Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Water SA]]> vol. 40 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Measurement and modelling of evapotranspiration in three fynbos vegetation types</b>]]> Many studies have investigated the water relations of indigenous plants in the fynbos shrublands of the Cape, South Africa. These have mainly focused on understanding the mechanisms by which individual plant species respond to droughts, the frequency and severity of which is expected to increase due to climate change. However, comparatively little information exists on the dynamics of water use by indigenous plants in the region, and, in particular, how water use varies seasonally and between sites. In this study we determined water use by 3 fynbos vegetation types growing at 4 different sites, namely: (i) lowland Atlantis Sand Plain fynbos growing on deep sandy soils, (ii) Kogelberg Sandstone fynbos growing in a riparian zone on deep alluvial soils, (iii) dryland Kogelberg Sandstone fynbos growing on shallow sandy soils at a montane site, and (iv) alluvial Swartland fynbos growing in clayey soils. Evapotranspiration (ET) was quantified at each site during specific periods using a boundary layer scintillometer and energy balance system. A simple dual source model in which the stand ET was calculated as the algebraic sum of outputs from soil evaporation and transpiration sub-models was used to scale up the ET measurements to annual values. The data showed large differences in ET depending on site characteristics and on plant attributes. Dense stands of riparian Sandstone Fynbos had an annual ET of 1 460 mm which exceeded the reference ET of 1 346 mm. Dryland Sandstone Fynbos used only 551 mm of water per year while the Sand Plain Fynbos' annual ET was 1 031 mm, which was similar to the reference ET of 1 059 mm. We conclude that some indigenous plant species use large volumes of water which should be accounted for in, e.g., groundwater recharge estimates, and calculations of incremental water gains after clearing alien invasive plants, among other applications <![CDATA[<b>Priority water research questions for South Africa developed through participatory processes</b>]]> This paper describes a collaborative process of identifying and prioritising current and future water research questions from a wide range of water specialists within South Africa. Over 1 600 questions were collected, reduced in number and prioritised by specialists working in water research and practice. A total of 59 questions were finally proposed as an outcome of the study and are categorised under the themes of change, data, ecosystems, governance, innovation and resources. The questions range in scale, challenge and urgency, and are also aligned with prevailing paradigms in water research. The majority of the questions dealt with relatively short- to medium-term research requirements and most focused on immediate issues such as water supply, service delivery and technical solutions. Formulations of long-term research questions were sparse, partly because some of the principles and methods used in this study were difficult to apply in the South African context, and also because researchers are influenced by addressing what are believed to be the more immediate, short-term water-related challenges in South Africa. This is the first initiative of its kind to produce a comprehensive and inclusive list of research priorities for water in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Validation of remotely-sensed evapotranspiration and NDWI using ground measurements at Riverlands, South Africa</b>]]> Quantification of the water cycle components is key to managing water resources. Remote sensing techniques and products have recently been developed for the estimation of water balance variables. The objective of this study was to test the reliability of LandSAF (Land Surface Analyses Satellite Applications Facility) evapotranspiration (ET) and SPOT-Vegetation Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI) by comparison with ground-based measurements. Evapotranspiration (both daily and 30 min) was successfully estimated with LandSAF products in a flat area dominated by fynbos vegetation (Riverlands, Western Cape) that was representative of the satellite image pixel at 3 km resolution. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 and 0.91 and linear regressions produced R² of 0.72 and 0.75 for 30 min and daily ET, respectively. Ground-measurements of soil water content taken with capacitance sensors at 3 depths were related to NDWI obtained from 10-daily maximum value composites of SPOT-Vegetation images at a resolution of 1 km. Multiple regression models showed that NDWI relates well to soil water content after accounting for precipitation (adjusted R² were 0.71, 0.59 and 0.54 for 10, 40 and 80 cm soil depth, respectively). Changes in NDWI trends in different land covers were detected in 14-year time series using the breaks for additive seasonal and trend (BFAST) methodology. Appropriate usage, awareness of limitations and correct interpretation of remote sensing data can facilitate water management and planning operations. <![CDATA[<b>Managing water pressure for water savings in developing countries</b>]]> Many water utilities, particularly in the developing