Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2071-076320130002&lang=en vol. 39 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Exploring a model for finding meaning in the changing world of work (Part 3: Meaning as framing context)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: This article, the final in a series of three papers, locates organisational change, specifically within the context of individuals' experience of 'meaning', as conceptualised in Viktor Frankl's logotherapy. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this theoretical paper is to investigate the context of meaning in organisational change by exploring the relationship between meaning and change. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Although literature on change management is available in abundance, very little research has been focussed on the micro-level issues pertaining to organisational change, and virtually no research relating to the 'existential meaning' context of such change could be found. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The study was conducted by means of a review of literature, guided by the theoretical perspectives of logotherapy. MAIN FINDINGS: Whilst systems to which individuals traditionally turned for meaning decline, organisations become increasingly important for employees' experience of meaning. As organisational change threatens such meaning, resistance to change may occur, which inhibits organisations' ability to change. Logotherapy provides a useful framework for understanding this meaning context, which could be utilised to inform frameworks to guide change implementation more successfully. PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: An understanding of the role that meaning can play in causing - and hence reducing - resistance to change may be of great value to organisations attempting to implement change initiatives. CONTRIBUTION: The value-add of the article is grounded on its exploration of the relatively uncharted territory of how the experience of meaning by employees may impact organisational change. This article therefore provides a novel perspective for conceptualising change. In addition, it suggests specific recommendations for utilising an understanding of the meaning-change relationship with the objective of optimising change initiatives. <![CDATA[<b>The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in male-dominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more female-dominated or gender-balanced career paths. An understanding of women's experiences may facilitate strategies geared towards their motivation and retention in male-dominated occupations. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The authors conducted this exploratory qualitative study from a constructivist grounded theory perspective. They used a purposive sample of five women and conducted in-depth unstructured interviews. They analysed data using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. MAIN FINDINGS: The authors found that formal and covert organisational practices, which upheld gender discrimination and bias, were the main challenges that women face. These practices included the inadequate accommodation of women's unique physical, identity and work-life balance needs. Elements of women's resilience included the use of femininity, adopting male characteristics, mentorship and intrinsic motivational factors. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings may guide organisations to develop and implement policies, strategies and initiatives geared towards attracting, integrating, retaining, supporting and motivating women who are, or wish to be, employed in historically male-dominated occupations. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to an evolving body of knowledge aimed at understanding how to integrate and retain women in male-dominated occupations better. <![CDATA[<b>Manager relations, psychological need satisfaction and intention to leave in the agricultural sector</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: If South African organisations are to retain talented and skilled staff, they need to consider the psychological needs of employees and their predictors. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between manager relations, the satisfaction of the psychological needs of employees and their intentions to leave. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The effective retention of skilled employees is necessary in organisations in South Africa. However, studies on the psychological processes (and specifically the satisfaction of psychological needs), through which manager relations could promote the retention of staff, are necessary. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The authors used a cross-sectional survey design. They drew convenience samples of managers in agricultural organisations (N = 507) in South Africa. They administered the Manager Relations Scale, the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and the Turnover Intention Scale. MAIN FINDINGS: The results confirmed a model in which manager relations affected the satisfaction of psychological needs and intentions to leave. Autonomy satisfaction mediated the relationship between manager relations and the intentions of employees to leave. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Managers should participate in training on applying self-determination theory to support the autonomy and the relatedness satisfaction of employees. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE ADD: This study contributes to the literature by exploring the processes through which manager relations influence the intentions of employees to leave. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behavior</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap) is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), in which OCB served as an index for measuring positive organisational change. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Little empirical research has investigated the application of positive organisational behaviour to government organisations undergoing organisational change. Organisations can use the study results to increase positive outcomes and reduce resistance in government organisations experiencing a holistic change intervention. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The data comprised a cross-sectional survey of 97 employees from a government organisation that provides life-cycle career management support. Employees completed the 24-item psychological capital questionnaire, the 16-item organisational citizenship behaviour scale and the 17-item resistance to change scale. Data analyses used a mixed methods approach to merge quantitative inferential statistics with qualitative thematic analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The quantitative analysis yielded high levels of resistance to change that moderated the positive effect of PsyCap on organisational citizenship behaviour. The thematic analysis revealed that affective, behavioural and cognitive forms of resistance to change were prevalent. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisational leaders should seek to reduce resistance and increase the resources that organisations need to effect positive organisational change. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study adds to the growing body of knowledge about positive organisational behaviour in government organisations. <![CDATA[<b>Work-family enrichment and psychological health</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: This study examines the beneficial aspects of the interface between work and family and its relationships with psychological health from a positive psychology perspective. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work-family enrichment helps to predict psychological health, specifically increased subjective well-being and decreased feelings of emotional exhaustion and depression. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The burgeoning literature on the work-family interface contains little on the potentially positive benefits of maintaining work and family roles. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: The authors used a descriptive research design. Employees in two national organisations in the financial retail and logistics industries completed a self-administered survey questionnaire. The authors analysed responses from those who reported both family and work responsibilities (N = 160). MAIN FINDINGS: Consistent with previous research, factor analysis revealed two distinct directions of work-family enrichment: from work to family (W2FE) and from family to work (F2WE). Multiple regression analysis showed that F2WE explained a significant proportion of the variance in subjective wellbeing, whilst W2FE explained a significant proportion of the variance in depression and emotional exhaustion. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings of this study revealed the individual and organisational benefits of fostering work-family enrichment. CONTRIBUTIONS/VALUE ADD: This study presents empirical evidence for the need to focus on the positive aspects of the work-family interface, provides further support for a positive organisational psychology perspective in organisations and hopefully will encourage further research on interventions in organisations and families. <![CDATA[<b>Psychometric properties of the adult resilience indicator</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Researchers need to assess the psychometric rigour of resilience measuring scales. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator (ARI). MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Researchers have not previously published the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The authors used a cross-sectional quantitative research design. A sample of 789 young adults participated in the study. Cross-validation allowed the authors to confirm (using the validation sample) the validity of the ARI structure they obtained during initial testing (using the calibration sample). They investigated two measurement models (the original factor structure and a one-dimensional factor structure). MAIN FINDINGS: The original factor structure presented the data and the proposed theory better than did the one-dimensional factor structure. The authors found acceptable goodness of fit for the ARI. More specifically, they found invariance (in terms of equal factor loadings, covariances and error variances) in the calibration and validation samples. They also found acceptable reliability estimates for each of the eight sub-scales. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The results can help researchers and practitioners interested in measuring resilience in adults to choose a resilience measure and to select an appropriate measure for their populations and contexts. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Previous research has clearly shown that reliable and valid resilience measures are necessary. It is also necessary to assess the psychometric properties of the currently available instruments and to publish the findings. This study has helped by examining the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator. <![CDATA[<b>A confirmatory factor analytical study of a servant leadership measure in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Servant leadership is a value-based leadership practice that plays a critical role in team effectiveness and organisational success. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to validate the Servant Leadership Questionnaire (SLQ), which Barbuto and Wheeler developed, on a South African sample. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The literature is replete with evidence of the role of follower-focused leadership practices in improving team effectiveness, employee engagement and organisational success. We need to complement these efforts with psychometrically sound measuring instruments. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The authors drew a convenience sample of 288 school teachers from schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. They used the SLQ that Barbuto and Wheeler developed to measure servant leadership. MAIN FINDINGS: The authors found high levels of reliability for the sub-scales of the latent variables. They found good fit with the data for the measurement model of the five latent servant leadership dimensions (altruistic calling, persuasive mapping, emotional healing, wisdom and organisational stewardship) through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). They obtained reasonable fit for the first- and second-order servant leadership CFA. The authors concluded that the SLQ shows reasonable fit. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The SLQ showed evidence of reliability and construct validity. It can contribute to the scientific selection and development of education leaders in South African schools. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE ADD: Servant leadership incorporates a service ethic that fosters participatory management, teacher development and team building. The department of education should increase team effectiveness in schools by selecting and developing servant leadership. <![CDATA[<b>Towards understanding causality between work engagement and psychological capital</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: It is of theoretical and practical interest to establish the sequential relationship between work engagement and positive organisational behaviour, as represented by the psychological capital (PsyCap) construct. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to conceptualise and investigate the causal relationship and temporal order in the relationship between PsyCap and engagement by means of longitudinal data. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The rationale for establishing the sequence of engagement and psychological capital lies in the fact that training interventions to enhance the organisational well-being of employees may need to be focused on either one or the other. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A longitudinal study with a cross-lagged panel design was conducted; data was gathered by means of a survey that was constructed for the purpose of the study. The survey contained the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), and a measure of PsyCap. All employees within a chemical factory (N = 1003) were approached to provide data; 163 employees participated. MAIN FINDINGS: Results revealed that PsyCap at Time 1 (T1) did not significantly predict engagement at Time 2 (T2). Evidence does however exist that initial levels of employee engagement predict subsequent PsyCap. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Results suggest that employee interventions aimed at protecting and fostering employee engagement may have implications for subsequent employee psychological capital. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: As an empirical, longitudinal study to address the temporal order between PsyCap and work engagement, this study makes a contribution especially to theory, but also with practical implications by indicating that engagement precedes employee psychological capital. <![CDATA[<b>Psychological ownership</b>: <b>Development of an instrument</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Psychological ownership emerged recently as a positive psychological resource that could be measured and developed and that could affect the performance of organisations. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure psychological ownership in a South African context. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: It was found that previous instruments for the measurement of psychological ownership lacked the ability to grasp the extensive reach of psychological ownership. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted on a non-probability convenience sample of 713 skilled, highly-skilled and professional employees from various organisations in both the private and public sectors in South Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: Although a 69-item measurement instrument was developed in order to capture the proposed seven-dimensional psychological ownership construct, it became evident when analysing the data that a four-factor model comprising 35 items was suitable. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: If a sense of psychological ownership toward an organisation could be established amongst its employees by addressing the factors as measured by the South African Psychological Ownership Questionnaire, organisations could become enhanced workplaces and, as a result, sustainable performance could be promoted and staff could be retained. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The instrument for measuring psychological ownership in a South African context could serve as a diagnostic tool that would allow human resource professionals and managers to determine employees' sense of psychological ownership regarding their organisation and to focus specifically on weak dimensional areas that could be improved. <![CDATA[<b>Dimensionality of the UWES-17</b>: <b>An item response modelling analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Questionnaires, particularly the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17), are an almost standard method by which to measure work engagement. Conflicting evidence regarding the dimensionality of the UWES-17 has led to confusion regarding the interpretation of scores. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main focus of this study was to use the Rasch model to provide insight into the dimensionality of the UWES-17, and to assess whether work engagement should be interpreted as one single overall score, three separate scores, or a combination. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: It is unclear whether a summative score is more representative of work engagement or whether scores are more meaningful when interpreted for each dimension separately. Previous work relied on confirmatory factor analysis; the potential of item response models has not been tapped. RESEARCH DESIGN: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design approach was used. Participants, 2429 employees of a South African Information and Communication Technology (ICT) company, completed the UWES-17. MAIN FINDINGS: Findings indicate that work engagement should be treated as a unidimensional construct: individual scores should be interpreted in a summative manner, giving a single global score. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Users of the UWES-17 may interpret a single, summative score for work engagement. Findings of this study should also contribute towards standardising UWES-17 scores, allowing meaningful comparisons to be made. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings will benefit researchers, organisational consultants and managers. Clarity on dimensionality and interpretation of work engagement will assist researchers in future studies. Managers and consultants will be able to make better-informed decisions when using work engagement data. <![CDATA[<b>Psychological capital</b>: <b>Internal and external validity of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ-24) on a South African sample</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Psychological capital (PsyCap) is a relatively novel construct measured with the Psychological Capital Questionnaire 24 (PCQ-24). Only one published South African study on the instrument exists, providing inconsistent psychometric results, when compared with other United States of America (USA) and non-USA studies. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to investigate the internal validity (construct and discriminant validity), reliability and external validity (relationship with theoretically relevant variables, namely stress, burnout and work engagement) of the PCQ-24. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Multiple studies have underscored the value of PsyCap within the workplace. In order to harness the full potential of the construct in the South African environment, sound measurement thereof, evidenced by a psychometrically sound instrument, is needed. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of employees at managerial and non-managerial levels, from a medium-sized construction company in the Western Cape, South Africa. In addition to PsyCap, perceived stress, work-related burnout and work engagement were measured. MAIN FINDINGS: The results provided preliminary evidence of construct and discriminant validity, reliability and significant relations with external theoretically relevant variables. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Researchers may confidently use the PCQ-24 to measure the construct of PsyCap and investigate relations with workplace outcomes in the South African environment, informing human relations practices. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Preliminary evidence of the psychometric properties of the PCQ-24, which measures the construct of PsyCap (consisting of hope, self-efficacy, resilience and optimism) on a South African sample, was provided in this study. <![CDATA[<b>Developing positive leadership in health and human services</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Measuring the target outcomes of leadership development programmes provides evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions and the validity of their theoretical underpinnings. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether staff from the Tasmanian Department of Health and Human Services (Australia) experienced increased levels of self-efficacy, social support within the workplace and positive affect, following participation in a leadership development programme. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used, allowing for triangulation of results. The General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Berlin Social-Support Scale (perceived available support, instrumental) were applied in an online survey administered before and nine months following the programme. Participant satisfaction surveys captured immediate responses and semi-structured interviews captured longer-term reflections. MAIN FINDINGS: Descriptive statistics indicated a moderate overall increase in self-efficacy, with strong increases in resilience, dealing with opposition, resourcefulness and problem solving. There was some evidence of greater overall social support and a strong increase in the development of social support networks. There was no support for an increase in participants' positive orientation towards their jobs in the quantitative data. The impact of adverse environmental factors on participants' perceptions also became evident through the interviews. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Leadership development programmes that strengthen positive psychological resources provide participants with confidence and resilience in times of change. Organisations benefit from increased levels of employee self-efficacy as engagement and problem-solving abilities are enhanced. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: These results contribute to the body of knowledge associated with effective leadership development. <![CDATA[<b>Assessing the organisational and individual strengths use and deficit improvement amongst sport coaches</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The orientation of this study is towards strengths use and deficit improvement and the relationship with engagement. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To (1) determine whether adapted versions of the Strengths Use and Deficit Improvement Questionnaire (SUDIQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) are valid and reliable, (2) determine the relationship of the SUDIQ dimensions in the nomological net, and (3) test a structural model. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: To gain a better understanding of the outcomes of following a balanced approach within a sport coaching context. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional research approach was used. An availability sample (N = 364) of teachers occupying roles as sport coaches from various schools across three provinces in South Africa was used. Structural equation modelling was used to test the factor structures and the structural model. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated a valid factor structure for the adapted SUDIQ and UWES. Relationships between the SUDIQ dimensions and job and personal resources were positive and significant. Individual strengths use was the strongest predictor of engagement. Individual deficit improvement and organisational strengths use were also significant predictors. Organisational deficit improvement did not significantly predict engagement. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Evidence suggests the adapted SUDIQ and UWES can be utilised effectively in a sport coaching environment. Organisational strengths use is also important in managing engagement levels of sport coaches. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Valid and reliable measures were provided for use in a sport coaching environment. It substantiates the outcomes that can be gained by following a combined approach based on strength and deficit. <![CDATA[<b>Organisational commitment, work engagement and meaning of work of nursing staff in hospitals</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Nursing is a noble profession but not always an easy job. Work overload, few resources, limited promotion and development opportunities have a negative impact on the sustainability of the profession. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between organisational commitment, work engagement and meaning of work amongst nursing staff at various hospitals. MOTIVATION FOR STUDY: It is important to understand how to optimise the work experience of nursing staff in order to ensure a committed and engaged workforce. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A survey design with a cluster sample (n = 199) was used. The Organisational Commitment Questionnaire, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire and a biographical questionnaire were administered. MAIN FINDINGS: The majority of the scales showed acceptable reliability. Results indicated that the majority of nursing staff view their work as either a job or a calling. This impacts the organisation in the sense that viewing work as a calling predicts 19% of the variance in organisational commitment and 30% of the variance in work engagement. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Viewing work as a calling will accompany higher levels of engagement and commitment to the organisation. Nurses who feel that they make a meaningful contribution to the hospital are more inclined to stay in the organisation. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Strategies can be put in place to focus on experiencing work as a calling, rather than a job. Enhancing this experience and creating awareness could lead to higher levels of organisational commitment and work engagement. <![CDATA[<b>Inner strategies of coping with operational work amongst SAPS officers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Identification of the inner coping strategies used by South African Police Service (SAPS) officers who do operational work is something the SAPS should consider to ensure the officers' management of trauma and efficiency at work. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to describe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa) to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational I stress and not on the impact of the officers' operational work. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers' work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers' inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting. <![CDATA[<b>Sense of coherence, career adaptability and burnout of early-career Black staff in the call centre environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The call centre is recognised as being a stressful work environment that affects the general wellbeing of call centre agents. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study explored whether call centre agents' sense of coherence significantly influences their career adaptability and whether their burnout levels significantly moderate the sense of coherence-career adaptability relationship. The research also investigated whether age, gender and years of service (as control variables), along with sense of coherence, predicted career adaptability. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The positive psychological construct of career adaptability and its association with call centre agents' sense of coherence, burnout, age, gender and years of service have not yet been investigated in the call centre environment. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used. The Orientation to Life, Career Adapt-Abilities Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory General Scale were administered to a non-probability purposive sample of 409 early-career Black staff employed in three of the largest outsourced financial call centres in Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: Multiple regression analyses revealed that age, gender and meaningfulness significantly predicted call centre agents' career adaptability, but that their burnout levels do not significantly moderate the sense of coherence-career adaptability relationship. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Enhancing call centre agents' sense of meaningfulness will increase their levels of career adaptability and career wellbeing. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This research is the first to investigate the construct of career adaptability in the call centre environment and adds new knowledge and insights to the existing wellness and positive psychology literature. <![CDATA[<b>Perspectives of female leaders on sense of coherence and mental health in an engineering environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Positive organisational behaviour impacts strongly on various individual and work-related outcomes. Gender perspectives in this paradigm have not yet been comprehensively researched. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This article explores female perspectives on mental health and sense of coherence. The aim is to promote an understanding of gender-related subjective perceptions on mental health and sense of coherence from an emic perspective. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Limited research exists regarding the perceptions of positive leadership behaviour of female leaders within South African who experience unique challenges within the business environment and remain healthy at the same time. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Data from a mixed-method research study are presented, thereby providing insights into quantitative and in-depth qualitative empirical data from 15 female leaders. The study followed a single, embedded case study approach. MAIN FINDINGS: The main findings show that sense of coherence, mental health and gender awareness are connected. Female leaders with a high sense of coherence refer to gender in a positive or neutral way in a male-dominated work environment. The results emphasise individual and social health-promoting strategies in an organisation and the way personal life orientation contributes to individual (mental) health. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations need to focus more on promoting mental health in terms of gender and gender-related positive psychology frames. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the literature on gender within the positive organisational behaviour paradigm, presents recommendations for future research and highlights the practical implications for organisations. <![CDATA[<b>Psychological capital, work engagement and organisational commitment amongst call centre employees in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The development of psychological capital amongst call centre employees could have an impact on positive work-related attitudes and behaviour; such as work engagement and organisational commitment. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the relationship between psychological capital, work engagement and organisational commitment amongst call centre employees; and further, to determine whether psychological capital and work engagement hold predictive value for the organisational commitment of call centre employees. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: There is a gap in research in understanding and enabling positive resource capacities in highly stressful work contexts such as call centres. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A sample of 106 call centre employees from a South African organisation participated in the research. The measuring instruments included a demographic questionnaire, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). MAIN FINDINGS: Significant positive relationships were found between psychological capital, work engagement and organisational commitment. The results showed work engagement as being the only significant predictor of organisational commitment. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Call centre employers need to develop and implement workplace interventions that would increase the psychological capital of call centre employees. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The research findings will benefit both call centre employees and management. The study highlighted the importance of the role of optimism as a subdimension of psychological capital in developing work engagement and organisational commitment amongst call centre employees. <![CDATA[<b>The development of the MACE work-family enrichment instrument</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: An instrument based on a theoretical model is necessary to measure the positive side of the work-family interface. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To develop items for measurement of work-family enrichment based on the elements contained within a theoretical model and to evaluate the latent trait functioning of these items. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Major limitations exist regarding the conceptualisation and scale development of the positive side of the work-family interface. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH, AND METHOD: A quantitative research approach using scale development procedures was employed to develop the 95-item instrument. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data randomly from selected employees; data were processed using Rasch analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The five-category scale works well for the most part, although a four-category scale could be considered. Thirty-five items either over-fitted or under-fitted the work-family enrichment model. Person ability was measured in the low to middle ranges of work-family enrichment. Participants' experience of work-family enrichment could be represented accurately. Sub-scale items displayed misfit, bias or both. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The developed instrument can be investigated further to identify work-family enrichment factors that can measure workers' experience of enrichment in their work and family domains. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study furthers theory building and empirical research in industrial psychology, by developing a new theory-based measuring instrument for the positive side of the work-family interface in the South African context. This study expanded on the model proposed by Greenhaus and Powell, by including all five categories of resources gains. Furthermore, the total of the resources was diversified, since some of the content of these resources encompasses multiple meanings. <![CDATA[<b>Seligman's flourishing</b>: <b>An appraisal of what lies beyond happiness</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632013000200020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: An instrument based on a theoretical model is necessary to measure the positive side of the work-family interface. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To develop items for measurement of work-family enrichment based on the elements contained within a theoretical model and to evaluate the latent trait functioning of these items. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Major limitations exist regarding the conceptualisation and scale development of the positive side of the work-family interface. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH, AND METHOD: A quantitative research approach using scale development procedures was employed to develop the 95-item instrument. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data randomly from selected employees; data were processed using Rasch analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The five-category scale works well for the most part, although a four-category scale could be considered. Thirty-five items either over-fitted or under-fitted the work-family enrichment model. Person ability was measured in the low to middle ranges of work-family enrichment. Participants' experience of work-family enrichment could be represented accurately. Sub-scale items displayed misfit, bias or both. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The developed instrument can be investigated further to identify work-family enrichment factors that can measure workers' experience of enrichment in their work and family domains. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study furthers theory building and empirical research in industrial psychology, by developing a new theory-based measuring instrument for the positive side of the work-family interface in the South African context. This study expanded on the model proposed by Greenhaus and Powell, by including all five categories of resources gains. Furthermore, the total of the resources was diversified, since some of the content of these resources encompasses multiple meanings.