Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Commercii]]> vol. 21 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Efficacy of plastic shopping bag tax as a governance tool: Lessons for South Africa from Irish and Danish success stories</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The negative environmental effects of single-use plastic shopping bags have prompted national governments to implement interventions to curtail their use. Plastic bag tax is gaining prominence as a single-use plastic shopping bag governance tool in several jurisdictions. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of plastic shopping bag tax as a governance tool in South Africa by drawing lessons from Ireland and Denmark success stories. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: This study contributes to the evolving debate on managing plastic bag litter with the objective of proffering long-term plastic bag litter management strategies. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A quantitative case study methodology was employed in this study. South Africa, Ireland and Denmark qualified as units of analysis. A case study was appropriate for this study as it allowed for an in-depth, context specific analysis of the implementation of plastic bag tax. Document analysis in form of government and environmental reports was used to collected data. Thematic content analysis, which employed an inductive approach was used to analyse data. MAIN FINDINGS: Stakeholder acceptance, importance of a baseline assessment, proper tax governance, the necessity of continuously monitoring and enforcing the tax emerged as critical success factors. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Consumer education, regular reviews, extended producer responsibility tax and improved transparency in the use of tax revenue are recommended as best practices to promote effective plastic bag tax implementation. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Effectiveness of the plastic bag tax should be assessed based on changes on volumes of plastic bag consumed, environmental quality and acceptance of the tax by key stakeholders such as manufacturers, retailers and consumers. Promotion of a circular economy in which discarded plastic bags can be reused for energy generation is recommended as a sustainable option. <![CDATA[<b>Identifying the determinants of outward foreign direct investment decisions of South African retail enterprises investing into Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Whilst Africa is a lucrative market with many opportunities for all types of retailers, expanding into the continent is not without its own challenges. Therefore, foreign direct investors have to make strategic decisions. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main aim of this article was to identify the determinants of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions of five major South African retail enterprises with a significant FDI footprint in Africa. MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY: Although there has been a robust expansion in the South African retail sector outward FDI and that of Africa in general, the empirical literature on retail sector outward FDI from the perspective of African countries is sparse. In fact, most of the retail sector outward FDI research in existence has been focussed on developed countries, with little attention being paid to developing countries. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This research article stems from a study conducted by Chizema, which investigated the motivation of South African retailers who are making inroads into the rest of Africa. By using a mixed-method research technique, this article identifies the determinants of outward FDI decisions of five major South African retailers with a substantial FDI footprint in Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: For all the retailers considered in this article, the most significant push determinants were identified as market-seeking, efficiency-seeking and ownership advantages. Similarly, the most significant pull determinants were identified as market size, political and macro-economic stability, profitability and growth prospects, and trade and investment openness. The results also revealed that the risk of investing in the African retail sector is commonly centred on the lack of infrastructure, political uncertainty and bureaucratic procedures PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The knowledge emanating from this article may assist in shaping the outward FDI decisions of prospective retail and other multinational enterprises (MNEs) contemplating to invest in Africa. It may also assist in influencing the design and implementation of policies aimed at attracting FDI in the African continent. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This article seeks to contribute to the knowledge base and to inspire debate on the retail sector outward FDI from the perspective of African countries. <![CDATA[<b>Corporate governance disclosures in the annual reports of Nigerian banks</b>]]> ORIENTATI ON: Several breaches continue to occur in Nigeria's banking sector even with the litany of regulation put in place. These regulations require that banks disclose certain types of information, for accountability and transparency RESEARCH PURPOSE: To determine the extent of corporate governance disclosures in annual reports of Nigerian banks taking into cognisance the provisions of laws and codes applicable to Nigerian banks as well as acclaimed national codes and international guiding principles on corporate governance MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Disclosures of corporate governance practices in the annual reports are a subtle indication of the level of compliance with provisions of relevant laws and codes. