Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies]]> vol. 14 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Inter-agency collaboration and disaster management: A case study of the 2005 earthquake disaster in Pakistan</b>]]> In post disastrous situations, coordinated and integrated interventions aimed at relief and rehabilitation not only help facilitate reaching out to the affected communities in a timely fashion but also pave the way to channel scarce and valued resources towards end users in an efficient and effective manner. This article attempts to trace the origins and gradual development of 'inter-agency collaboration' and the implications thereof for disaster management strategies in Pakistan through an analysis of relief and rehabilitation interventions undertaken by the Government of Pakistan in collaboration with local and international Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) and relief agencies in the ex post of the 2005 earthquake. Data for this study were collected through structured and semi-structured interviews from government officials, representatives of NGOs and relief agencies and ordinary women and men in the earthquake stricken localities of Balakot and Mansehra districts of Pakistan. On the heels of the 2005 earthquake, both local NGOs and faith-based organisations in concert with international NGOs and relief agencies from around the world rushed to assist Pakistan in it's rescue and relief operations at a time when the country was faced with the twin dilemma of both the non-existence of peculiar institutional arrangements for disaster management and a lack of the necessary technical and financial resources. The aftermath of the 2005 earthquake offered opportunity to the Government of Pakistan and the NGOs and relief agencies alike to transform their individual interventions into a robust and organised 'inter-agency collaboration', which was later on realised in the form of establishment of a national disaster management organisation called the 'Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA)'. The establishment of ERRA not only paved the way for avoiding duplication and wastage of resources but also ensued in reaching out to the affected communities in a timely fashion. The Pakistani case offers implications in terms of highlighting the salience of establishing 'inter-agency collaboration' in other settings. <![CDATA[<b>Initiatives to boost resilience towards El Niño in Zimbabwe's rural communities</b>]]> Most Zimbabweans living in rural areas experience acute shortages of water for domestic and agricultural purposes. Household poverty amongst rural inhabitants is also increasing because of factors such as El Niño-induced droughts, overdependence on donor assistance and government's failure to invest in sufficient water infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to interrogate the initiatives that have been taken to alleviate food insecurity in Zimbabwe's rural communities. Under the spotlight are the strategies that rural communities and other stakeholders embraced to adapt to the effects of El Niño and to reduce food poverty. We used extensive literature review methodology and explorative qualitative design to investigate how rural communities and other stakeholders in Zimbabwe deal with the issues of food security in the context of persistent El Niño-induced droughts. The results show that rural communities in Zimbabwe continue to experience food security challenges that require collaboration between communities, government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders to build resilience against El Niño-induced droughts. Modernising water supply systems and agricultural management systems can improve the efficiency and effectiveness in food production and distribution. <![CDATA[<b>Policy coherence between food security, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in South Africa: A summative content analysis approach</b>]]> Climate change through extreme weather events threatens food security (FS) and the eradication of poverty. Thus, improving FS will require adapting to the impacts of climate change as well as reducing the risks of disasters. However, the nexus between FS, disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) is not always reflected in policies, resulting in fragmented implementation. The purpose of this article is to evaluate if there is coherence in the policies for FS, DRR and CCA in South Africa. A qualitative research design was applied, and data were collected through a summative content analysis on 34 policy and legislative documents and 24 key informant interviews (KII). The study found that there are still incoherencies between the current main policy and legislative documents that address CCA, DRR and FS. This study recommends a review of old policy and legislative frameworks promulgated in the 1990s to incorporate cross-cutting issues such as DRR, CCA and FS. This will enhance and strengthen synergies and interconnections between the three policy areas. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of trends, recurrences, severity and frequency of droughts using standardised precipitation index: Case of OR Tambo District Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa</b>]]> South Africa is susceptible to droughts. However, little documentation exists on drought occurrence in South Africa at national, provincial and municipal administrative boundaries. This study profiles hydrological drought in OR Tambo District Municipality from 1998 to 2018, computing frequency, severity and intensity in order to show areas of high vulnerability. Data used were obtained from South African Weather Services. Standardised precipitation index (SPI) was calculated using the Meteorological Drought Monitor (MDM) software. Results showed a wide variation in monthly precipitation throughout the year. Coastal areas receive higher rainfall than inland municipalities. The study revealed that Nyandeni experienced the highest drought frequency of 62%, Mhlontlo (58%), King Sabatha Dalindyebo Municipality (57%), Ngquza Hill (55%) and Port St Johns Municipality showing the least at 52%. Hydrological drought severity frequency and duration