countries, continue to operate inefficient water distribution systems (WDSs) with a significant amount of water and revenue losses. Various factors, manageable to different extents, contribute to water losses, such as poor infrastructure, high pressures, illegal water use, etc. Whilst the problem of water losses in WDSs is global in scale, solutions need to be tailored to local circumstances due to the various causes of water loss and the mechanisms available to manage them. This paper investigates the potentials of the available pressure management methodologies and their implementation in developing countries, using a case study of a district metering area (DMA) in Kotež-Serbia. The minimal night flow method was applied for assessment of real losses. A particular focus is on assessment of water savings due to reduction of pressures. A total of three methods for estimation of water savings are described and tested against data measured in the DMA under initial and reduced pressures: (i) the method based on Leakage Index (LI) calculations, (ii) the PRESMAC model and (iii) a newly-developed method which is based on the assumption that both leakage and consumption are pressure dependent. The results indicate that the third method leads to the most accurate prediction of the total amount of water savings under reduced pressures, with only 6% difference between measured and estimated volume of saved water <![CDATA[<b>Use of the FAO AquaCrop model in developing sowing guidelines for rainfed maize in Zimbabwe</b>]]> This paper presents a procedure in which the water-driven water productivity model AquaCrop was fine-tuned and validated for maize for the local conditions in Zimbabwe and then applied to develop sowing management options for decision support. Data from experiments of 2 seasons in Harare and from 5 other sites around Zimbabwe were used for the local calibration and validation of AquaCrop. Model parameters such as the reference harvest index (HIo); the canopy growth coefficient (CGC); early canopy decline and normalised biomass water productivity (WPb*) were adjusted during model calibration. Model performance was satisfactory after calibration with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency parameter (EF = 0.81), RMSE = 15% and R² = 0.86 upon validation. To develop sowing guidelines, historical climate series from 13 meteorological stations around Zimbabwe were used to simulate maize yield for 6 consecutive sowing dates determined according to criteria applicable in Zimbabwe. Three varieties and typical shallow and deep soil types were considered in the simulation scenarios. The simulated yield was analysed by an optimisation procedure to select the optimum sowing time that maximised long-term mean yield. Results showed that highest yields depended on the climate of the site (rainfall availability), variety (length of growing cycle) and soil depth (soil water storage capacity). The late variety gave higher mean yields for all sowing dates in the maize belt. Staggered sowing is recommended as a way of combating the effects of rainfall variability and as an answer to labour constraints. <![CDATA[<b>A semi-quantitative survey of macroinvertebrates at selected sites to evaluate the ecosystem health of the Olifants River</b>]]> This study was conducted to evaluate the ecosystem health of the Olifants River by means of semi-quantitative surveys of the macroinvertebrates at 7 selected sites in the catchment. These surveys were performed during the high- and low-flow seasons for 2 consecutive years. Macroinvertebrates were collected by using a net consisting of a 30 cm square steel frame with a sturdy handle, to which a Perlon gauze net with a mesh of 1 mm was attached. Semi-quantitative surveys were done by sampling the vegetation, as well as the substratum, with the net at each site for approximately 15 min. The pH, water temperature and conductivity were measured in situ at each site during the different surveys. Samples were fixed and preserved in 90% ethanol and thereafter sorted, identified up to family level and counted. The specimens were categorised as tolerant, moderately sensitive or highly sensitive, according to the guidelines set by the South African Scoring System Version 5 (SASS5). Although a total of 95 taxa were recovered during this study, only 7 of these taxa were categorised as highly sensitive, it can be concluded that the water of the Olifants River is in a poor state of health as revealed by the macroinvertebrate assemblages. <![CDATA[<b>Reflections on the history of aquatic science in South Africa with particular reference to the period after 1994</b>]]> In this article we reflect on how freshwater research has evolved in South Africa from its beginnings in the early 20th century and how it has altered over time to align with the post-1994 socio-political environment. We situate aquatic science within a research question to explore why aquatic science has developed in the manner it has done, providing some of the broader environment of political change, access to funding, the relevance of particular research themes at different times, and the research agenda of some prominent individual scientists. We do not, therefore, intend merely to itemise what has been achieved over the years. Our intention is to develop an historical