Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SAIEE Africa Research Journal]]> vol. 114 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Battery Ageing Analysis Under Dynamic Condition: A Machine Learning Approach</b>]]> Currently, the smart cities, smart vehicles, and smart gadgets will improve the way of living standard. Cloud connectivity of IoT sensed devices will capture real-time data in the cloud which helps to improve the system performance and quick response to queries. Electric Vehicle battery health diagnosis plays an important role in the proper functioning of the battery management system, guarantees safety, and warranty claim. Society 5.0 develops with the advancement in the road, infrastructure, better connectivity, transportation, and options available to purchase. Battery health cannot be measured directly. There are internal and external factors that affect battery health such as State of Charge, model parameters, charging/discharging method, temperature, Depth of Discharge, C-rate, battery chemistry, form factor, thermal management, and load change effect. Battery degrades due to both calendar ageing and cyclic ageing. Artificial Intelligence plays a significant role in Battery management system due to the nonlinear behavior of lithium-ion battery. Prediction of battery health accurately and in due time will reduce the risk of recklessness. Timely maintenance will reduce the risk of fatal accidents. This paper presents different batteries analysis under different discharge voltage and capacity conditions. Different machine learning algorithms such as Neural Network, Modified Support Vector Machine (M-SVM) and Linear Regression are used to predict state of health. The proposed M-SVM performs well with less error for all four-battery discharge data. <![CDATA[<b>Deep Learning Inter-city Road Conditions in East Africa Focusing on Rwanda for Infrastructure Prioritization using Satellite Imagery and Mobile Data</b>]]> Traditional survey methods for gathering information, such as questionnaires and field visits, have long been used in East Africa to evaluate road conditions and prioritize their development. These surveys are time-consuming, expensive, and vulnerable to human error. Road building and maintenance, on the other hand, has long experienced multiple challenges due to a lack of accountability and validation of conventional approaches to determining which areas to prioritize. With the digital revolution, a lot of data is generated daily such as call detail record (CDR), that is likely to contain useful proxy data for spatial mobility distribution across different routes. In this research we focus on satellite imagery data with applications in East Africa and Google Maps suggested inter-city roads to assess road conditions and provide an approach for infrastructure prioritization given mobility patterns between cities. With increased urban population, East African cities have been expanding in multiple directions affecting the overall distribution of residential areas and consequently likely to impact the mobility trends across cities. We introduce a novel approach for infrastructure prioritization using deep learning and big data analytics. We apply deep learning to satellite imagery, to assess road conditions by area and big data analytics to CDR data, to rank which ones could be prioritized for construction given mobility trends. Among deep learning models considered for roads condition classification, EfficientNet-B3 outperforms them and achieves accuracy of 99%. <![CDATA[<b>Weight-Based Clustering Algorithm for Military Vehicles Communication in VANET</b>]]> In vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET), every vehicle node indicates a mobile node and it acts as a transmitter, receiver and router for the delivery of the information. VANET is a subgroup of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) and is related to the dynamic topology. Dynamic network scenarios are more challenging issues as compared to MANET topologies, so finding a suitable algorithm for all VANET applications is the major challenge for the researchers. Routing protocols in VANET are divided into six parts i.e., cluster-based, geocast-based, topology-based, position-based, and broadcast-based. Autonomous robots and unmanned military vehicles (UMVs) become part of the advanced warfare strategy to execute dangerous war field operations and military combat missions. The military vehicles (MVs) transfer information to each other in order to achieve required military tasks collectively. In the proposed work, rhombus shaped area is divided into multiple clusters using a weight-based clustering algorithm for transmitting the event information to the vehicles. Intersection clustering with rhombus shaped area which are very effective for clustering. To choose cluster head (CH), the proposed method has used two weighted metrics, one is real time average speed and the other parameter is degree. This work is useful for choosing right CH in the network. Each vehicle in the same cluster transmits the data to the CH instead of broadcasting it. The simulation has been done in the SUMO and NETSIM simulator, which shows the network performance for the different protocols like Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV), dynamic source routing (DSR) in terms of packet delivery ratio, throughput, delay, overhead transmission, mean and standard deviation.