varied between seven days and nine weeks. Drought intensity class exposed the annual average intensity for the five local municipalities represented as follows: KSDM (-0.71), PSJM (-0.99), Ngquza Hill (-0.81), Nyandeni (-0.71) and Mhlontlo (-0.62). The longest drought duration across OR Tambo was experienced in 2014 with durations varying from 3 to 11 weeks across the municipalities. OR Tambo District Municipality is susceptible to hydrological droughts and the extent varies across local municipalities. Results could be used for both adaptation planning and mitigating the impacts of future droughts. In addition, they could assist in guiding allocation of drought relief resources in ways that prioritise drought prone and vulnerable municipality. <![CDATA[<b>The role of public participation in disaster risk reduction initiatives: The case of Katlehong township</b>]]> Disaster risk reduction (DRR) has become a policy priority worldwide and in line with this trend, the South African Disaster Management Act and National Disaster Management Framework prioritise DRR in efforts to build resilient communities with local municipalities being required to develop their own Disaster Management Frameworks. The problem is that public participation is treated as of secondary importance yet international agreements such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) actively promote public participation in DRR. A bottom-up approach is the most effective in ensuring successful DRR initiatives at the local level because communities take ownership of these initiatives and gain a better understanding of their risks. Community-based disaster risk reduction originated in the paradigm shift away from the traditional disaster management approach, moving away from reactive responses in the top-down approach in disaster risk management to more proactive responses. This research study explored approaches used for public participation to ensure successful DRR initiatives in Katlehong township. The study is exploratory and descriptive, having used qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which included questionnaires and interviews. The results gleaned from the data suggested that the role of public participation in DRR initiatives is ineffective in Katlehong township because of the reluctance of stakeholders to participate in DRR. Accordingly, it was recommended that the municipality host stakeholder sessions where stakeholders are informed about the role of the centre and about their own role in DRR. Such stakeholder sessions should assist in resolving issues such as confusion about the stakeholders' roles in DRR and help to obtain buy-in from all the stakeholders. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring strategies for management of disasters associated with illegal gold mining in abandoned mines: A case study of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality</b>]]> Due to many abandoned mines that are not rehabilitated, there will be illegal mining. Although the mining industry and government continue to prevent illegal gold mining in abandoned mines by sealing open shafts, it is not possible to close all the shafts at once due to limited resources. Furthermore, after sealing the shafts, illegal miners often create alternative openings to enter underground workings while little or nothing is being done to stop the surface illegal gold mining. As long as illegal gold mining is there, disasters associated with illegal mining are prevalent. Effective disaster preparedness and response requires a competent strategy. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy that can be used for emergency preparation and rescue efforts associated with disasters caused by abandoned mines and illegal gold mining. In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were held with officials and experts on disaster management from the Council for Geoscience and the City of Ekurhuleni. This study indicates that the safety of illegal miners and communities near abandoned mines depends on several factors including the ability to identify and respond to a disaster. The study identified three interlinked themes within the report as strategies for dealing with disasters related to abandoned mines and illegal gold mining. These themes included emergency countermeasures and short-term measures, roles and responsibilities and communication. These interlinked themes should be validated through further research that involves input from the national disaster response community at large. This study will serve as a model that can be implemented in other areas impacted by illegal mining in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Aligning SDG 13 with South Africa's development agenda: Adaptation policies and institutional frameworks</b>]]> The alignment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with national development agendas has gained traction since the ratification of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in September 2015. This article investigates how South Africa has aligned the climate action SDG (SDG 13) with its national development agenda, with an emphasis on adaptation policies and institutional framework. This comes against a background where the country has been accused of bias towards mitigation policies that were trigged by the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios in 2007, which could have quickened mitigation responses to SDG 13. The data were generated through the use of three key methods, namely key informant interviews (n = 21), an online survey uploaded on an online platform called QuestionPro and a realised sample of 103 completed surveys. Furthermore, relevant policy documents were analysed from a critical discourse perspective. It emerged that South Africa has policies and strategies in place to respond to climate change adaptation within the context of SDG 13. However, while policies are in place, they have not translated to real change on the ground and therefore have not enabled the country to have adequate climate change resilience. The policies have not been translated into concrete actions; there are knowledge gaps in adaptation, poor leadership and lack of clear vision for