research approach was followed, and the data were collected through in-depth, life-story interviews. Purposeful and snowball sampling methods yielded a sample of nine Indian female managers who were in dual-career marriages. MAIN FINDINGS: Spouses are essential sources of support for Indian professional women. The findings revealed that there are various marital and socio-cultural dynamics that impact on the spousal support received by these women, which ultimately influences their career advancement. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings provided valuable information regarding the marital challenges that Indian women face in their career progression. The awareness of such dynamics can assist management in devising strategies to accommodate and retain the unique talent that Indian women have to offer. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study contributes to the evolving body of knowledge on dual-career couples by focusing on an under-researched, but essential aspect of the dual-career arrangement.