Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1996-142120220001&lang=en vol. 14 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Inter-agency collaboration and disaster management: A case study of the 2005 earthquake disaster in Pakistan</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In post disastrous situations, coordinated and integrated interventions aimed at relief and rehabilitation not only help facilitate reaching out to the affected communities in a timely fashion but also pave the way to channel scarce and valued resources towards end users in an efficient and effective manner. This article attempts to trace the origins and gradual development of 'inter-agency collaboration' and the implications thereof for disaster management strategies in Pakistan through an analysis of relief and rehabilitation interventions undertaken by the Government of Pakistan in collaboration with local and international Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) and relief agencies in the ex post of the 2005 earthquake. Data for this study were collected through structured and semi-structured interviews from government officials, representatives of NGOs and relief agencies and ordinary women and men in the earthquake stricken localities of Balakot and Mansehra districts of Pakistan. On the heels of the 2005 earthquake, both local NGOs and faith-based organisations in concert with international NGOs and relief agencies from around the world rushed to assist Pakistan in it's rescue and relief operations at a time when the country was faced with the twin dilemma of both the non-existence of peculiar institutional arrangements for disaster management and a lack of the necessary technical and financial resources. The aftermath of the 2005 earthquake offered opportunity to the Government of Pakistan and the NGOs and relief agencies alike to transform their individual interventions into a robust and organised 'inter-agency collaboration', which was later on realised in the form of establishment of a national disaster management organisation called the 'Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA)'. The establishment of ERRA not only paved the way for avoiding duplication and wastage of resources but also ensued in reaching out to the affected communities in a timely fashion. The Pakistani case offers implications in terms of highlighting the salience of establishing 'inter-agency collaboration' in other settings. <![CDATA[<b>Initiatives to boost resilience towards El Niño in Zimbabwe's rural communities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Most Zimbabweans living in rural areas experience acute shortages of water for domestic and agricultural purposes. Household poverty amongst rural inhabitants is also increasing because of factors such as El Niño-induced droughts, overdependence on donor assistance and government's failure to invest in sufficient water infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to interrogate the initiatives that have been taken to alleviate food insecurity in Zimbabwe's rural communities. Under the spotlight are the strategies that rural communities and other stakeholders embraced to adapt to the effects of El Niño and to reduce food poverty. We used extensive literature review methodology and explorative qualitative design to investigate how rural communities and other stakeholders in Zimbabwe deal with the issues of food security in the context of persistent El Niño-induced droughts. The results show that rural communities in Zimbabwe continue to experience food security challenges that require collaboration between communities, government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders to build resilience against El Niño-induced droughts. Modernising water supply systems and agricultural management systems can improve the efficiency and effectiveness in food production and distribution. <![CDATA[<b>Policy coherence between food security, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in South Africa: A summative content analysis approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Climate change through extreme weather events threatens food security (FS) and the eradication of poverty. Thus, improving FS will require adapting to the impacts of climate change as well as reducing the risks of disasters. However, the nexus between FS, disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) is not always reflected in policies, resulting in fragmented implementation. The purpose of this article is to evaluate if there is coherence in the policies for FS, DRR and CCA in South Africa. A qualitative research design was applied, and data were collected through a summative content analysis on 34 policy and legislative documents and 24 key informant interviews (KII). The study found that there are still incoherencies between the current main policy and legislative documents that address CCA, DRR and FS. This study recommends a review of old policy and legislative frameworks promulgated in the 1990s to incorporate cross-cutting issues such as DRR, CCA and FS. This will enhance and strengthen synergies and interconnections between the three policy areas. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of trends, recurrences, severity and frequency of droughts using standardised precipitation index: Case of OR Tambo District Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en South Africa is susceptible to droughts. However, little documentation exists on drought occurrence in South Africa at national, provincial and municipal administrative boundaries. This study profiles hydrological drought in OR Tambo District Municipality from 1998 to 2018, computing frequency, severity and intensity in order to show areas of high vulnerability. Data used were obtained from South African Weather Services. Standardised precipitation index (SPI) was calculated using the Meteorological Drought Monitor (MDM) software. Results showed a wide variation in monthly precipitation throughout the year. Coastal areas receive higher rainfall than inland municipalities. The study revealed that Nyandeni experienced the highest drought frequency of 62%, Mhlontlo (58%), King Sabatha Dalindyebo Municipality (57%), Ngquza Hill (55%) and Port St Johns Municipality showing the least at 52%. Hydrological drought severity frequency and duration varied between seven days and nine weeks. Drought intensity class exposed the annual average intensity for the five local municipalities represented as follows: KSDM (-0.71), PSJM (-0.99), Ngquza Hill (-0.81), Nyandeni (-0.71) and Mhlontlo (-0.62). The longest drought duration across OR Tambo was experienced in 2014 with durations varying from 3 to 11 weeks across the municipalities. OR Tambo District Municipality is susceptible to hydrological droughts and the extent varies across local municipalities. Results could be used for both adaptation planning and mitigating the impacts of future droughts. In addition, they could assist in guiding allocation of drought relief resources in ways that prioritise drought prone and vulnerable municipality. <![CDATA[<b>The role of public participation in disaster risk reduction initiatives: The case of Katlehong township</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Disaster risk reduction (DRR) has become a policy priority worldwide and in line with this trend, the South African Disaster Management Act and National Disaster Management Framework prioritise DRR in efforts to build resilient communities with local municipalities being required to develop their own Disaster Management Frameworks. The problem is that public participation is treated as of secondary importance yet international agreements such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) actively promote public participation in DRR. A bottom-up approach is the most effective in ensuring successful DRR initiatives at the local level because communities take ownership of these initiatives and gain a better understanding of their risks. Community-based disaster risk reduction originated in the paradigm shift away from the traditional disaster management approach, moving away from reactive responses in the top-down approach in disaster risk management to more proactive responses. This research study explored approaches used for public participation to ensure successful DRR initiatives in Katlehong township. The study is exploratory and descriptive, having used qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which included questionnaires and interviews. The results gleaned from the data suggested that the role of public participation in DRR initiatives is ineffective in Katlehong township because of the reluctance of stakeholders to participate in DRR. Accordingly, it was recommended that the municipality host stakeholder sessions where stakeholders are informed about the role of the centre and about their own role in DRR. Such stakeholder sessions should assist in resolving issues such as confusion about the stakeholders' roles in DRR and help to obtain buy-in from all the stakeholders. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring strategies for management of disasters associated with illegal gold mining in abandoned mines: A case study of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Due to many abandoned mines that are not rehabilitated, there will be illegal mining. Although the mining industry and government continue to prevent illegal gold mining in abandoned mines by sealing open shafts, it is not possible to close all the shafts at once due to limited resources. Furthermore, after sealing the shafts, illegal miners often create alternative openings to enter underground workings while little or nothing is being done to stop the surface illegal gold mining. As long as illegal gold mining is there, disasters associated with illegal mining are prevalent. Effective disaster preparedness and response requires a competent strategy. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy that can be used for emergency preparation and rescue efforts associated with disasters caused by abandoned mines and illegal gold mining. In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were held with officials and experts on disaster management from the Council for Geoscience and the City of Ekurhuleni. This study indicates that the safety of illegal miners and communities near abandoned mines depends on several factors including the ability to identify and respond to a disaster. The study identified three interlinked themes within the report as strategies for dealing with disasters related to abandoned mines and illegal gold mining. These themes included emergency countermeasures and short-term measures, roles and responsibilities and communication. These interlinked themes should be validated through further research that involves input from the national disaster response community at large. This study will serve as a model that can be implemented in other areas impacted by illegal mining in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Aligning SDG 13 with South Africa's development agenda: Adaptation policies and institutional frameworks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The alignment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with national development agendas has gained traction since the ratification of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in September 2015. This article investigates how South Africa has aligned the climate action SDG (SDG 13) with its national development agenda, with an emphasis on adaptation policies and institutional framework. This comes against a background where the country has been accused of bias towards mitigation policies that were trigged by the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios in 2007, which could have quickened mitigation responses to SDG 13. The data were generated through the use of three key methods, namely key informant interviews (n = 21), an online survey uploaded on an online platform called QuestionPro and a realised sample of 103 completed surveys. Furthermore, relevant policy documents were analysed from a critical discourse perspective. It emerged that South Africa has policies and strategies in place to respond to climate change adaptation within the context of SDG 13. However, while policies are in place, they have not translated to real change on the ground and therefore have not enabled the country to have adequate climate change resilience. The policies have not been translated into concrete actions; there are knowledge gaps in adaptation, poor leadership and lack of clear vision for adaptation and poor coordination. Institutions are scattered, with uneven capacity across sectors and different spheres of government; and weakest at the local government level. It also emerged that mitigation was prioritised for a while over adaptation, with a lack of funding and general awareness. The study recommends that adaptation measures should not be undertaken in isolation, instead, it should be addressed within the context of other programmes such as disaster risk management and sustainable development. <![CDATA[<b>Creating an institutional ecosystem for cash transfer programmes in post-disaster settings: A case from Indonesia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Humanitarian and disaster management actors have increasingly adopted cash transfer as an approach to reduce the suffering and vulnerability of the survivors. Cash transfers have also been used as a key instrument in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This article uses an exploratory research strategy to understand how non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governments implement humanitarian cash transfer in a post-disaster setting. This article asks: what are the institutional constraints and opportunities faced by humanitarian emergency responders in ensuring an effective humanitarian cash transfer, and how do humanitarian actors address such institutional constraints? In this article, we have introduced a new conceptual framework, namely the humanitarian and disaster management ecosystem for cash transfer. This framework allows non-governmental actors to restore complex relations amongst state, disaster survivors (citizen), local market economy and civil society. Mixed methods and multistage research strategies were used to collect and analyse primary and secondary data. The authors conclude that by implementing cash transfers in the context of post-tsunamigenic earthquakes and liquefaction hazards, NGOs must co-create an ecosystem of response that aims to restore disaster-affected people's access to cash and basic needs. However, in order to ensure such access to basic needs, the responders must first restore relations between the states and their citizens before linking the at-risk communities with the private sectors to jump-start local livelihoods and market economy. <![CDATA[<b>Transportation infrastructure planning in supporting disaster mitigation: Case study in Mount Gamalama</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Effective mitigation planning is needed for communities living in areas prone to disasters, including natural calamities such as volcanic eruptions. The development of disaster evacuation routes in disaster-prone areas, including the area where this study was conducted, requires proper planning in transportation infrastructure. Ternate city in Indonesia is a disaster-prone area because of the presence of an active volcanic mountain and an area traversed by the Pacific ring of fire. This area includes a vulnerable zone that has the potential for disasters such as volcanic eruptions, therefore it is important to make mitigation plans to assist the community in evacuating and reducing the impacts of a disaster. Data was obtained from road network observations and by carrying out inventory surveys on the condition of facilities and infrastructure for land transportation and sea transportation in Ternate city, which is located close to Mount Gamalama. A quantitative approach was utilised in this study through transportation modelling using Vissim to analyse the existing traffic conditions and forecasting. The research aims to formulate disaster mitigation measures to reduce the damages caused by the volcanic eruption of Mount Gamalama and identify plans for evacuation routes in disaster-prone areas. The road network performance of Ternate city showed that the city has roads that can be used as evacuation routes for disaster victims. It has good road performance in terms of meeting points and final evacuation points. Efforts to reduce the number of victims when a volcanic eruption occurs, the socialisation of disaster mitigation to the community and the installation of disaster information signs need to be equipped with the preparation of evacuation routes in the form of evacuation gathering points and final evacuation points. This study recommends local governments to develop new evacuation routes in disaster-prone areas and increase evacuation capacity. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of community-based flood early warning system in Malawi</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en One of the major natural hazards the world is facing these days are floods. Malawi has not been spared. Floods have affected the countries' socio-economic developmental plans. River gauges have been installed along major rivers to monitor water levels in a bid to warn communities of imminent flooding. In Malawi, ever since the installation of river gauges no study has been done to assess their effectiveness. This study examines the effectiveness of these river gauges as part of community-based early warning system. The research employs both qualitative and quantitative approach. Questionnaires, interviews, group discussions, document analysis were all used in order to understand the behavioural aspect of communities under study. The current community-based early warning system practices were benchmarked against the following elements: risk knowledge, technical monitoring and warning services, dissemination and communication of warnings and response capability. The study revealed that Malawi has two distinct systems in place: at national level (managed by several government departments) and at community level [managed by Civil Protection Committees (CPCs)]. These systems were installed by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and faith-based organisations. Apparently, no direct link exists between the two. Operational bureaucracy affects the speedy presentation of warning messages at national level. Lack of capacity and necessities affects the operation of the community-based system. Despite the efforts to develop the early warning systems, the failures outweigh the successes. Government needs to provide enough funding for systems sustainability, build capacity of CPCs and install more technologically advanced systems. <![CDATA[<b>Handling natural hazards in Indonesia amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Muhammadiyah's response and strategy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Indonesia is prone to natural hazards, which have continued to occur even during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Therefore, this study explored the response and strategy employed by Muhammadiyah, one of Indonesia's moderate Islamic organisations, in dealing with natural hazards during this pandemic. A qualitative descriptive method was used in this study, and the data collection procedure involved finding related literature, reports, and decrees. Online interviews were also conducted with the Muhammadiyah Disaster Management Center (MDMC) administration to strengthen the data. Subsequently, this study discovered that Muhammadiyah responded by aiding victims of natural hazards, which occurred in various regions in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The strategies employed comprise Muhammadiyah COVID-19 Command Center (MCCC) to handle COVID-19, alongside essential recommendations to the MDMC network throughout Indonesia and the various arms of the government for dealing with natural hazards during the pandemic. Also, it showed commitment to handling these hazards by establishing a standard operating procedure for Muhammadiyah volunteers and represented Indonesia during a presentation at the World Health Organization. <![CDATA[<b>Factors that influence regional resilience planning in Central Karoo, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Applied in various disciplines, the concept of resilience has become a catchword in academic and policy discourse across the world. Despite the rapidly growing interest, there is a dearth of literature on resilience in the context of rural areas. To contribute towards extending the existing knowledge, this article analyses factors that influenced the low levels of incorporation of regional resilience in the plans (spatial development frameworks [SDFs]) that guide planning and development in a rural region of Central Karoo, South