adaptation and poor coordination. Institutions are scattered, with uneven capacity across sectors and different spheres of government; and weakest at the local government level. It also emerged that mitigation was prioritised for a while over adaptation, with a lack of funding and general awareness. The study recommends that adaptation measures should not be undertaken in isolation, instead, it should be addressed within the context of other programmes such as disaster risk management and sustainable development. <![CDATA[<b>Creating an institutional ecosystem for cash transfer programmes in post-disaster settings: A case from Indonesia</b>]]> Humanitarian and disaster management actors have increasingly adopted cash transfer as an approach to reduce the suffering and vulnerability of the survivors. Cash transfers have also been used as a key instrument in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This article uses an exploratory research strategy to understand how non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governments implement humanitarian cash transfer in a post-disaster setting. This article asks: what are the institutional constraints and opportunities faced by humanitarian emergency responders in ensuring an effective humanitarian cash transfer, and how do humanitarian actors address such institutional constraints? In this article, we have introduced a new conceptual framework, namely the humanitarian and disaster management ecosystem for cash transfer. This framework allows non-governmental actors to restore complex relations amongst state, disaster survivors (citizen), local market economy and civil society. Mixed methods and multistage research strategies were used to collect and analyse primary and secondary data. The authors conclude that by implementing cash transfers in the context of post-tsunamigenic earthquakes and liquefaction hazards, NGOs must co-create an ecosystem of response that aims to restore disaster-affected people's access to cash and basic needs. However, in order to ensure such access to basic needs, the responders must first restore relations between the states and their citizens before linking the at-risk communities with the private sectors to jump-start local livelihoods and market economy. <![CDATA[<b>Transportation infrastructure planning in supporting disaster mitigation: Case study in Mount Gamalama</b>]]> Effective mitigation planning is needed for communities living in areas prone to disasters, including natural calamities such as volcanic eruptions. The development of disaster evacuation routes in disaster-prone areas, including the area where this study was conducted, requires proper planning in transportation infrastructure. Ternate city in Indonesia is a disaster-prone area because of the presence of an active volcanic mountain and an area traversed by the Pacific ring of fire. This area includes a vulnerable zone that has the potential for disasters such as volcanic eruptions, therefore it is important to make mitigation plans to assist the community in evacuating and reducing the impacts of a disaster. Data was obtained from road network observations and by carrying out inventory surveys on the condition of facilities and infrastructure for land transportation and sea transportation in Ternate city, which is located close to Mount Gamalama. A quantitative approach was utilised in this study through transportation modelling using Vissim to analyse the existing traffic conditions and forecasting. The research aims to formulate disaster mitigation measures to reduce the damages caused by the volcanic eruption of Mount Gamalama and identify plans for evacuation routes in disaster-prone areas. The road network performance of Ternate city showed that the city has roads that can be used as evacuation routes for disaster victims. It has good road performance in terms of meeting points and final evacuation points. Efforts to reduce the number of victims when a volcanic eruption occurs, the socialisation of disaster mitigation to the community and the installation of disaster information signs need to be equipped with the preparation of evacuation routes in the form of evacuation gathering points and final evacuation points. This study recommends local governments to develop new evacuation routes in disaster-prone areas and increase evacuation capacity. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of community-based flood early warning system in Malawi</b>]]> One of the major natural hazards the world is facing these days are floods. Malawi has not been spared. Floods have affected the countries' socio-economic developmental plans. River gauges have been installed along major rivers to monitor water levels in a bid to warn communities of imminent flooding. In Malawi, ever since the installation of river gauges no study has been done to assess their effectiveness. This study examines the effectiveness of these river gauges as part of community-based early warning system. The research employs both qualitative and quantitative approach. Questionnaires, interviews, group discussions, document analysis were all used in order to understand the behavioural aspect of communities under study. The current community-based early warning system practices were benchmarked against the following elements: risk knowledge, technical monitoring and warning services, dissemination and communication of warnings and response capability. The study revealed that Malawi has two distinct systems in place: at national level (managed by several government departments) and at community level [managed by Civil Protection Committees (CPCs)]. These systems were installed by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and faith-based organisations. Apparently, no direct link exists between the two. Operational bureaucracy affects the speedy presentation of warning messages at national level. Lack of capacity and necessities affects the operation of the community-based system. Despite the efforts to develop the early warning systems, the failures outweigh the successes. Government needs to provide enough funding for systems sustainability, build capacity of CPCs and install more technologically advanced systems.