Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2071-076320150001&lang=en vol. 41 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Comparing different versions of the Rahim EI questionnaire in a South African context: A confirmatory factor analysis approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Given the interest in the importance of emotional intelligence in employees and leaders with regard to performance of their jobs, it is imperative to use reliable and valid instruments to operationalise emotional intelligence. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of three different versions of the Rahim emotional intelligence index (EQI), specifically with regard to its factor structure and reliability, using two different samples. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: No previous study has investigated which version of the Rahim EQI is the most appropriate for conducting research within South African organisations. In addition, the question of whether the Rahim EQI measures a strong general factor has not been answered. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN, AND METHOD: A cross-sectional quantitative research design was used. Two samples were used (n = 470 and n = 308). The first sample completed the 40-item version of the Rahim EQI, whilst the second sample completed the 30-item version of the Rahim EQI. The measurement model, representing the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI, was also fitted to both these samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the different versions, as well as conceptualisations, of the Rahim EQI. MAIN FINDINGS: The 22-item version of the Rahim EQI exhibited better model fit than the 40-item and 30-item versions. In addition, the bifactor model suggested that the Rahim EQI seems to measure a strong general factor (emotional intelligence) with very little evidence of the presence of unique group factors (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Both the reliability and factor structure of the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI have been confirmed. The bifactor structure should inform researchers and practitioners that, in order to understand emotional intelligence, it is better to conceptualise it as a unidimensional construct. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: In order to identify the most appropriate conceptualisation associated with the Rahim EQI, various goodness-of-fit statistics (e.g. comparative fit index and root mean square error of approximation) should be consulted. The impact of the removal of items from instruments should be investigated with regard to the accuracy with which the construct is to be measured. The current study has also contributed to the literature by examining the psychometric properties of the Rahim EQI in a South African sample. <![CDATA[<b>The influence of emotional intelligence and trust on servant leadership</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Constructs were explored from a positive organisational behaviour (POB) paradigm. The aim of POB constructs is to develop and improve employees' psychological strengths, well-being and performance. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between servant leadership, emotional intelligence and trust in the manager. A model depicting a sequential process of interrelationships amongst the constructs was proposed. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Organisations worldwide acknowledge the role that leadership and emotions play in psychological and physical well-being, as well as job performance of employees. Therefore, organisations need valid and workable interventions to assist their employees to function optimally in the work environment. By understanding the sequential relationships between servant leadership, emotional intelligence and trust, suggestions for such interventions were put forward. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Both survey and statistical modelling methodologies were employed to guide the investigation. Standardised questionnaires were used to measure the three different constructs, based on the responses of 154 employees on a composite questionnaire. MAIN FINDINGS: A high level of reliability was found for all the measurement scales utilised. The results of the structural equation model indicated that emotional intelligence and trust in the manager affected servant leadership. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Emotional intelligence training should form part of a necessary component in the development of servant leaders. Sufficient time should also be given to aspirant servant leaders to build relationships when coaching and mentoring their subordinates in order to build trust. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The model of sequential relationships between the constructs assists in understanding the antecedents of servant leadership in the work environment. <![CDATA[<b>Perceived external prestige as a mediator between quality of work life and organisational commitment of public sector employees in Ghana</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Research efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment, but these studies have not elucidated the mediating role of perceived external prestige in this relationship. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This research seeks to close a research gap by determining the role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment amongst public sector employees in Ghana. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Theoretically guided hypotheses and models were formulated and tested with hierarchical multiple regression statistics using data from a sample of 137 employees from two public sector organisations in Ghana. MAIN FINDINGS: The results support the hypothesis that quality of work life is positively related to both perceived external prestige and organisational commitment. Also, perceived external prestige was found to predict organisational commitment and partially mediate the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings imply that one sure way to enhance organisational commitment of employees is by improving their quality of work life and boosting their perceptions of external prestige of the organisation. These results will be of particular interest to policymakers, public organisations and stakeholders interested in increasing organisational commitment of their employees. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings extend previous research by establishing the mediating role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment. If managers of organisations wish to improve organisational commitment, it is wise to institutionalise an organisational culture that promotes good quality of work life and boost the external prestige of the organisation in the employees' mind. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the meaning and origin of stereotypes amongst South African employees</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Stereotypes are defined in different ways and also originate from various sources. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To investigate how the employees from selected South African organisations understand and define the concept 'stereotype' and what the origins of stereotypes are. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Individuals hold different perceptions of the same concept. Therefore, different individuals within selected South African organisations may interpret the meaning and origin of stereotypes very differently. This study therefore aimed to discover whether individuals have a shared understanding of the concept of stereotypes and whether they are aware of where stereotypes originate from. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A combination of both purposive and convenience sampling was used for the purpose of this study. The sample consisted of individuals working in selected South African organisations (N = 336). Various employment sectors formed part of this study. Semi-structured interviews were utilised to collect data and data analysis was done by making use of thematic analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The results of this study indicated that people employed in selected South African organisations are familiar with stereotypes and have a clear understanding thereof. Participants in this study have a conscious awareness of the origin of stereotypes. Although not all of the participants had direct experiences with stereotyped groups, they were well aware that stereotypes are also caused by indirect sources. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: When individuals are aware of where their stereotypes originate, they should actively attempt not to rely on their stereotypes when coming into contact with stereotyped groups. Organisations should educate their employees on the process of stereotypes and exactly what this means and where they originate from. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: With this study the emic perspective pertaining to the meaning and origin of stereotypes is explored within the South African context. By participating in this study, individuals may become aware of the fact that their perceptions and opinions of others may be based on inaccurate information. This study may encourage individuals to truly get to know someone first rather than relying on their possibly inaccurate stereotypes. <![CDATA[<b>Job characteristics, burnout and the relationship with recovery experiences</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Job characteristics (consisting of job demands and job resources) have an impact on burnout. However, it is unclear whether recovery strategies might influence this relationship amongst staff members at a tertiary education institution in South Africa. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether recovery strategies influence and moderate the relationship between job demands, job resources and burnout. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Recovery strategies may influence and buffer the negative effects of job demands on burnout and may influence and enhance the positive influence of job resources on burnout. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Cross-sectional data was collected amongst employees at a tertiary education institution (N = 366). MAIN FINDINGS: The results of the structural equation modelling revealed significant positive relationships between work pressure, emotional demands and a lack of social support with burnout. Also, work pressure was related to all four recovery strategies and different job resources were associated with different recovery strategies. Finally, mastery experiences were the only recovery strategy that significantly predicted burnout. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Employees are encouraged to engage in recovery strategies that will reduce their burnout levels, especially mastery experiences. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study adds to the body of literature on effort recovery in South Africa. Very little empirical research has been done in South Africa regarding the use and benefits of different recovery strategies. Recommendations for future research are made. <![CDATA[<b>A structural model of technology acceptance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Enterprise resource systems have not always led to significant organisational enhancement and many projects in which these systems have been implemented turn out to be over budget, not on time and unsuccessful. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the technology acceptance model within a South African SAPĀ® Enterprise Resource Planning user environment MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: No study could be traced in which the technology acceptance model has been evaluated in the South African context. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The 23-item Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire was deployed amongst SAPĀ® Enterprise Resource Planning users (N = 241). MAIN FINDINGS: The results confirmed significant paths from perceived usefulness of the information system to attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use it. Furthermore, behavioural intention to use the system predicted actual use thereof. Perceived ease of use indirectly affected attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use via perceived usefulness of the information system. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Practitioners should build user confidence by ensuring the ease of use of a new system, providing relevant education, training and guidance and reiterating its usefulness and future added value to the user's job and career. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the influence of individuals' perceptions of information system usage on their attitudes, behavioural intentions and actual use of such a system. <![CDATA[<b>Dimensionality of trust: An analysis of the relations between propensity, trustworthiness and trust</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Research concerning trust relationships on the interpersonal level, particularly when studied in dyadic relationships from the follower's point of view, is relatively scarce. Only a few researchers have attempted to link multiple dimensions of trust in the same study. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study examined the dynamic interplay between trust propensity, trustworthiness beliefs and the decision to trust, as perceived within dyadic workplace relationships. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: No studies, as far as the authors are aware, have ever attempted to use a combination of Mayer and Davis's well-known assessment of trustworthiness and Gillespie's measure of behavioural trust within the same study. By including measures of main antecedents and the actual decision to trust in the same study, the multidimensionality of trust can be established more concretely. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample (N = 539) was used. The Behavioural Trust Inventory and the Organisational Trust Instrument were administered. MAIN FINDINGS: Results confirmed the distinctness of propensity, trustworthiness and trust as separate main constructs. Trust was strongly associated with trustworthiness beliefs. Trustworthiness beliefs fully mediated the relationship between propensity and trust. The observed relations between propensity and trustworthiness suggest that individuals with a natural predisposition to trust others will be more inclined to perceive a specific trust referent as trustworthy. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Leaders should realise that their attitudes and behaviour have a decisive impact on trust formation processes: if they are being perceived as trustworthy, followers will be likely to respond by engaging in trusting behaviours towards them. Tools to assess followers' perceptions of the trustworthiness of the leader may provide useful feedback that can guide leaders. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the influence of propensity to trust and trustworthiness on trust of leaders. <![CDATA[<b>Development and validation of a managerial decision making self-efficacy questionnaire</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Self-efficacy beliefs, given their task-specific nature, are likely to influence managers' perceived decision-making competence depending on fluctuations in their nature and strength as non-ability contributors. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The present research describes the conceptualisation, design and measurement of managerial decision-making self-efficacy. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The absence of a domain-specific measure of the decision-making self-efficacy of managers was the motivation for the development of the Managerial Decisionmaking Self-efficacy Questionnaire (MDMSEQ). RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a non-probability convenience sample of managers from various organisations in South Africa. Statistical analysis focused on the construct validity and reliability of items through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to test the factorial validity of the measure. MAIN FINDINGS: The research offers confirmatory validation of the factorial structure of the MDMSEQ. The results of two studies involving 455 (Study 1, n= 193; Study 2, n= 292) experienced managers evidenced a multidimensional structure and demonstrated respectable subscale internal consistencies. Findings also demonstrated that the MDMSEQ shared little common variance with confidence and problem-solving self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, several model fit indices suggested a reasonable to good model fit for the measurement model. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings have implications for practical applications in employment selection and development with regard to managerial decision-making. Absence of the assessment of self-efficacy beliefs may introduce systematic, non-performance related variance into managerial decision-making outcomes in spite of abilities that managers possess. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Research on the volition-undermining effect of self-efficacy beliefs has been remarkably prominent, but despite this there are few appropriate measures that can be applied to managers as decision makers in organisations. <![CDATA[<b>Outlining and discussing various psychological perspectives on career meta-capacities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Self-efficacy beliefs, given their task-specific nature, are likely to influence managers' perceived decision-making competence depending on fluctuations in their nature and strength as non-ability contributors. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The present research describes the conceptualisation, design and measurement of managerial decision-making self-efficacy. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The absence of a domain-specific measure of the decision-making self-efficacy of managers was the motivation for the development of the Managerial Decisionmaking Self-efficacy Questionnaire (MDMSEQ). RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a non-probability convenience sample of managers from various organisations in South Africa. Statistical analysis focused on the construct validity and reliability of items through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to test the factorial validity of the measure. MAIN FINDINGS: The research offers confirmatory validation of the factorial structure of the MDMSEQ. The results of two studies involving 455 (Study 1, n= 193; Study 2, n= 292) experienced managers evidenced a multidimensional structure and demonstrated respectable subscale internal consistencies. Findings also demonstrated that the MDMSEQ shared little common variance with confidence and problem-solving self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, several model fit indices suggested a reasonable to good model fit for the measurement model. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings have implications for practical applications in employment selection and development with regard to managerial decision-making. Absence of the assessment of self-efficacy beliefs may introduce systematic, non-performance related variance into managerial decision-making outcomes in spite of abilities that managers possess. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Research on the volition-undermining effect of self-efficacy beliefs has been remarkably prominent, but despite this there are few appropriate measures that can be applied to managers as decision makers in organisations.