Africa. The study that the article draws upon revolved around qualitative interviews conducted with seven key informants who were knowledgeable about social, economic and environmental challenges as well as planning and development in the Central Karoo region. The semi-structured interviews were conducted through the online platform of Microsoft Teams. Against the background of low levels of incorporation of regional resilience in the plans that have a bearing on planning and development in the Central Karoo region, it was discovered that the lack of knowledge, financial and human resource constraints and a lack of synergy between different stakeholders were the main reasons for the inadequate incorporation of regional resilience in the subject SDFs. To improve this state of affairs, it is recommended that the stakeholders in the region be empowered on matters pertaining to regional resilience. In terms of empirical research, it is recommended that future studies go beyond the analysis of the content of plans in the manner of this article and analyse the actual regional resilience of rural areas. <![CDATA[<b>A framework for librarians to inform the citizenry during disasters: Reflections on the COVID-19 pandemic</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Globally, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has wreaked havoc on human lives and socio-economic activities at an unimaginable scale. African countries have not been spared from this debacle - as evidenced by media reports of loss of lives, lockdown, isolation and desolation coupled with loss of livelihood. Whilst the COVID-19 pandemic rages, libraries find themselves at the epicentre of an unprecedented crisis in the form of an information deluge that requires a multi-thronged approach to ensure information hygienic practices in information management. In order to fight COVID-19, librarians and related information professionals with relevant tools should aim at helping prevent COVID-19 pandemic infodemic (coroinfodeluge). This article explores how libraries and librarians can contribute to the fight against COVID-19 through waging wars in the realm of access to information amidst an avalanche of disinformation. This article analysed how librarians can be proactive in contributing to the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic through innovative strategies that ensure an informed citizenry. The study used qualitative content analysis as the study design. Documents were retrieved from trusted websites and they were coded before analysis. These documents included legal instruments, scholarly publications from accredited databases including Elsevier and Emerald. The study found out that librarians were not included in the national programmes to manage the COVID-19 pandemic, yet they possess potential to contribute to the fight against misinformation by educating citizens on information hygienic practices, for example, by directing users to credible or trustworthy sources on the pandemic. The study concluded that librarians can be useful stakeholders to the management of the COVID-19 pandemic and infodemic because they possess knowledge and skills relating to critical literacies that are needed in the 21st century. It recommends a collaborative framework that includes community leaders and strategic partners - to help librarians ensure that the citizenry is not misinformed during emergencies. <![CDATA[<b>Mapping the susceptibility of persons with disabilities to landslides in a highland landscape of Bushika Sub County, Mount Elgon, Eastern Uganda</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Terrain parameters such as slope aspect, angle, curvature, stream power and altitude have been noted to spur landslide occurrence as well as, acting as a hindrance to evacuation efforts. Yet, persons with disabilities (PWDs) are seldom given priority during rescue and recovery programmes during pre- and post-disaster evacuation. The study was guided by two objectives, namely, (1) to map the landslide risk for households of PWDs and (2) to investigate the disability type that is perceived to be most affected by landslides. A cross-sectional household survey was adopted employing snowball sampling, Key Informant Interviews (KII), and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) for primary data collection. A 30-m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used for terrain spatial landslide risk analysis in ArcGis 10.8 and System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) tools. A one-sample t-test in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 was used to analyse the score values on a five-point Likert scale to ascertain the perceived landslide effect on the different disability categories. Qualitative data was subjected to content analysis. We found out that majority of PWDs live in high-risk landslide zones with 1400 m - 1700 m, S-E, 10-80, &gt; 10, and -0.8-0.13 of altitude, aspect, slope angle, Stream Power Index (SPI), and slope curvature, respectively. T-test results revealed that blind and deaf-blind were perceived as most affected by landslides with t(31) = 58.42, mean = 4.7, p < 0.0001, and t(31) = 34.8, mean 4.6, p < 0.0001. The deaf people were perceived to also be highly affected by landslides with t(31) = 34.4, mean = 3.9, p < 0.0001. In conclusion, PWDs in Bushika were highly susceptible to landslide hazards and yet considered as a minority for rescue and recovery during landslide occurrences. We recommend for prioritisation of inclusive disaster programmes such as disaster training, relocation, and resettlement to reduce vulnerability and enhance landslides disaster resilience of PWDs especially in high-risk areas. <![CDATA[<b>Natural hazard insurance demand: A systematic review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The mitigation of natural hazard costs such as loss of property, life, crops and medical costs can be achieved through the adoption of insurance. It is, however, not clear whether there is corresponding demand for insurance given the increasing frequency and veracity of natural hazards, especially in South Africa. This study follows the guideline of Preferred Reporting items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) to identify the relevant works on the subject. A total of 645 articles emerged on initial search and after screening, 39 remained which have been reviewed in this study. Reviewing the studies and conflating with the study objectives, the following themes emerged for discussion on demand for natural hazard insurance, is there demand for natural hazard insurance?; psychology of decision-making; risk perception; risk preference and willingness to pay. The study found that studies of demand for insurance have identified that there is low demand for tailor-made insurance products for natural hazards. Further analysis of the demand revealed that normative and descriptive decision-making of buying natural hazard insurance is part of the psychological factors that determine demand. Whilst risk preference and perception have sub-attributes that affect their impact on demand such as experience, age and salience to natural hazards in communities. Whilst willingness to pay is also a broad concept which is analysed using both monetary and non-monetary factors in literature, the results also identified that there is a huge gap in literature in terms of studies that cover risk preference and perception in Africa and in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. <![CDATA[<b>Disaster resilience framework indicators for a city's disaster resilience planning strategy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Determining the level of a city's disaster resilience and developing a disaster resilience strategy is an important process towards understanding the current and potential future risk of cities. However, the process of determining and mapping the level of urban disaster resilience presents a challenge for the City of Tshwane, as it requires a consolidated and coordinated commitment and collaboration from various role players. This research study developed disaster resilience framework indicators for the City of Tshwane to determine its current disaster resilience and to contribute to its disaster resilience and sustainable development planning strategy. The research assumed a case study design using a qualitative approach to gather data through document analysis and one-on-one interviews. Ten disaster resilience framework indicators were identified as essential indicators in assisting the City of Tshwane with its endeavour to be a disaster resilient city. <![CDATA[<b>Inter-agency collaboration and disaster management: A case study of the 2005 earthquake disaster in Pakistan</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In post disastrous situations, coordinated and integrated interventions aimed at relief and rehabilitation not only help facilitate reaching out to the affected communities in a timely fashion but also pave the way to channel scarce and valued resources towards end users in an efficient and effective manner. This article attempts to trace the origins and gradual development of 'inter-agency collaboration' and the implications thereof for disaster management strategies in Pakistan through an analysis of relief and rehabilitation interventions undertaken by the Government of Pakistan in collaboration with local and international Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) and relief agencies in the ex post of the 2005 earthquake. Data for this study were collected through structured and semi-structured interviews from government officials, representatives of NGOs and relief agencies and ordinary women and men in the earthquake stricken localities of Balakot and Mansehra districts of Pakistan. On the heels of the 2005 earthquake, both local NGOs and faith-based organisations in concert with international NGOs and relief agencies from around the world rushed to assist Pakistan in it's rescue and relief operations at a time when the country was faced with the twin dilemma of both the non-existence of peculiar institutional arrangements for disaster management and a lack of the necessary technical and financial resources. The aftermath of the 2005 earthquake offered opportunity to the Government of Pakistan and the NGOs and relief agencies alike to transform their individual interventions into a robust and organised 'inter-agency collaboration', which was later on realised in the form of establishment of a national disaster