context that may help frame research in ways that bridge the cultural divides that persist between the humanities and the sciences. Moreover, although water is crucial to life and livelihoods in a country of scarce water resources, the fields of aquatic study are not generally familiar to the South African public and do not have the high profile they merit. In order to chart important current developments in freshwater research, this article highlights significant aspects of this scientific arena during the earlier part of the 20th century that are pertinent to explaining how and why the current situation, by way of research fields, policy and legislation came into being. The history has been necessitated by, and driven by, regional socio-economic and geopolitical factors as well as developments in the relevant scientific disciplines. After examining how this state of affairs came to be, an overview of the present state of the field is provided. <![CDATA[<b>Characterisation of fracture network and groundwater preferential flow path in the Table Mountain Group (TMG) sandstones, South Africa</b>]]> Characterisation of fractured rocks and evaluation of fracture connectivity are essential for the study of subsurface flow and transport in fractured rock aquifers. In this study, we use a new method to present fracture networks and analyse the connectivity of the fractures, based on the technique of randomly-generated realisations. The application of the method aims to provide more detailed insights into the flow path and dynamics for sustainable utilisation of groundwater in the Table Mountain Group (TMG) aquifers, South Africa. Focusing on a representative wellfield in the TMG, the interpretation and integration of fracture data derived from field measurements, existing geological maps and remotely-sensed imagery, and observed responses of hydraulic tests, led to the development of a conceptual model for fracture network characterisation, which forms the basis of fracture connectivity analysis. The result shows that the a dominant number of the interconnected fractures are in the form of separated fracture clusters (networks) which is considered to be a common connectivity pattern in the TMG rocks and alike. The result also suggests that the connectivity pattern is collectively dependent on such factors as orientation, length, and density of fractures and implies that in a study domain only a small part of the fractures are responsible for flow circulation. <![CDATA[<b>Artificial neural network simulations and experimental results: Removal of trichlorophenol from water using <i>Chromolaena odorata</i> stem</b>]]> A novel adsorbent for trichlorophenol (TCP) has been developed through the treatment of Chromolaena odorata (Odorata) with iodated table salt. Odorata is an abundant and problematic alien plant which we have found to be effective in removing TCP from aqueous solutions. Kinetic batch tests demonstrated that at pH 5, 99% of TCP could be removed from a solution given sufficient adsorbent loading rate and adsorption contact time with Odorata treated with table salt. Adsorption data were found to fit a 2-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) with 10 neurons using the Levenberg-Marquardt (trainlm) algorithm. The ability of Odorata to extract TCP from water was tested using equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of TCP by the new adsorbent is thermally feasible and is governed by a chemical adsorption mechanism. It was established that the experimental data fit the selected adsorption isotherms in the following order: Langmuir > Freundlich > Temkin > Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R). Kinetic modelling was done using intra-particle diffusion, liquid-film, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. With the aid of the normalised standard deviation, the pseudo-second order was found to be the appropriate rate expression for the adsorption data. Liquid-film diffusion was the rate-determining stage of the adsorption process. <![CDATA[<b>The development of GIS-PMWIN and its application for mine-water modelling in the Far West Rand, South Africa</b>]]> A toolbar GIS-PMWIN was developed in ArcGIS 9.3 using the embedded Visual Basic for Application. The purpose was to create a linkage between ArcGIS and PMWIN for groundwater modelling with GIS data in PMWIN. Six function modules are developed, including: (i) set model dimension, (ii) modify the current model, (iii) export the grid specification file, (iv) prepare and export the boundary condition files, (v) set top and bottom elevation of layers, and (vi) prepare and export matrix data. Based on the conceptualisation of the study area, the model dimension, discretisation and many value setting processes can be easily carried out in ArcGIS rather than directly in PMWIN, through these function modules. The grid specification file and other input files can be exported as the PMWIN-compatible files which can be directly loaded to PMWIN for modelling. The linkage can be used with a higher version of PMWIN or ArcGIS. It has been applied to mine water modelling in the Far West Rand of the Witwatersrand basin to simulate dewatering and re-watering conditions and scenarios. The modelling practice is elaborated in detail as a case study, and it is demonstrated