Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2071-076320150001&lang=en vol. 41 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b><i>South African Journal of Industrial and Organisational Psychology</i></b><b>: Annual editorial overview 2015</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Comparing different versions of the Rahim EI questionnaire in a South African context: A confirmatory factor analysis approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Given the interest in the importance of emotional intelligence in employees and leaders with regard to performance of their jobs, it is imperative to use reliable and valid instruments to operationalise emotional intelligence. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of three different versions of the Rahim emotional intelligence index (EQI), specifically with regard to its factor structure and reliability, using two different samples. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: No previous study has investigated which version of the Rahim EQI is the most appropriate for conducting research within South African organisations. In addition, the question of whether the Rahim EQI measures a strong general factor has not been answered. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN, AND METHOD: A cross-sectional quantitative research design was used. Two samples were used (n = 470 and n = 308). The first sample completed the 40-item version of the Rahim EQI, whilst the second sample completed the 30-item version of the Rahim EQI. The measurement model, representing the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI, was also fitted to both these samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the different versions, as well as conceptualisations, of the Rahim EQI. MAIN FINDINGS: The 22-item version of the Rahim EQI exhibited better model fit than the 40-item and 30-item versions. In addition, the bifactor model suggested that the Rahim EQI seems to measure a strong general factor (emotional intelligence) with very little evidence of the presence of unique group factors (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Both the reliability and factor structure of the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI have been confirmed. The bifactor structure should inform researchers and practitioners that, in order to understand emotional intelligence, it is better to conceptualise it as a unidimensional construct. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: In order to identify the most appropriate conceptualisation associated with the Rahim EQI, various goodness-of-fit statistics (e.g. comparative fit index and root mean square error of approximation) should be consulted. The impact of the removal of items from instruments should be investigated with regard to the accuracy with which the construct is to be measured. The current study has also contributed to the literature by examining the psychometric properties of the Rahim EQI in a South African sample. <![CDATA[<b>The influence of emotional intelligence and trust on servant leadership</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Constructs were explored from a positive organisational behaviour (POB) paradigm. The aim of POB constructs is to develop and improve employees' psychological strengths, well-being and performance. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between servant leadership, emotional intelligence and trust in the manager. A model depicting a sequential process of interrelationships amongst the constructs was proposed. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Organisations worldwide acknowledge the role that leadership and emotions play in psychological and physical well-being, as well as job performance of employees. Therefore, organisations need valid and workable interventions to assist their employees to function optimally in the work environment. By understanding the sequential relationships between servant leadership, emotional intelligence and trust, suggestions for such interventions were put forward. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Both survey and statistical modelling methodologies were employed to guide the investigation. Standardised questionnaires were used to measure the three different constructs, based on the responses of 154 employees on a composite questionnaire. MAIN FINDINGS: A high level of reliability was found for all the measurement scales utilised. The results of the structural equation model indicated that emotional intelligence and trust in the manager affected servant leadership. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Emotional intelligence training should form part of a necessary component in the development of servant leaders. Sufficient time should also be given to aspirant servant leaders to build relationships when coaching and mentoring their subordinates in order to build trust. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The model of sequential relationships between the constructs assists in understanding the antecedents of servant leadership in the work environment. <![CDATA[<b>Perceived external prestige as a mediator between quality of work life and organisational commitment of public sector employees in Ghana</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Research efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment, but these studies have not elucidated the mediating role of perceived external prestige in this relationship. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This research seeks to close a research gap by determining the role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment amongst public sector employees in Ghana. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Theoretically guided hypotheses and models were formulated and tested with hierarchical multiple regression statistics using data from a sample of 137 employees from two public sector organisations in Ghana. MAIN FINDINGS: The results support the hypothesis that quality of work life is positively related to both perceived external prestige and organisational commitment. Also, perceived external prestige was found to predict organisational commitment and partially mediate the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings imply that one sure way to enhance organisational commitment of employees is by improving their quality of work life and boosting their perceptions of external prestige of the organisation. These results will be of particular interest to policymakers, public organisations and stakeholders interested in increasing organisational commitment of their employees. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings extend previous research by establishing the mediating role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment. If managers of organisations wish to improve organisational commitment, it is wise to institutionalise an organisational culture that promotes good quality of work life and boost the external prestige of the organisation in the employees' mind. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the meaning and origin of stereotypes amongst South African employees</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Stereotypes are defined in different ways and also originate from various sources. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To investigate how the employees from selected South African organisations understand and define the concept 'stereotype' and what the origins of stereotypes are. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Individuals hold different perceptions of the same concept. Therefore, different individuals within selected South African organisations may interpret the meaning and origin of stereotypes very differently. This study therefore aimed to discover whether individuals have a shared understanding of the concept of stereotypes and whether they are aware of where stereotypes originate from. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A combination of both purposive and convenience sampling was used for the purpose of this study. The sample consisted of individuals working in selected South African organisations (N = 336). Various employment sectors formed part of this study. Semi-structured interviews were utilised to collect data and data analysis was done by making use of thematic analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The results of this study indicated that people employed in selected South African organisations are familiar with stereotypes and have a clear understanding thereof. Participants in this study have a conscious awareness of the origin of stereotypes. Although not all of the participants had direct experiences with stereotyped groups, they were well aware that stereotypes are also caused by indirect sources. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: When individuals are aware of where their stereotypes originate, they should actively attempt not to rely on their stereotypes when coming into contact with stereotyped groups. Organisations should educate their employees on the process of stereotypes and exactly what this means and where they originate from. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: With this study the emic perspective pertaining to the meaning and origin of stereotypes is explored within the South African context. By participating in this study, individuals may become aware of the fact that their perceptions and opinions of others may be based on inaccurate information. This study may encourage individuals to truly get to know someone first rather than relying on their possibly inaccurate stereotypes. <![CDATA[<b>Correlating nurses' levels of Psychological Capital with their reward preferences and reward satisfaction</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Psychological Capital (PsyCap) is crucial for the effective performance of nurses, and may be influenced by rewarding employees according to their individual preferences RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish whether relationships exist between nurses' levels of PsyCap and both their reward preferences and levels of reward satisfaction. It also aimed to investigate whether demographic differences occurred across these variables MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Currently there is limited research relating to PsyCap within the South African context, and none to date specifically related to the medical industry in South Africa. Moreover, it is vital that the reward preferences of nurses are taken into account when designing their rewards packages, in order for them to be satisfied within their respective medical institutions RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: This quantitative study was conducted using non-probability sampling, with 116 nurses within the public and private sectors of the Nelson Mandela Metropole medical industry completing the questionnaire. The instruments utilised were the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Reward Preferences Questionnaire MAIN FINDINGS: It was found that the majority of the sample exhibited high levels of PsyCap. Correlations existed between PsyCap factors and certain reward preference and reward satisfaction factors. Significant differences occurred across the demographic variables of age, marital status, education level, tenure and sector PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: In order to maintain high PsyCap levels and ensure that nurses are satisfied, medical institutions should take individual reward preferences into account and reward their nurses accordingly CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: These findings add to the current body of South African literature regarding PsyCap and reward preferences, and provide valuable insight into the use of rewards in improving levels of PsyCap within the medical setting. The consideration of nurses' reward preferences when designing rewards packages can lead to enhanced PsyCap and improved reward satisfaction amongst nurses, possibly resulting in enhanced patient care <![CDATA[<b>A structural model of technology acceptance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Enterprise resource systems have not always led to significant organisational enhancement and many projects in which these systems have been implemented turn out to be over budget, not on time and unsuccessful. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the technology acceptance model within a South African SAPĀ® Enterprise Resource Planning user environment MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: No study could be traced in which the technology acceptance model has been evaluated in the South African context. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The 23-item Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire was deployed amongst SAPĀ® Enterprise Resource Planning users (N = 241). MAIN FINDINGS: The results confirmed significant paths from perceived usefulness of the information system to attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use it. Furthermore, behavioural intention to use the system predicted actual use thereof. Perceived ease of use indirectly affected attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use via perceived usefulness of the information system. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Practitioners should build user confidence by ensuring the ease of use of a new system, providing relevant education, training and guidance and reiterating its usefulness and future added value to the user's job and career. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the influence of individuals' perceptions of information system usage on their attitudes, behavioural intentions and actual use of such a system. <![CDATA[<b>Dimensionality of trust: An analysis of the relations between propensity, trustworthiness and trust</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Research concerning trust relationships on the interpersonal level, particularly when studied in dyadic relationships from the follower's point of view, is relatively scarce. Only a few researchers have attempted to link multiple dimensions of trust in the same study. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study examined the dynamic interplay between trust propensity, trustworthiness beliefs and the decision to trust, as perceived within dyadic workplace relationships. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: No studies, as far as the authors are aware, have ever attempted to use a combination of Mayer and Davis's well-known assessment of trustworthiness and Gillespie's measure of behavioural trust within the same study. By including measures of main antecedents and the actual decision to trust in the same study, the multidimensionality of trust can be established more concretely. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample (N = 539) was used. The Behavioural Trust Inventory and the Organisational Trust Instrument were administered. MAIN FINDINGS: Results confirmed the distinctness of propensity, trustworthiness and trust as separate main constructs. Trust was strongly associated with trustworthiness beliefs. Trustworthiness beliefs fully mediated the relationship between propensity and trust. The observed relations between propensity and trustworthiness suggest that individuals with a natural predisposition to trust others will be more inclined to perceive a specific trust referent as trustworthy. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Leaders should realise that their attitudes and behaviour have a decisive impact on trust formation processes: if they are being perceived as trustworthy, followers will be likely to respond by engaging in trusting behaviours towards them. Tools to assess followers' perceptions of the trustworthiness of the leader may provide useful feedback that can guide leaders. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the influence of propensity to trust and trustworthiness on trust of leaders. <![CDATA[<b>Development and validation of a managerial decision making self-efficacy questionnaire</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Self-efficacy beliefs, given their task-specific nature, are likely to influence managers' perceived decision-making competence depending on fluctuations in their nature and strength as non-ability contributors. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The present research describes the conceptualisation, design and measurement of managerial decision-making self-efficacy. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The absence of a domain-specific measure of the decision-making self-efficacy of managers was the motivation for the development of the Managerial Decisionmaking Self-efficacy Questionnaire (MDMSEQ). RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a non-probability convenience sample of managers from various organisations in South Africa. Statistical analysis focused on the construct validity and reliability of items through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to test the factorial validity of the measure. MAIN FINDINGS: The research offers confirmatory validation of the factorial structure of the MDMSEQ. The results of two studies involving 455 (Study 1, n= 193; Study 2, n= 292) experienced managers evidenced a multidimensional structure and demonstrated respectable subscale internal consistencies. Findings also demonstrated that the MDMSEQ shared little common variance with confidence and problem-solving self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, several model fit indices suggested a reasonable to good model fit for the measurement model. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings have implications for practical applications in employment selection and development with regard to managerial decision-making. Absence of the assessment of self-efficacy beliefs may introduce systematic, non-performance related variance into managerial decision-making outcomes in spite of abilities that managers possess. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Research on the volition-undermining effect of self-efficacy beliefs has been remarkably prominent, but despite this there are few appropriate measures that can be applied to managers as decision makers in organisations. <![CDATA[<b>Job characteristics, burnout and the relationship with recovery experiences</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Job characteristics (consisting of job demands and job resources) have an impact on burnout. However, it is unclear whether recovery strategies might influence this relationship amongst staff members at a tertiary education institution in South Africa. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether recovery strategies influence and moderate the relationship between job demands, job resources and burnout. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Recovery strategies may influence and buffer the negative effects of job demands on burnout and may influence and enhance the positive influence of job resources on burnout. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Cross-sectional data was collected amongst employees at a tertiary education institution (N = 366). MAIN FINDINGS: The results of the structural equation modelling revealed significant positive relationships between work pressure, emotional demands and a lack of social support with burnout. Also, work pressure was related to all four recovery strategies and different job resources were associated with different recovery strategies. Finally, mastery experiences were the only recovery strategy that significantly predicted burnout. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Employees are encouraged to engage in recovery strategies that will reduce their burnout levels, especially mastery experiences. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study adds to the body of literature on effort recovery in South Africa. Very little empirical research has been done in South Africa regarding the use and benefits of different recovery strategies. Recommendations for future research are made. <![CDATA[<b>Constructing a psychological coping profile in the call centre environment: Wellness-related dispositions in relation to resiliency-related behavioural capacities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The context of this research is the coping and wellness of call centre agents in a characteristically high-stress work environment RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to construct a psychological coping profile by investigating the overall relationship between individuals' wellness-related dispositional attributes and their resiliency-related behavioural capacities MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY: It is important that coping in the call centre environment be understood in light of the complexity of the challenges that call centre agents experience in terms of their wellbeing RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A quantitative cross-sectional survey approach was followed, using a non-probability purposive sample (N = 409) comprising predominantly early career, permanently employed black females in call centres in Africa MAIN FINDINGS: A canonical correlation analysis indicated a significant overall relationship between the wellness-related constructs (sense of coherence, emotional intelligence and burnout) and the resiliency-related constructs (career adaptability and hardiness). Structural equation modelling indicated that managing own emotions and cynicism contributed significantly to explaining the participants' resiliency-related behavioural capacities (hardi-commitment and hardi-control PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Enhancing call centre agents' emotional intelligence and lowering cynicism will increase resiliency-related capacities, such as sense of control and commitment, and will significantly increase the resiliency and capacity of call centre agents to cope with pressure, which can lead to positive work attitudes CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings may provide valuable pointers for the design of wellness intervention practices and could potentially add to the body of knowledge concerned with employee wellness in call centres. <![CDATA[<b>Experiencing a sense of calling: The influence of meaningful work on teachers' work attitudes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Worldwide transformation and change in education has placed increased demands on teachers, which has resulted in teachers experiencing a potentially negative work attitude RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this article was to expand the understanding of the relationship between a sense of calling, work attitude and meaningful work MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The international community has rated the quality of education in South Africa as being substandard. Therefore, work attitudes and the impact of meaningful work in the current educational system was investigated RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was used with a representative sample of teachers in South Africa (N = 270). Data were gathered by means of questionnaires and analysed through structural equation modelling MAIN FINDINGS: A significant positive relationship was found between a sense of calling and work attitude. Meaningful work was found to mediate the relationship between a sense of calling and positive work attitude PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Retention of teachers displaying a positive work attitude as well as those finding meaning in their work is paramount. Communication pertaining to the broader mission and common goals of the Department of Education should transpire. Support and training should be provided and teachers should be allowed autonomy in a school atmosphere that is pleasant and disciplined CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Sufficient support to enhance meaningful work may contribute to the delivery of quality education. <![CDATA[<b>The validation of a human resource management professional competence model for the South African context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The last two decades have seen a great interest in the development of human resource management (HRM) professional competence models to advance the value-add of HR practitioners in organisations. However, empirical research on competency requirements for HR practitioners in the South African context has not been forthcoming RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main objective of the present research was to validate a HRM competence measure for the assessment of professional HRM competencies in the workplace MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Competency models can assist HR professionals in supporting their organisations to achieve success and sustainability RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional research approach was followed. The proposed HRM Professional Competence Model was administered to a diverse population of HR managers and practitioners (N = 483). Data were analysed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows MAIN FINDINGS: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in three distinguishable competency dimensions for HR professionals: Professional behaviour and leadership (consisting of the factors Leadership and personal credibility, Solution creation, Interpersonal communication and Innovation), Service orientation and