management organisation called the 'Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA)'. The establishment of ERRA not only paved the way for avoiding duplication and wastage of resources but also ensued in reaching out to the affected communities in a timely fashion. The Pakistani case offers implications in terms of highlighting the salience of establishing 'inter-agency collaboration' in other settings. <![CDATA[<b>Initiatives to boost resilience towards El Niño in Zimbabwe's rural communities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Most Zimbabweans living in rural areas experience acute shortages of water for domestic and agricultural purposes. Household poverty amongst rural inhabitants is also increasing because of factors such as El Niño-induced droughts, overdependence on donor assistance and government's failure to invest in sufficient water infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to interrogate the initiatives that have been taken to alleviate food insecurity in Zimbabwe's rural communities. Under the spotlight are the strategies that rural communities and other stakeholders embraced to adapt to the effects of El Niño and to reduce food poverty. We used extensive literature review methodology and explorative qualitative design to investigate how rural communities and other stakeholders in Zimbabwe deal with the issues of food security in the context of persistent El Niño-induced droughts. The results show that rural communities in Zimbabwe continue to experience food security challenges that require collaboration between communities, government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders to build resilience against El Niño-induced droughts. Modernising water supply systems and agricultural management systems can improve the efficiency and effectiveness in food production and distribution. <![CDATA[<b>Policy coherence between food security, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in South Africa: A summative content analysis approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Climate change through extreme weather events threatens food security (FS) and the eradication of poverty. Thus, improving FS will require adapting to the impacts of climate change as well as reducing the risks of disasters. However, the nexus between FS, disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) is not always reflected in policies, resulting in fragmented implementation. The purpose of this article is to evaluate if there is coherence in the policies for FS, DRR and CCA in South Africa. A qualitative research design was applied, and data were collected through a summative content analysis on 34 policy and legislative documents and 24 key informant interviews (KII). The study found that there are still incoherencies between the current main policy and legislative documents that address CCA, DRR and FS. This study recommends a review of old policy and legislative frameworks promulgated in the 1990s to incorporate cross-cutting issues such as DRR, CCA and FS. This will enhance and strengthen synergies and interconnections between the three policy areas. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of trends, recurrences, severity and frequency of droughts using standardised precipitation index: Case of OR Tambo District Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en South Africa is susceptible to droughts. However, little documentation exists on drought occurrence in South Africa at national, provincial and municipal administrative boundaries. This study profiles hydrological drought in OR Tambo District Municipality from 1998 to 2018, computing frequency, severity and intensity in order to show areas of high vulnerability. Data used were obtained from South African Weather Services. Standardised precipitation index (SPI) was calculated using the Meteorological Drought Monitor (MDM) software. Results showed a wide variation in monthly precipitation throughout the year. Coastal areas receive higher rainfall than inland municipalities. The study revealed that Nyandeni experienced the highest drought frequency of 62%, Mhlontlo (58%), King Sabatha Dalindyebo Municipality (57%), Ngquza Hill (55%) and Port St Johns Municipality showing the least at 52%. Hydrological drought severity frequency and duration varied between seven days and nine weeks. Drought intensity class exposed the annual average intensity for the five local municipalities represented as follows: KSDM (-0.71), PSJM (-0.99), Ngquza Hill (-0.81), Nyandeni (-0.71) and Mhlontlo (-0.62). The longest drought duration across OR Tambo was experienced in 2014 with durations varying from 3 to 11 weeks across the municipalities. OR Tambo District Municipality is susceptible to hydrological droughts and the extent varies across local municipalities. Results could be used for both adaptation planning and mitigating the impacts of future droughts. In addition, they could assist in guiding allocation of drought relief resources in ways that prioritise drought prone and vulnerable municipality. <![CDATA[<b>The role of public participation in disaster risk reduction initiatives: The case of Katlehong township</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Disaster risk reduction (DRR) has become a policy priority worldwide and in line with this trend, the South African Disaster Management Act and National Disaster Management Framework prioritise DRR in efforts to build resilient communities with local municipalities being required to develop their own Disaster Management Frameworks. The problem is that public participation is treated as of secondary importance yet international agreements such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) actively promote public participation in DRR. A bottom-up approach is the most effective in ensuring successful DRR initiatives at the local level because communities take ownership of these initiatives and gain a better understanding of their risks. Community-based disaster risk reduction originated in the paradigm shift away from the traditional disaster management approach, moving away from reactive responses in the top-down approach in disaster risk management to more proactive responses. This research study explored approaches used for public participation to ensure successful DRR initiatives in Katlehong township. The study is exploratory and descriptive, having used qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which included questionnaires and interviews. The results gleaned from the data suggested that the role of public participation in DRR initiatives is ineffective in Katlehong township because of the reluctance of stakeholders to participate in DRR. Accordingly, it was recommended that the municipality host stakeholder sessions where stakeholders are informed about the role of the centre and about their own role in DRR. Such stakeholder sessions should assist in resolving issues such as confusion about the stakeholders' roles in DRR and help to obtain buy-in from all the stakeholders. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring strategies for management of disasters associated with illegal gold mining in abandoned mines: A case study of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Due to many abandoned mines that are not rehabilitated, there will be illegal mining. Although the mining industry and government continue to prevent illegal gold mining in abandoned mines by sealing open shafts, it is not possible to close all the shafts at once due to limited resources. Furthermore, after sealing the shafts, illegal miners often create alternative openings to enter underground workings while little or nothing is being done to stop the surface illegal gold mining. As long as illegal gold mining is there, disasters associated with illegal mining are prevalent. Effective disaster preparedness and response requires a competent strategy. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy that can be used for emergency preparation and rescue efforts associated with disasters caused by abandoned mines and illegal gold mining. In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were held with officials and experts on disaster management from the Council for Geoscience and the City of Ekurhuleni. This study indicates that the safety of illegal miners and communities near abandoned mines depends on several factors including the ability to identify and respond to a disaster. The study identified three interlinked themes within the report as strategies for dealing with disasters related to abandoned mines and illegal gold mining. These themes included emergency countermeasures and short-term measures, roles and responsibilities and communication. These interlinked themes should be validated through further research that involves input from the national disaster response community at large. This study will serve as a model that can be implemented in other areas impacted by illegal mining in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Climate change knowledge, concerns and experiences in secondary school learners in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Climate change poses a major threat to the future of today's youth. Globally, young people are at the forefront of climate change activism. Their ability to engage, however, depends on the level of knowledge of climate change and concern about the topic. We sought to examine levels of knowledge and concerns about climate change among youth in South Africa, and their experiences of heat exposure. Ten questions on climate change knowledge, concerns and experiences were nested within a cross-sectional survey conducted in a cluster randomised trial among 924 secondary school learners in 14 public schools in low-income Western Cape areas. Learners' mean age was 15.8 years and they were predominately female. While 72.0% of respondents knew that climate change leads to higher temperatures, only 59.7% agreed that human activity is responsible for climate change, and 58.0% believed that climate change affects human health. Two thirds (68.7%) said that climate change is a serious issue and 65.9% indicated action is needed for prevention. Few learners indicated climate change events had affected them, although many reported difficulties concentrating during hot weather (72.9%). Female learners had lower knowledge levels than male learners, but more frequent heat-related symptoms. Learners scoring high on knowledge questions expressed the most concern about climate change and had the highest heat