that the linkage is efficient and easy to use. <![CDATA[<b>Dimensioning of aerated submerged fixed bed biofilm reactors based on a mathematical biofilm model applied to petrochemical wastewater - the link between theory and practice</b>]]> The description of a biofilm mathematical model application for dimensioning an aerated fixed bed biofilm reactor (ASFBBR) for petrochemical wastewater polishing is presented. A simple one-dimensional model of biofilm, developed by P Harremöes, was chosen for this purpose. The model was calibrated and verified under conditions of oil-refinery effluent. The results of ASFBBR dimensioning on the basis of the biofilm model were compared with the bioreactor dimensions determined by application of load-based design rules for these systems (ATV standards). The differences resulting from two different approaches to ASFBBR design are analysed and discussed. The efficiency of the ASFBBR bioreactors, designed in two different ways, are then compared during dynamic simulation utilising the most advanced one-dimensional biofilm model developed by Wanner and Reichert (1996). <![CDATA[<b>Creating a conceptual hydrological soil response map for the Stevenson Hamilton Research Supersite, Kruger National Park, South Africa</b>]]> The soil water regime is a defining ecosystem service, directly influencing vegetation and animal distribution. Therefore the understanding of hydrological processes is a vital building block in managing natural ecosystems. Soils contain morphological indicators of the water flow paths and rates in the soil profile, which are expressed as 'conceptual hydrological soil responses' (CHSR's). CHSR's can greatly aid in the understanding of hydrology within a landscape and catchment. Therefore a soil map could improve hydrological assessments by providing both the position and area of CHSR's. Conventional soil mapping is a tedious process, which limits the application of soil maps in hydrological studies. The use of a digital soil mapping (DSM) approach to soil mapping can speed up the mapping process and thereby extend soil map use in the field of hydrology. This research uses an expert-knowledge DSM approach to create a soil map for Stevenson Hamilton Research Supersite within the Kruger National Park, South Africa. One hundred and thirteen soil observations were made in the 4 001 ha area. Fifty-four of these observations were pre-determined by smart sampling and conditioned Latin hypercube sampling. These observations were used to determine soil distribution rules, from which the soil map was created in SoLIM. The map was validated by the remaining 59 observations. The soil map achieved an overall accuracy of 73%. The soil map units were converted to conceptual hydrological soil response units (CHSRUs), providing the size and position of the CHSRUs. Such input could potentially be used in hydrological modelling of the site. <![CDATA[<b>Class frequency distribution for a surface raw water quality index in the Vaal Basin</b>]]> A harmonised in-stream water quality guideline was constructed to develop a water quality index for the Upper and Middle Vaal Water Management Areas, in the Vaal basin of South Africa. The study area consisted of 12 water quality monitoring points; V1, S1, B1, S4, K9, T1, R2, L1, V7, V9, V12, and V17. These points are part of a Water Board's extensive catchment monitoring network but were re-labelled for this paper. The harmonised guideline was made up of 5 classes for NH4+ Cl-, EC, DO, pH, F-, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) against in-stream water quality objectives for ideal catchment background limits. Ideal catchment background values for Vaal Dam sub-catchment represented Class 1 (best quality water), while those for Vaal Barrage, Blesbok/Suikerbosrand Rivers and Klip River represented Classes 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Values above those of Klip River ideal catchment background represented Class 5. For each monitoring point, secondary raw data for the 9 parameters were cubic-interpolated to 2 526 days from 1 January 2003 to 30 November 2009 (7 years). The IF-THEN-ELSE function then sub-classified the data from 1 to 5 while the daily index was calculated as a median of that day's sub-classes. Histograms were constructed in order to distribute the indices among the 5 classes of the harmonised guideline. Points V1 and S1 were ranked as best quality water (Class 1), with percentage class frequencies of 91% and 60%, respectively. L1 ranked Class 3 (34%) while V7 (54%), V9 (53%), V12 (66%) and V17 (46%) ranked poorly as Class 4. B1 (76%), S4 (53%), K9 (41%), T1 (53%) and R2 (61%) ranked as worst quality (Class 5). The harmonised in-stream water quality guideline resulted in class frequency distributions. The surface raw water quality index system managed to compare quality variation among the 12 points which were located in different sub-catchments of the study area. These results provided a basis to trade pollution among upstream-downstream users, over a timeframe of 7 years. Models could consequently be developed to reflect, for example, quality-sensitive differential tariffs, among other index uses. The indices could also be incorporated into potable water treatment cost models in order for the costs to reflect raw water quality