execution (consisting of the factors Talent management, HR risk, HR metrics and HR service delivery) and Business intelligence (consisting of the factors Strategic contribution, HR business knowledge, HR business acumen and HR technology). All factors showed acceptable construct equivalence for the English and indigenous language groups PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Managers can utilise the validated competence measure to measure the performance of HR practitioners in the organisation CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This research adds to the limited HR professional competence measures that currently exist. <![CDATA[<b>A study to confirm the reliability and construct validity of an organisational citizenship behaviour measure on a South African sample</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Organisational citizenship behaviour, or extra-role behaviours, are essential outcomes for the health functioning of organisations. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The primary goal of the study was to validate the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCBS) developed by Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman and Fetter (1990) on a South African sample. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Organisational citizenship behaviour is one of the important workplace outcomes. A psychometrically sound instrument is therefore required. Research design, approach and method: The sample consisted of 503 employees from the educational sector in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. The OCBS was used to measure organisational citizenship behaviour. MAIN FINDINGS: High levels of reliability were found for the OCBS sub-scales. The first and second-order measurement models of the OCBS showed good fit. A competing one-factor model did not show good model fit. In terms of discriminant validity four of the five sub-dimensions correlated highly PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Although the OCBS demonstrated some sound reliability coefficients and reasonable construct validity, the discriminant validity of four of the subscales raise some questions which future studies should confirm. The use of the instrument should help to continue to measure the much-needed extra-role behaviours that mirror an employee's interest in the success of the organisation. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study contributes to the requirements of the Employment Equity Act (No. 55 of 1998) and the Amended Employment Equity Act of South Africa (Republic of South Africa, 1998; 2014). This promotes the use of reliable and valid instruments in South Africa by confirming the psychometric properties of the OCBS. <![CDATA[<b>Investigating positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life in a chemical industry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The predominant theme of this research attends to the role of perceived positive leadership behaviour in relation to employee outcomes (psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life). RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether perceived positive leadership behaviour could predict psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life of employees in a chemical organisation in South Africa and whether positive leadership behaviour has an indirect effect on employees work engagement and satisfaction with life by means of psychological empowerment. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as in terms of practical implications for the chemical industry regarding positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (n = 322). Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the structural relationships between the constructs. MAIN FINDINGS: Statistically significant relationships were found between positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Positive leadership has an indirect effect on work engagement and satisfaction with life via psychological empowerment PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: This study adds to the lack of literature in terms of positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life within a chemical industry. It can also assist managers and personnel within the chemical industry to understand and perhaps further investigate relationships that exist between the above mentioned concepts. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: It is recommended that leadership discussions, short training programs and individual coaching about positive leadership and particularly psychological empowerment take place. <![CDATA[<b>The moderating role of psychological capital in the relationship between job stress and the outcomes of incivility and job involvement amongst call centre employees</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: South African call centres were found to rank amongst those with the highest degree of performance monitoring and feedback. This revelation comes at a time when many scholars concur that research has not entirely succeeded in helping organisations overcome the negative aspects of work and enhance the positive aspects of work, such as job involvement. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study sought to examine the relationship between job stress, job involvement and the display of uncivil behaviour amongst call centre employees, whilst also studying the role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this relationship. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The study was prompted by the scarcity of research in the area of PsyCap and job involvement, none of which has examined relationships between job stress and the outcomes of incivility and job involvement and the moderating role of PsyCap in this relationship, focusing on call centre employees. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A quantitative design employed a cross-sectional survey to collect data from 104 South African call centre employees using a biographical data sheet, the PsyCap Questionnaire, Job Stress Scale, Uncivil Workplace Behaviour Scale and the Job Involvement Scale. MAIN FINDINGS: PsyCap and uncivil workplace behaviour were negatively related, whilst PsyCap and job involvement were positively related. Job stress held predictive value for incivility and the hostility subscale. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that PsyCap did not moderate the relationship between job stress and incivility and neither did it moderate the relationship between job stress and job involvement. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations should work on minimising stressors within the workplace in order to enhance the PsyCap of employees, which not only lowers the risk of incivility displayed by employees but also ensures greater employee involvement. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Although previous studies have examined the relationship between stress, incivility and job involvement, no studies have been conducted examining the role of PsyCap in this relationship, especially, more importantly, sampling call centre employees. <![CDATA[<b>Serving up the self: Role identity and burnout in client service environments</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Whilst the limited investigations into the relationship between identity and burnout have made an important contribution to our understanding of the development of burnout, further research is required to gain a deeper understanding of how the processes associated with the construction and enactment of a specific identity could contribute to burnout amongst client service employees. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to explore whether levels of burnout amongst client service employees are associated with the manner in which they define and enact the client service role identity. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The negative effects of burnout amongst client service employees can be particularly devastating for client service organisations. A deeper understanding of the causes of burnout amongst client service employees is therefore essential if we wish to reduce the significant costs associated with burnout in this environment. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: The research strategy comprised a qualitative design consisting of semi-structured interviews. MAIN FINDINGS: The results of the study indicate that the role identities of higher burnout client service employees differ from the role identities of lower burnout client service employees. Lower burnout employees view the client relationship as a partnership and experience a high level of self-verification when dealing with their clients. Higher burnout employees, on the other hand, describe themselves as subordinate to the client and exhibit strong feelings of defeat and failure when interacting with their clients. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study shows that if client service organisations wish to reduce the detrimental effects of burnout in the workplace, they need to pay careful attention to the way in which their client service employees perceive themselves in relation to the client. Since client service employees construct role identities in response to the dominant discourse of the organisation, client service organisations should exercise caution in how they define and refer to the client-employee interaction through this discourse. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The article makes a number of practical recommendations, which, if implemented by client service organisations, should result in lower levels of burnout, increased productivity and improved client relations. One such recommendation requires client service organisations to reframe their client discourses in such a way that client service employees are referred to as knowledge experts that are valued by their organisations. <![CDATA[<b>Outlining and discussing various psychological perspectives on career meta-capacities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632015000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Whilst the limited investigations into the relationship between identity and burnout have made an important contribution to our understanding of the development of burnout, further research is required to gain a deeper understanding of how the processes associated with the construction and enactment of a specific identity could contribute to burnout amongst client service employees. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to explore whether levels of burnout amongst client service employees are associated with the manner in which they define and enact the client service role identity. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The negative effects of burnout amongst client service employees can be particularly devastating for client service organisations. A deeper understanding of the causes of burnout amongst client service employees is therefore essential if we wish to reduce the significant costs associated with burnout in this environment. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: The research strategy comprised a qualitative design consisting of semi-structured interviews. MAIN FINDINGS: The results of the study indicate that the role identities of higher burnout client service employees differ from the role identities of lower burnout client service employees. Lower burnout employees view the client relationship as a partnership and experience a high level of self-verification when dealing with their clients. Higher burnout employees, on the other hand, describe themselves as subordinate to the client and exhibit strong feelings of defeat and failure when interacting with their clients. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study shows that if client service organisations wish to reduce the detrimental effects of burnout in the workplace, they need to pay careful attention to the way in which their client service employees perceive themselves in relation to the client. Since client service employees construct role identities in response to the dominant discourse of the organisation, client service organisations should exercise caution in how they define and refer to the client-employee interaction through this discourse. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The article makes a number of practical recommendations, which, if implemented by client service organisations, should result in lower levels of burnout, increased productivity and improved client relations. One such recommendation requires client service organisations to reframe their client discourses in such a way that client service employees are referred to as knowledge experts that are valued by their organisations.