impacts. Many youth seem unaware that climate change threatens their future. Heat-related symptoms are common, likely undermining educational performance, especially as temperatures escalate. More is needed to mainstream climate change into South African school curricula. <![CDATA[<b>Risk characterisation and methods of improving practice for municipal waste management in disaster situations: A case study in Qom Province, Iran</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Developing strategies to control environmental challenges and various aspects of health consequences of waste management is one of the major programs in metropolitan management. The main purpose of this study is to examine the level of preparedness, having a contingency plan and the emergency response ability to waste management in disaster situations. A descriptive study was designed in two phases: in the first phase of the study, composition, quantity and characteristics of municipal solid waste in the disaster were estimated, and by using DotMapper software, temporary waste sites for disaster situations (map waste) were determined. In the second phase of the study, the preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) to identify the initial events and risk analysis in the municipal waste management system was considered. Results show that more than 50% of the generated waste in the disaster is allocated to construction waste resulting from the destruction and more than 30% to recyclable items (metals, glass, plastic), and a very small part of about 1% of biodegradable waste was determined. Twenty points were designated as temporary sites for municipal waste in a disaster situation. Results of risk analysis in the disaster were described that for three events containing lack of temporary waste storage sites, lack of identification and determination of hazardous waste production centres and lack of waste management training programme in emergency situations were in the red range. Developing the necessary strategies to control environmental challenges and various aspects of health outcomes in waste management is one of the basic programmes in metropolitan management. <![CDATA[<b>Promoting sustainable development goals: Role of higher education institutions in climate and disaster management in Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article seeks to explore the role of higher education institutions (HEIs) in climate change adaptation and disaster risk management (DRM). The study is based on the qualitative desk review, thematic and document analysis and uses the theory of change to facilitate a road map for HEIs in strengthening professional human development, policy consistency in dealing with climate-induced natural disasters (CINDs) research and policies. Academic journals covering the role of HEIs in climate and disaster management in Zimbabwe were selected on google scholar. Reviewed documents include universities' curriculum documents, government disaster policy documents and other related disaster management policy protocols. The article's findings reflect that HEIs in Zimbabwe have been engaged in climate change education and DRM as the country and the region are prone to threats posed by extreme weather events in the form of tropical cyclones and extreme droughts. The article concludes that HEIs core mission that includes public engagement to advance achieving sustainable development goals in Zimbabwe is growing at a steady pace to find ways to avert the impact of climate change and put strategies in place to respond to disaster to minimise social, environmental and economic losses posed by disasters. Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE) is enhancing people's resilience in Chadereka village in Muzarabani through disaster preparedness training. National University of Science Technology (NUST) is also training communities on disaster concepts, disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response. <![CDATA[<b>Social workers' intervention during natural hazards</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Social work profession is anchored on theory and practice and has both primary and secondary methods of interventions. The knowledge base of social work is constituted by values, principles, theories, skills and techniques. Globally, social work scholars have developed paradigms, theories, approaches, perspectives, models, techniques, skills and principles that could be applied in a variety of settings to various social ills for the benefit of clients in communities. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring social workers' intervention during natural hazards. The researchers used an interpretative qualitative research approach and case study design. Moreover, five social workers who provide psychosocial counselling and social relief of distress were purposively sampled to participate in this study. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically. The study found that social workers use three primary methods of social work: casework, group work and community work. Furthermore, the participants stated that they play roles such as educator, counsellor and broker when dealing with victims of natural hazards. Based on the findings, the researchers have noted that not all social workers are active in providing psychosocial counselling to the victims of natural hazards. As such, the researchers recommend more workshops to educate all social workers that social workers have an important role to perform in the midst of natural hazards. <![CDATA[<b>Mindset as a resilience resource and perceived wellness of first responders in a South African context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The global increase in frequency and intensity of disasters and emergency situations has a major disruptive effect on societies that is especially visible in Africa, where conflict, poverty, diseases and social unrest are some of the biggest factors contributing to societal vulnerability. Developing countries such as South Africa are vulnerable to the impact of disaster situations that strain the society's ability to deal with these emergencies. First responders play an important function responding to disasters but are exposed to work-related stressors that could impact their performance. Several international studies make a link between wellness, performance and resilience and the use of resilience resources in the development and enhancement of wellness, indicating that resilience resources such as a resilient mindset are an indicator of good mental health and performance amongst first responders, despite being exposed to traumatic situations. However, very little research has been carried out on first responders in South Africa, making this study an important stepping stone towards gaining an understanding of the relationship between mindset as a resilience resource and perceived wellness of first responders in a South African context. Data were collected from 52 first responders using a structured questionnaire. The results indicate a statistically significant relationship between mindset and perceived wellness, with all the wellness factors indicating that the mindset of first responders plays a crucial role in their resilience and perception of wellness, necessitating additional research in this specialised field of disaster response. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of climate change on pastoral households in the Harshin District of the Somali Region, Ethiopia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study was conducted in the Harshin District of the Somali Region, Ethiopia, to understand the climate change trends, their consistency with pastoralists' perceptions and their effects on pastoral households. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data collected from 143 households through household surveys. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also employed to triangulate and substantiate the reports from household surveys. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and chi-square tests to test a degree of significance between the pastoral and agropastoral households for the impact of climate change. Mann-Kendall's trend test and Sen's slope estimator were employed to determine climate change trends of the study area. The result showed that pastoral households perceived an increasing trend in annual temperature and a decreasing trend in annual and seasonal rainfall. Mann-Kendall's trend analysis confirmed pastoral communities' perceptions of higher temperatures and rainfall variability, with the exception of a long-term decline in rainfall. The findings further indicated that six droughts (one severe and five moderate) were observed for the period 1983-2017. The result indicated that the significant increase in temperature along with high interannual and seasonal rainfall variability have been causing adverse impacts on crop and livestock production. Therefore, there is a need to provide drought-tolerant and early-maturing crops and improved livestock breeds for pastoral households. Water-related interventions such as small-scale irrigation farming and water harvesting during good rainy seasons is also paramount to enhance climate resilience of the local people. <![CDATA[<b>Disaster risk reduction: Integrating sustainable development goals and occupational safety and health in festival and event management</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this article is to develop a theoretical disaster risk reduction model, creating a virtuous cycle of knowledge and action across the festival and events industry, based on occupational safety and health (OSH) strategic objectives, as informed by a systematic literature review. The main constructs of this conceptual article are explored through a systematic literature review. Sources include publications of key stakeholders in the festival and event industry, applicable global directives, strategic documents of relevant governmental and non-governmental organisations and academic publications. From the data gathered in the systematic literature review it can be surmised that sustainable development goals (SDGs) related research in tourism, festivals, events and OSH is lacking in quantity and there is room for these aspects to be addressed in future research to ensure that these fields of study make a more substantial contribution to disaster risk reduction in festival and event management. This article is limited to secondary data collected through a systematic literature review, supported by additional literature to inform a theoretical framework incorporating SDGs, disaster risk reduction and OSH strategic objectives for festivals and events. Sustainable development goals are aimed at achieving a sustainable future for all. The detrimental effect of OSH incidents can be counterproductive to achieving such goals and should therefore be closely monitored and managed. Festival and event managers should thus take cognisance of the importance of OSH through a plan of action, benchmarked against best practice, to allow for enhanced disaster risk management. This article investigates the concepts of sustainability, disaster risk reduction, OSH, events and festival management and combines the concepts in a unique manner. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of disaster training on knowledge regarding flood risk management amongst families with older people</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The elderly population is of utmost importance amongst vulnerable populations during disasters because they experience reduced functional abilities, cognitive disturbance, dementia, weak physical conditions and various degenerative diseases. This study aimed to assess the effect of disaster preparedness training on knowledge regarding flood disaster preparedness and management in families with older people. This study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pre-post design with 30 participants in natural hazard preparedness training using purposive sampling. The results of this study showed a significant change in general knowledge on disaster and flood (12.9 and 20 points, respectively). Disaster preparedness practice was good, as reflected in actions performed before, during and after disaster. Before a flood occurs, families prepare a disaster preparedness bag for important documents as well as logistics (e.g. food) for emergencies and equipment for evacuation whilst also storing valuable goods in a safe place. During floods, families prioritise older people's evacuation whilst seeking information about the flood through neighbours, walkie-talkies, handphones, television and radio as well as ensuring that the necessary logistics are taken care of. After the disaster, families clean their properties, provide clean water and toilet facilities for the family, check the health of family members that may be impacted by the flood and make sure that all electrical panels are safe. It is concluded that disaster training affects the knowledge of flood management in families with older people. <![CDATA[<b>Rural vulnerability and institutional dynamics in the context of COVID-19: A scoping review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study reviewed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on pre-existing vulnerabilities in rural communities using the scoping review strategy. It focused on manuscripts published on the topic in 2020. Based on 39 studies that met our inclusion criteria (out of 507 studies), we note that COVID-19 is exacerbating pre-existing rural vulnerabilities, including poverty, remoteness, socio-economic marginalisation and high unemployment. There is limited evidence that rural communities are resilient to the pandemic. Reduction in household expenditures and the community food system are the only reported forms of resilience. Although local institutions are supporting rural communities in responding to the impacts of the pandemic, several institutional dynamics undermine the effectiveness of the response. The increased risk of the pandemic is likely to reduce incomes and standards of living amongst poor communities. Thus, coping strategies were identified such as starting small gardens in communities, diet changes, targeting community markets with produce rather than retailers and food swap using social media, with food swap being the most adopted coping strategy. Although this study does not offer a comprehensive picture of the levels and nature of vulnerability, resilience and institutional dynamics of rural communities in different parts of the world reveal the limitations of existing knowledge of the vulnerability of rural communities in the context of COVID-19. This underscores the importance of further studies on rural vulnerability in the context of COVID-19 that will enable evidence-based responses to the pandemic in rural contexts. <![CDATA[<b>Empowering local leaders in flood inundation mapping in Bagelen, Purworejo, Central Java</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article discusses the reliability of flood inundation information that is obtained from participatory mapping. The commonly applied method to map flood inundation requires both direct and interpretive measurement data based on remote sensing images. Such assessments have limited availability of data; as a result, participatory mapping has become the solution. A number of studies have conducted participatory mapping to obtain flood hazard information in areas with limited sources of data, however, there has been little discussion about its reliability. This research conducted participatory flood inundation mapping by involving local leaders as respondents. The mental map drawn by the local leaders was digitised to obtain a shapefile format map. The information obtained from the semistructured interview was then included in the geographic information system (GIS) data as attributes. The obtained information was compared with the field data to determine its quality. A literature study was then conducted to discuss how the participatory mapping could support managing a disaster. Information obtained through participatory mapping can be effectively applied to disaster management because of its precise location information, lower cost and less time-consuming nature. The reliability of the information has weak accuracy of quantitative data; however, it has advantages in terms of qualitative data, especially in the detailed descriptions of flood information. In the future, participatory mapping should rely on integrating the perspectives of cross-disciplinary researchers, a comprehensive study of multidisciplinary knowledge and level of understanding of the stakeholders. <![CDATA[<b>Agency-driven and community-driven impact in livelihood recovery: Beneficiaries stories</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The effectiveness of agency-driven and community-driven recovery approaches is a discoursive material that appeals to many disaster management practitioners, scholars, international donors or governments. Meanwhile, the community has never been part of this discourse as beneficiaries to obtain its perspective on both approaches. Loli Dondo village, which received agency-driven and community-driven livelihood recovery after the 2018 Central Sulawesi Tsunami, was purposively selected as the site of investigation. This study aims to explore how both the approaches were perceived by the community. A qualitative research method involving focus group interviews (FGI), interviews and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) was used to explore and capture community narratives and collective storytelling to produce a visual analysis of the community's problem-solving strategy and management. Based on the results, the community-driven recovery approach fulfilled the community standards and provided more impact than its counterpart. Several essential viewpoints were underlined for all approaches as follows: (1) the agency's transparency to the community about financial conditions, (2) communication and active community involvement and (3) preciseness of the aid to community needs. These elements are expected to improve the implementation of such recovery programmes, thereby increasing quality and accessibility. The insightful community storylines, experiences and reflection support in building a better practice of livelihood recovery approaches for beneficiaries and also contribute widely to their implementation according to the community's perspective. CONTRIBUTION: These findings highlight the key elements of recovery implementation based on community perspectives to achieve impact of livelihood recovery <![CDATA[<b>The impact of colonial and contemporary land policies on climate change adaptation in Zimbabwe's communal areas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100034&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The main aim of this article was to examine the impact of colonial and contemporary development policies on climate change adaptation among communal farmers in Zimbabwe. As such, the objective was to document and better understand how the legacy of colonialism, coupled with the current climate change impacts is making adaptation a serious challenge for farmers in particular regions of the country. This study was conducted in Zimbabwe's Buhera Rural District (Ward 30) and Chipinge Rural District (Ward 11). Data collection involved the use of individual household interviews, with the use of a snowball sampling method, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and direct observation in the field. It was found that the lack of income diversity opportunities has further exposed several livelihoods to climate change and compromised their abilities to respond and recover under periods of climatic stress. It was ascertained that the adaptation challenges experienced by African farmers were brought about by the colonial land system that evicted them from their customary lands and allocated them land in poor agroecological regions that fail to support production. The authors argue that climate change adaptation challenges in communal areas should be understood from a colonial and historical development perspective that led to the establishment of communal farming zones. There is also a need to understand climate vulnerability in the context of post-independence development strategies that have led to the underdevelopment of peasant agriculture and reduced farmers' ability to adapt to climate change. CONTRIBUTION: Climate change adaptation policies should recognise the country's colonial and historical legacy that has led to poverty and other livelihood challenges in communal areas. By acknowledging this, policymakers are better positioned to understand the structural issues making adaptation difficult, and they could intervene by proposing context-specific adaptation strategies that meet the needs of communal farmers <![CDATA[<b>Socio-economic impact of COVID-19 on rural livelihoods in Mbashe