variability. <![CDATA[<b>Water quality of Flag Boshielo Dam, Olifants River, South Africa: Historical trends and the impact of drought</b>]]> Increasing demands for water, discharge of effluents, and variable rainfall have a negative impact on water quality in the Olifants River. Crocodile and fish mortalities attributed to pansteatitis, in Loskop Dam and downstream in the Kruger National Park (KNP), have highlighted the serious effects these impacts are having on aquatic ecosystems. Flag Boshielo Dam is a reservoir on the Olifants River, located between Loskop Dam and the KNP. It has the largest crocodile population outside of the KNP, and pansteatitis has not been reported in fish or crocodiles to date. This study evaluated comparative water quality parameters concurrent to a similar study undertaken at Loskop Dam to establish possible environmental drivers of pansteatitis. Long-term monitoring data collected by the Department of Water Affairs were analysed for trends using a Seasonal-Kendall trend test. Short-term monitoring showed that water quality in Flag Boshielo Dam was of a good standard for ecosystem health. Concentrations of dissolved Cu, Se, V and Zn were always below instrument detection limits, and Al, Fe and Mn were mostly within guideline levels for ecosystem health. A severe drought occurred between November 2002 and December 2005. Long-term monitoring showed that water quality during the drought deteriorated, with high levels of dissolved salts, especially K, Na, Cl, F, and total alkalinity. Following the drought, dissolved salt concentrations dropped, and there was a brief flush of inorganic N and P. However, between 1998 and 2011, inorganic N showed a significant decreasing trend into the oligotrophic range, while inorganic P remained in the oligo- to mesotrophic range. The inorganic N to inorganic P ratio of 5.4 after the drought was indicative of N limitation, and the phytoplankton assemblage was dominated by nitrogen-fixing species, especially Cylindrospermopsis sp. In contrast, further upstream, Loskop Dam has undergone increasing eutrophication, has frequent blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa and Ceratium hirundinella, and concentrations of Al, Fe and Mn periodically exceed guideline levels. The difference in trophic state, phytoplankton assemblage and levels of productivity between these two reservoirs may provide insights into the aetiology of pansteatitis, which is frequently associated with dietary causes. <![CDATA[<b>Finite difference simulation of biological chromium (VI) reduction in aquifer media columns</b>]]> A mechanistic mathematical model was developed that successfully traced the Cr(VI) concentration profiles inside porous aquifer media columns. The model was thereafter used to calculate Cr(VI) removal rate for a range of Cr(VI) loadings. Internal concentration profiles were modelled against data collected from intermediate sample ports along the length of the test columns. For the first time, the performance of a simulated barrier was evaluated internally in porous media using a finite difference approach. Parameters in the model were optimised at transient-state and under near steady-state conditions with respect to biomass and effluent Cr(VI) concentration respectively. The best fitting model from this study followed non-competitive inhibition kinetics for Cr(VI) removal with the best fitting steady-state parameters: Cr(VI) reduction rate coefficient, k = 5.2x10(8) l-mg"¹-h"¹; Cr(VI) threshold inhibition concentration, C = 50 mg-l-1; and a semi-empirical reaction order, n = 2. The model results showed that post-barrier infusion of biomass into the clean aquifer downstream of the barrier could be limited by depletion of the substrates within the barrier. The model when fully developed will be used in desktop evaluation of proposed in situ biological barrier systems before implementation in actual aquifer systems. <![CDATA[<b>Shear rheological properties of fresh human faeces with different moisture content</b>]]> Dry sanitation requires the handling of faeces, which vary in age and degree of transformation. Rheological data are necessary to support the design of equipment to handle faeces. The rheological properties of fresh human faeces were measured using a variable-speed rotational rheometer. Samples were further tested for moisture content, total solids, volatile content, and ash content. Faecal samples were found to have a yield stress; there was a decrease in apparent viscosity with increasing shear rate. For any given shear rate, higher apparent viscosities are associated with lower moisture contents. Across a range of water contents of 58.5% to 88.7%, apparent viscosities of 27 Pa-s to 2 014 Pa-s were measured at a shear rate of 1 s-1. During constant shear tests, the apparent viscosity of all faeces was found to decrease asymptotically, where the minimum apparent viscosity value increased with decreasing moisture content. A structural recovery test indicates that human faeces are thixotropic in behaviour, where the viscosity permanently decreases to 0.5% of the initial value after a 20 s exposure to a shear rate of 10 s-1. A linear relationship between viscosity and temperature was found, with a recorded 30.6% decrease in viscosity for a 35.6 °C increase in temperature from 13.4°C. <![CDATA[<b>An