Municipality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100035&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The study sought to examine the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on the socioeconomic livelihoods of rural communities by focusing on the Good Hope community under Mbashe Municipality. A qualitative research methodology was employed through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The study sought to examine the impact and survival strategies employed by the Good Hope community with the outbreak of the coronavirus, which has widely affected the world since 2019. The study further aimed to examine the role of the South African government in assisting rural communities since the outbreak of the coronavirus. CONTRIBUTION: The study's findings highlight the lack of proper intervention strategies employed by the government in assisting rural communities. Communities including Good Hope have been hard hit by the pandemic and continue to suffer under the implemented lockdown regulations imposed by all governments globally <![CDATA[<b>A conservation organisation's approach to COVID-19: Lessons learned from Madagascar</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100036&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Blue Ventures (BV) works holistically with communities in Madagascar, developing transformative approaches to catalyse and sustain locally led marine conservation. In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, BV's priority was to safeguard the immediate wellbeing and livelihoods of as many communities as possible, recognising that livelihoods are integral to broader well-being. This article describes in detail BV's health response and the perceptions of BV's Madagascar team regarding the successes and challenges of this effort. As a result of the combined efforts of BV teams across Madagascar and in the United Kingdom, the existing healthcare services at BV's sites were maintained, and messages about recognising and dealing with COVID-19 and the importance of vaccination were conveyed to communities that might otherwise not have received comprehensive information. Data were also collected on suspected cases in areas where testing was not available, and outbreaks of suspected COVID-19 cases were managed. Because BV's teams are embedded within the communities where they work, they maintain strong relationships with communities and conveyed important messages around reducing the spread of COVID-19, not only via activities in response to the pandemic but also through activities for other programmes such as fisheries and livelihoods. Blue Ventures' holistic approach ensured that the organisation had a multidimensional understanding of the impacts of the pandemic on communities, facilitating the development of more relevant messaging that considered both safety and the need for continued income-generating activities. Staff felt that an effective public health response was facilitated by strong in-country partnerships and BV's long-standing presence in communities. CONTRIBUTION: The challenges in responding to the pandemic and in implementing and maintaining effective behaviour change are discussed. Although not an objective study of the effectiveness of the response or a comparison with other approaches, the lessons learned from this process are shared in the hope that they may inform responses to future shocks in low-income countries <![CDATA[<b>Global transformation of disaster sciences into risk reduction education system in Indonesia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100037&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article explores the origin of disaster risk reduction (DRR) knowledge in the global context and how it evolved in the education system of Indonesia since its independence in 1945 up to 2018. It argues that DRR education in Indonesia is a marriage of global knowledge and local experiences, which lacks preparedness (knowledge and skills) and has resulted in humanitarian crises. Using a historical approach, this article found that the transformation of global knowledge and DRR education in Indonesia has not yet been effectively implemented, while on the ground, there has been an increasing development of community programmes on DRR education. CONTRIBUTION: The contextualisation of global and DRR education in Indonesia, in terms of policy and institutional networks, can identify the interrelated elements of DRR education, that is, disaster science and pedagogic and human resource development. These need to be evaluated for better formulation of policy in the future. <![CDATA[<b>Community adaptation strategies toward tidal flood: A Case study in Langsa, Indonesia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100038&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Flood risk reduction in Indonesia is primarily still focused on structural measures with limited research assessing community adaptation strategies. The response and adaptation strategies carried out by the community have been recognized as playing an important role in planning future mitigation actions. Community adaptation strategies are key factors in disaster risk reduction. This study aimed to determine the responses and adaptation strategies to manage tidal floods by the coastal community of Langsa City. An in-depth interview with village heads and officials, youth leaders and the community was performed to generate data. The results showed that the local community ignored the dangers of tidal floods and disregarded them as life-threatening. Furthermore, they carried out adaptations, such as raising the house level using wood materials and building dams along the coastline autonomously without government intervention. The adaptations were carried out through communal work referred to as 'gotong royong' (mutual cooperation). CONTRIBUTION: These findings highlight the importance of 'gotong royong' as social capital in disaster risk reduction and government attention to conduct integrated coastal area management <![CDATA[<b>The 'Murky' New Orleans: A community reliving and experiencing the 2005 Hurricane Katrina</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100039&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Flood risk reduction in Indonesia is primarily still focused on structural measures with limited research assessing community adaptation strategies. The response and adaptation strategies carried out by the community have been recognized as playing an important role in planning future mitigation actions. Community adaptation strategies are key factors in disaster risk reduction. This study aimed to determine the responses and adaptation strategies to manage tidal floods by the coastal community of Langsa City. An in-depth interview with village heads and officials, youth leaders and the community was performed to generate data. The results showed that the local community ignored the dangers of tidal floods and disregarded them as life-threatening. Furthermore, they carried out adaptations, such as raising the house level using wood materials and building dams along the coastline autonomously without government intervention. The adaptations were carried out through communal work referred to as 'gotong royong' (mutual cooperation). CONTRIBUTION: These findings highlight the importance of 'gotong royong' as social capital in disaster risk reduction and government attention to conduct integrated coastal area management <![CDATA[<b>An overview of Volume 14, No 1 (2022)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100040&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Flood risk reduction in Indonesia is primarily still focused on structural measures with limited research assessing community adaptation strategies. The response and adaptation strategies carried out by the community have been recognized as playing an important role in planning future mitigation actions. Community adaptation strategies are key factors in disaster risk reduction. This study aimed to determine the responses and adaptation strategies to manage tidal floods by the coastal community of Langsa City. An in-depth interview with village heads and officials, youth leaders and the community was performed to generate data. The results showed that the local community ignored the dangers of tidal floods and disregarded them as life-threatening. Furthermore, they carried out adaptations, such as raising the house level using wood materials and building dams along the coastline autonomously without government intervention. The adaptations were carried out through communal work referred to as 'gotong royong' (mutual cooperation). CONTRIBUTION: These findings highlight the importance of 'gotong royong' as social capital in disaster risk reduction and government attention to conduct integrated coastal area management <![CDATA[<b>Maize producers' vulnerability to climate change: Evidence from Makhuduthamaga Local Municipality, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100041&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Climate change is predicted to impact agricultural production and affect food security in poor communities of developing countries due to the likely negative impacts on rainfall characteristics. South Africa is one of the largest producers of maize crops in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. The majority of crop production is rainfed with precipitation received during the summer growing season. This study evaluated the impact of climate change on maize yields using trend and multiple regression analysis in northern South Africa. Exposure and vulnerability of maize farmers to the impacts of climate change were also evaluated. Rainfall characteristics showed variability of 20.35% with rain days standard deviation of 10.25 days and coefficient of variation of 18.57%. The results revealed a weak relationship between annual rainfall and rainy days, and annual rainfall and maize yields, both showed an r² and p-values of less than 0.5 and 0.005, respectively. The study found that variations in rainfall did not significantly influence variation in maize yields. Despite a clear fluctuation in yields, the results demonstrate a rising trend that can be attributed to agricultural practices such as the use of fertilisers and planting drought resistant cultivars as opposed to climate variables. The study further found that maize producers were proactively adapting to climate change, thus, reducing their vulnerability to its impacts. <![CDATA[<b>Process and components of disaster risk communication in health systems: A thematic analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100042&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Risk communication (RC) is one of the necessary functions in disaster management. Establishing communication processes such as planning, transparency of policies and guidelines, RC expert training, providing communication infrastructure and evaluation in the shortest period reduces confusion and management inconsistency. One of the existing challenges is not knowing the exact dimensions of risk communication and its components in disasters. The aim was to identify the components of disaster risk communication in the health system. This research was conducted by systematic review and searching of the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Google Scholar and ScienceOpen 2000-2021 to identify the components of disaster risk communication in the health system. Thematic content analysis was used for data analysis. A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 chart was used for systematic search, and a modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) was used for quality determination. Out of 12 342 articles extracted, 25 studies were included for analysis. The components of disaster risk communication were analysed in 6 categories and 19 subcategories. These categories include communication (communication processes, communication features and infrastructure), information (content production, content characteristics and publishing), risk communication management (risk perception assessment, planning, coordination and logistics), monitoring and control (monitoring and evaluation, accreditation, documentation), education and training (public and organisational) and ethics and values (culture and social beliefs, ethics and trust). According to this research, the establishment of communication infrastructure and advanced equipment such as various structured formats for communication and artificial intelligence; online and offline communication support systems; and timely and accurate notice can help achieve goals such as coordination and organisation in the health system and increase social participation. CONTRIBUTION: This study has clarified and explained all the main components and measures of risk communication that can be used for planning scientifically. <![CDATA[<b>Geospatial analysis of flood emergency evacuation sites in Accra</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100043&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Cities face frequent flood disasters with devastating impact on lives and property. Geospatial analysis using high elevation points can help to map out emergency evacuation centres for decision making on flood risk management. This research maps and analyses flood emergency evacuation centres in Accra. The objectives of this research were to map out flood hazard and vulnerable settlements, analyse the spatial distribution and identify the optimal locations for flood emergency evacuation sites. The data for this study comprises digital elevation models, stream networks, settlement data, flood risk zone maps of the study site and existing documents on flood disaster risk of the study area. This study adopted the weighted linear combination method to estimate site suitability for emergency evacuation sites. ArcGIS 10.6 was used to analyse the data. The research found that the optimal locations for potential evacuation centres are unevenly distributed between 300 m and 400 m above sea level, most which are in the north-eastern and north-western parts of Accra. The results can contribute to research, policy and decision-making on flood risk management in Accra and other localities with similar conditions. The research further contributes to literature on flood risk management and geographic information system. CONTRIBUTION: This research is useful as mapping could increase awareness of evacuation sites to speed up rapid response to immediate impacts of flood events. The findings of the study will facilitate future decisions for demarcating potential flood emergency evacuation sites. The overall aim of this study is to contribute to literature, policy, spatial analysis and the practice of flood risk management in the study area. The research findings can also be applied to other flood-prone areas with similar contexts as the study site <![CDATA[<b>Inquiry-based learning: A pedagogical tool to improving understanding of natural hazards</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100044&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Cities face frequent flood disasters with devastating impact on lives and property. Geospatial analysis using high elevation points can help to map out emergency evacuation centres for decision making on flood risk management. This research maps and analyses flood emergency evacuation centres in Accra. The objectives of this research were to map out flood hazard and vulnerable settlements, analyse the spatial distribution and identify the optimal locations for flood emergency evacuation sites. The data for this study comprises digital elevation models, stream networks, settlement data, flood risk zone maps of the study site and existing documents on flood disaster risk of the study area. This study adopted the weighted linear combination method to estimate site suitability for emergency evacuation sites. ArcGIS 10.6 was used to analyse the data. The research found that the optimal locations for potential evacuation centres are unevenly distributed between 300 m and 400 m above sea level, most which are in the north-eastern and north-western parts of Accra. The results can contribute to research, policy and decision-making on flood risk management in Accra and other localities with similar conditions. The research further contributes to literature on flood risk management and geographic information system. CONTRIBUTION: This research is useful as mapping could increase awareness of evacuation sites to speed up rapid response to immediate impacts of flood events. The findings of the study will facilitate future decisions for demarcating potential flood emergency evacuation sites. The overall aim of this study is to contribute to literature, policy, spatial analysis and the practice of flood risk management in the study area. The research findings can also be applied to other flood-prone areas with similar contexts as the study site <![CDATA[<b>The 2021 Western Germany flood event: The value of flood risk dissemination strategies and social media</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100045&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Cities face frequent flood disasters with devastating impact on lives and property. Geospatial analysis using high elevation points can help to map out emergency evacuation centres for decision making on flood risk management. This research maps and analyses flood emergency evacuation centres in Accra. The objectives of this research were to map out flood hazard and vulnerable settlements, analyse the spatial distribution and identify the optimal locations for flood emergency evacuation sites. The data for this study comprises digital elevation models, stream networks, settlement data, flood risk zone maps of the study site and existing documents on flood disaster risk of the study area. This study adopted the weighted linear combination method to estimate site suitability for emergency evacuation sites. ArcGIS 10.6 was used to analyse the data. The research found that the optimal locations for potential evacuation centres are unevenly distributed between 300 m and 400 m above sea level, most which are in the north-eastern and north-western parts of Accra. The results can contribute to research, policy and decision-making on flood risk management in Accra and other localities with similar conditions. The research further contributes to literature on flood risk management and geographic information system. CONTRIBUTION: This research is useful as mapping could increase awareness of evacuation sites to speed up rapid response to immediate impacts of flood events. The findings of the study will facilitate future decisions for demarcating potential flood emergency evacuation sites. The overall aim of this study is to contribute to literature, policy, spatial analysis and the practice of flood risk management in the study area. The research findings can also be applied to other flood-prone areas with similar contexts as the study site <![CDATA[<b>Acknowledgement to reviewers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1996-14212022000100046&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Cities face frequent flood disasters with devastating impact on lives and property. Geospatial analysis using high elevation points can help to map out emergency evacuation centres for decision making on flood risk management. This research maps and analyses flood emergency evacuation centres in Accra. The objectives of this research were to map out flood hazard and vulnerable settlements, analyse the spatial distribution and identify the optimal locations for flood emergency evacuation sites. The data for this study comprises digital elevation models, stream networks, settlement data, flood risk zone maps of the study site and existing documents on flood disaster risk of the study area. This study adopted the weighted linear combination method to estimate site suitability for emergency evacuation sites. ArcGIS 10.6 was used to analyse the data. The research found that the optimal locations for potential evacuation centres are unevenly distributed between 300 m and 400 m above sea level, most which are in the north-eastern and north-western parts of Accra. The results can contribute to research, policy and decision-making on flood risk management in Accra and other localities with similar conditions. The research further contributes to literature on flood risk management and geographic information system. CONTRIBUTION: This research is useful as mapping could increase awareness of evacuation sites to speed up rapid response to immediate impacts of flood events. The findings of the study will facilitate future decisions for demarcating potential flood emergency evacuation sites. The overall aim of this study is to contribute to literature, policy, spatial analysis and the practice of flood risk management in the study area. The research findings can also be applied to other flood-prone areas with similar contexts as the study site