institutional approach for developing South African inland freshwater fisheries for improved food security and rural livelihoods</b>]]> South Africa has over 4 700 storage dams, about 700 of which are owned and controlled by Government. Public dams were primarily constructed for domestic, irrigation and industrial water supply. Over time secondary uses for recreation and tourism have been established. Many of the public dams have been stocked with indigenous and alien fish species, predominantly for recreational angling. Given widespread rural unemployment, poverty and undernourishment, the development of inland fisheries on public dams and natural water bodies has much potential for improving rural livelihoods and food security. There is also potential for inclusion of communities in other value chains linked to economic activities around public dams such as recreational fishing and tourism. The public dams and natural water bodies fall under various implicit institutional arrangements depending on primary and secondary activities on a given water body. These determine the existing formal and informal power dynamics and related decision-making arrangements and controls under current use-right practices. This paper analyses the existing property rights that determine access, co-management options and governance arrangements necessary to promote sustainable development of inland fisheries in South Africa. Attention needs to be given to the various ways of explicit definition and enforcement of property and access rights if communities are to realise the potential benefits from use of public dams for fisheries and other economic activities. Achieving this will require a developmental approach based on principles of inclusive, representative, equitable, accountable and effective governance. Leadership by the line agency -Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries - will be critical for success of such an initiative. <![CDATA[<b>Riparian trees as common denominators across the river flow spectrum: are ecophysiological methods useful tools in environmental flow assessments?</b>]]> Riparian tree species, growing under different conditions of water availability, can adapt their physiology to maximise their survival chances. Rivers in South Africa may flow perennially, seasonally or ephemerally (episodically). Different riparian species are adapted to survive under each of these different flow regimes by making use of surface, ground, soil, rainwater, or some combination of these. These water sources are available to varying degrees, depending on local climatic, hydrological, geohydrological and geomorphological conditions. This paper tests physiological differences among trees along rivers with varying flow regimes. In this study 3 parameters were selected and tested, namely wood density, specific leaf area and water use efficiency through stable carbon isotope measurements. All three parameters are quick, simple and cheap to determine and as such their value for standard-procedure river monitoring programmes or environmental flow requirement procedures was tested. Acacia erioloba is an arid-adapted riparian tree along the ephemeral Kuiseb (Namibia) and Kuruman (South Africa) Rivers that shows decreasing specific leaf area and increasing wood density correlating with deeper groundwater levels. Intraspecific changes for specific leaf area and carbon isotope values were demonstrated for Acacia mellifera and Croton gratissimus at varying distances from the active channel of the seasonal Mokolo River (South Africa). No significant differences in physiology were noted for Salix mucronata, Brabejum stellatifolium and Metrosideros angustifolia, growing along the perennial Molenaars and Sanddrifskloof Rivers (South Africa) under reduced flow conditions. Only the measurement of specific leaf area recurrently showed that significant physiological differences for trees occurred along rivers of the drier flow regime spectrum (seasonal and ephemeral). As such, this physiological measurement may be a valuable indicator for water stress, while the other measurements might provide more conclusive results if a larger sampling size were used. Specific leaf area, in conjunction with other carefully picked water stress measurement methods, could be considered for monitoring programmes during environmental flow assessments, river health monitoring exercises and restoration projects. This would be particularly valuable in rivers without permanent flow, where there is little species-specific knowledge and where current monitoring methods are unsuited. <![CDATA[<b>Application of a basic monitoring strategy for <i>Cryptosporidium</i> and <i>Giardia</i> in drinking water</b>]]> Despite the health risks associated with exposure to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, there is no uniform approach to monitoring these protozoan parasites across the world. In the present study, a strategy for monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water was developed in an effort to ensure that the risk of exposure to these organisms and the risks of non-compliance to guidelines are reduced. The methodology developed will be applicable to all water supply systems irrespective of size and complexity of the purification works. It is based on monitoring procedures proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Drinking Water Inspectorate, Australia and New Zealand, as well as the risk-based procedure followed by Northern Ireland. The monitoring strategy developed represents a preventative approach for proactively monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in drinking water. The strategy consists of 10 steps: (i) assessment of the monitoring requirements, (ii) description and characterisation of the source water types, (iii) abstraction of source water, (iv) assessment of the water purification plant, (v) water quality monitoring, (vi) cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreak, (vii) risk assessment, (viii) sample collection and laboratory processing, (ix) data evaluation, interpretation and storage, (x) process evaluation and review. Proper implementation of this protocol can contribute to the protection of drinking water consumers by identifying high-risk source water, identifying areas of improvement within the water treatment system, and also preventing further faecal pollution in the catchments. The protocol can also be integrated into the Water Safety Plans to optimise compliance. Furthermore, this methodology has a potential to contribute to Blue Drop certification as it should form part of the incident management protocols which are a requirement of Water Safety Plan implementation. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of the pro-inflammatory activity of water sampled from major water treatment facilities in the greater Pretoria region</b>]]> Notwithstanding direct detection of microbial/viral pathogens or their associated toxins, the quality of drinking water may also be evaluated according to its pro-inflammatory potential. In this latter setting, contamination with pathogens or their products is determined according to the magnitude of activation of blood-derived immune/inflammatory cells following exposure to test water samples in vitro, usually by monitoring the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The primary objective of the current study was to apply this procedure to evaluate the pro-inflammatory potential of water sampled at entry, as well as at various stages of treatment, from 3 major water treatment facilities in the greater Pretoria region, viz., the Daspoort, Hartbeespoort, and Rietvlei Water Treatment Facilities. Control water samples included domestic tap water, bottled water from a commercial source, and distilled water. Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were isolated from the blood of healthy, adult, human volunteers (n=3), enumerated, suspended in tissue culture medium RPMI 1640 containing antibiotics at a concentration of 1x10(6)/mℓ, and exposed to the various water samples (10%) for 18 h at 37°C. Following incubation, the cell-free supernatants were assayed for the cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), using a quantitative, sandwich, enzyme immunoassay procedure. The mean values for the untreated control system and for a positive control system exposed to bacterial endotoxin (120 ng/mℓ) were 153.5 ±17 and 1 561 ±30 pg/mℓ, respectively (p= 0.03). The production of IL-6 was unaffected following exposure of MNL to the control water samples. However, inlet water sampled from all three facilities, especially Hartbeespoort, resulted in significant activation of production of IL-6 by MNL, which declined with progressive treatment, consistent with removal of pro-inflammatory contaminants. Surprisingly, however, a rebound in pro-inflammatory activity was evident in outlet water sampled from Hartbeespoort. In conclusion, the results of the current study appear to support the efficiency of water treatment procedures at the Daspoort and Rietvlei Treatment Facilities, while confirming the usefulness of IL-6-based assays as adjuncts to conventional water quality testing procedures. <![CDATA[<b>The Belmont Valley integrated algae pond system in retrospect</b>]]> Integrated Algae Pond Systems (IAPS) are a derivation of the Oswald-designed Algal Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems (AIWPS*) and combine the use of anaerobic and aerobic bioprocesses to effect sewage treatment. IAPS technology was introduced to South Africa in 1996 and a pilot plant designed and commissioned at the Belmont Valley WWTW in Grahamstown. The system has been in continual use since implementation, and affords secondarily treated water for reclamation according to its design specifications, which most closely resemble those of the AIWPS Advanced Secondary Process. In this paper IAPS as a municipal sewage treatment technology is re-examined in relation to design and operation, the underpinning biochemistry of nutrient removal by algae is described, and a retrospective is provided on the demonstration system at the Belmont Valley WWTW. In addition to presenting details of the process flow, several shortcomings and/or oversights are highlighted and, in particular, the need for an appropriate tertiary treatment component. However, despite the use of IAPS for sewage treatment in many countries, this technology is still viewed with some scepticism. Thus, a major purpose of this overview is to provide a synthesis of available information on IAPS and an appraisal of its use for municipal sewage treatment.