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH, AND METHOD: The study employed the qualitative content analysis that included a checklist based on the provisions of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) code and acclaimed national codes and guiding principles to test the level of compliance disclosed by commercial banks in their annual reports. MAIN FINDINGS: The results show substantial corporate governance disclosures by all the banks except for two corporate governance pillar scores rights and functions of shareholders and engagement with shareholders' associations that received little or no attention in the annual reports of the assessed banks PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Disclosures do not necessarily imply that preparers comply with the spirit of corporate governance. A governance code that is based on ethics as a foundation should be considered rather than the current comply or else regime. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The article identifies the gap that the comply or else regimes do not necessarily succeed as preparers of report tend to tick the box to comply with the regulation rather than buying into the spirit of that regulation. <![CDATA[<b>The trend and composition of payout methods over a period of tax reform: Evidence from JSE-listed companies</b>]]> ORIENTATION: This study investigated the trend and composition of total payout distributed by companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) over a period of tax reform. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate whether the payout methods post-2012, after the introduction of dividends tax, differed from pre-2012. Motivation for the study: Tax-related dividend literature predominantly explores the implications of differential taxes on dividends and of capital gains on dividends with a limited focus on total payout. The setting to investigate the total payout of JSE-listed companies is also unique as a result of South African tax reform. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Descriptive statistics and a mixed-model analysis of variance were employed to describe the payout methods (dividends, capital distributions, additional shares and share repurchases) in rand value and frequency of election. The population comprised of 116 JSE-listed companies for the financial reporting periods 2006-2018. MAIN FINDINGS: Ordinary dividends increased post-2012 whilst other payout, except for additional shares, decreased post-2012. An increase in scrip dividends (additional shares with a cash alternative) post-2012 confers flexibility to shareholders to manage their own financial needs, including tax considerations. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The policy implication is that the increasing use of ordinary dividends as a payout method could inform future government initiatives to generate revenue or provide tax incentives for saving. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Submitted as the first article to investigate total payout of JSE-listed companies over a period of tax reform to provide evidence that payout policies adjusted based on the differential tax on dividends and capital gains. <![CDATA[<b>Managerial political competencies and the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Research on managerial political competencies has progressed well in other organisational setups, but not so much in entrepreneurial ventures, yet literature documents the pivotal role played by political competencies in the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study intended to find the impact of managerial political competencies on the performance of SMEs as measured by both innovation and return on investment (ROI) in SMEs in the Gauteng province of South Africa MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Regardless of the contribution made by SMEs in contemporary economies, and the fundamental role managerial political competencies play in sustaining these enterprises, no known study has been conducted amongst SMEs in South Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This study employed an ex post facto correlational design that adopted a purely quantitative approach. The sample comprised 211 owners or managers in Gauteng province. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation were used for data analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: Owners or managers were found to be politically competent in the dimensions of social astuteness and networking abilities, but did not fare so well on the apparent sincerity and interpersonal influence dimensions. It was also established that SMEs performed relatively better in terms of innovation compared to ROI, although ROI had greater potential to respond to improvements in the quality of managerial political competencies when compared to innovation. There was a statistically significant relationship between managerial political competencies and SME performance as measured by innovation and ROI. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: It is recommended that managerial political competencies be augmented internally through deliberate human resource development initiatives in order to leverage on them. It is also recommended that support structures and agencies that assist owners or managers in competency development be augmented at both provincial and government levels. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study attempts to fill the gap between research and practice regarding managerial political competencies in SMEs in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Strategic positioning of a motorcycle manufacturer within the Fourth Industrial Revolution</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Whilst the South African motorcycle industry faces a declining market, an additional challenge remains - the movement of the market into the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), calling for strategic amendments RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to investigate and analyse the current strategies of a specific manufacturer, with the aim of establishing a strategic positioning suitable for the 4IR to gain a competitive advantage MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Acquired knowledge resulted in the establishment of various suggestions and recommendations, benefitting the manufacturer to gain a competitive advantage in the 4IR and thus strengthening its strategic positioning. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Following an interpretive paradigm, a qualitative approach was used, allowing for in-depth analysis of 29 semi-structured interviews at five different dealerships and the regional head office in South Africa. Interviewees were selected using purposive and convenience sampling for the initial contact with the individual dealerships and regional head office of the motorcycle manufacturer. Thereafter, further interviewees were acquired based on the study requirements. Content analysis was applied to analyse the data. MAIN FINDINGS: Some interviewees were less acquainted with the strategy and positioning of the manufacturer. Strong customer engagement strategies are necessary whilst targeting new markets PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Additional training is required, ensuring the equal acquisition of knowledge amongst employees. The introduction of technologies and the 4IR to customers is required to grow the market. New markets need to be identified and analysed to ensure efficient targeting. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Whilst South Africa addresses the 4IR differently to Europe; this study's focus provides insights for the specific manufacturer to accurately conquer the changing environment. <![CDATA[<b>Governance in banks using not-for-profit organisations to deliver their corporate social responsibility</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Little exists in academic literature on the governance framework underlying the relationship between not-for-profit organisations (NPOs) delivering corporate social responsibility (CSR) on behalf of donors. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine community value created by four leading South African retail banks through their CSR initiatives implemented by NPOs. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: This study was motivated by the need to assess banks' public disclosure of their CSR efforts in terms of community upliftment. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory approach was adopted, using content analysis of CSR projects and bank NPOs, which have been given as public disclosure on the banks' websites. Purposeful, one-on-one, interviews were then undertaken with NPOs and the CSR community recipients and content analysis was again used to identify key themes. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings of this study indicate that banks do not adopt standardised reporting to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) and therefore the measure of success for community upliftment is impossible to gauge PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: This study proposes a need for the development of a standardised CSR measurement framework for use by the JSE. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study highlighted the critical role of CSR governance in creating community upliftment. <![CDATA[<b>The influence of electronic word-of-mouth adoption on brand love amongst Generation <i>Z</i> consumers</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The study investigated the influence of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) adoption on brand love amongst Generation Z consumers in South Africa that will enable marketers to improve their brand love strategies amongst this generation RESEARCH PURPOSE: The study used the information adoption model to investigate the impact of eWOM adoption on brand love amongst Generation Z consumers MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: This study adds to the limited body of literature on Generation Z consumers in emerging markets. It examines drivers of online purchase decisions of Generation Z consumers, such as eWOM adoption and brand love. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The study followed a descriptive quantitative approach. Data were obtained through structured questionnaires from Generation Z consumers. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select the sample. Data were captured, coded and cleaned using Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 25, yielding 284 usable questionnaires. Apart from descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the validity of the constructs obtained from previously developed scales through convergent and discriminant validity. The reliability of the constructs was tested using Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability. The conceptual model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling and the hypotheses were analysed using path modelling in Analysis of moment structures (AMOS) version 25. MAIN FINDINGS: The results revealed a positive, weak relationship between eWOM adoption and brand love. Argument quality had a strong, positive influence on information usefulness, which in turn, had a strong, positive influence on eWOM adoption PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Marketers can use the findings of this study to target Generation Z consumers in emerging markets more effectively by sharing quality, authentic content through Facebook and Instagram to encourage eWOM adoption and somewhat affect brand love. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study adds to the limited body of knowledge on Generation Z consumers in emerging markets. It elucidates how marketers can encourage eWOM adoption amongst this generation, thereby leading to brand love, to some extent. <![CDATA[<b>Talent retention strategies: An exploratory study within the consulting industry in Gauteng province, South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The consultancy industry globally has witnessed a paradigm shift over the past few years in terms of its nature, employee turnover and attraction and retention of talent. These changes have posed a challenge because the industry struggles to attain commitment from their employees. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To explore strategies to retain talent whilst ensuring performance in a consulting firm based in the south of Johannesburg, Gauteng province, South Africa. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Currently there is limited research on strategies to retain talent and enhance employee performance within the consultancy industry in South Africa. Exploring the experiences and views of consultants can assist consulting firms to develop effective retention strategies to retain talent whilst enhancing employee performance. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A qualitative research method was adopted in this study. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather data. Thematic analysis was employed to identify patterns of meaning across the data set. Data coding was conducted on the themes that were identified. Different categories and subcategories were identified and analysed to determine themes and findings. Data collected were analysed and interpreted for meaningful conclusions. A non-probability sampling procedure was employed using purposive sampling. The sample included men and women, between 25 and 60 years of age, with a minimum of 5 years' experience as consultants in the consultancy industry in Gauteng. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings show the following strategies to retain consultants in the consulting industry: (1) rewards, (2) work-life balance, (3) performance management system, (4) improved training and development, (5) employee recognition and (6) career progression opportunities PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings of this study can be used by human capital managers to develop reward systems that will enhance employee performance and retain consultants. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study provided important practical guidelines that could be used by consulting firms to develop and implement retention strategy valued by consultants. <![CDATA[<b>Establishing a job-crafting and intrapreneurial link: Towards new approaches to innovative work</b>]]> ORIENTATION: This research study focuses on establishing a link between job crafting and landmark studies on intrapreneurship. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical overview of intrapreneurship, intrapreneurial orientation and job crafting, and to explore theoretical linkages between these areas of enquiry. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: There is currently a dearth of research studies that explore the link between job crafting and intrapreneurial behaviours in existing organisations in the form of intrapreneurial orientation. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The study is presented as a conceptual paper in the form of a qualitative, theoretical study, employing a model-building approach. A deductive research approach is followed, and a narrative review methodology is employed. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings of this study from a literature search acknowledge the contributions of job crafting and intrapreneurial research within the management sciences, and we remain cognisant of the organisational implications of each, which have, to date, focused on the organisation, rather than the individual. With this in mind, we suggest that job crafting and intrapreneurial behaviours are empirically researched to validate the recommendations made. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: This study will help to establish the type of job-crafting interventions and job-crafting strategies needed to promote intrapreneurial behaviours in practice. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study provides noteworthy insights, which include the suggestion that employees with a forward-looking disposition will engage in job crafting, with a focus on intrapreneurial behaviour. Furthermore, the study fills a void left in the current body of knowledge. <![CDATA[<b>Investigating the direct costs of business rescue</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The direct costs associated with business rescue proceedings are essential to the decision-making of directors, business rescue practitioners and other affected parties. Business rescue has come under criticism for being a costly procedure, but what constitutes these costs and how they are defined remain largely unknown RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and measure the direct costs of business rescue proceedings in South Africa. This research also explored the relationship between direct costs and the following variables: firm size and duration of business rescue proceedings MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Despite the significance of understanding reorganisation costs, astonishingly little is know about the size and determinants of the direct costs of business rescue in the South African context. Business rescue practitioners fees and other related expenses have been blamed for worsening business rescue proceedings' reputation. However, researchers have not yet determined the nature or quantum of such costs. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This study employed an exploratory sequential mixed-method research design. The first phase comprised semi-structured interviews supplemented by a closed card sort with 14 business rescue practitioners. The first phase resulted in direct cost categories and components used to develop a survey instrument. The survey was administered in the second phase and measured the direct costs for 19 South African firms previously under business rescue. MAIN FINDINGS: The first phase results show that the direct costs of business rescue consist of four categories: the basic remuneration of the business rescue practitioner, contingency fees, professional fee disbursements and general disbursements. Because of the small sample size, the results of the second phase were inconclusive PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: This research contributes to the management body of knowledge by providing business rescue practitioners, the management of distressed companies, and affected parties, especially creditors with a starting point into understanding the direct costs of business rescue proceedings. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This is the first study of its kind, to quantitatively measure the direct costs of business rescue in the South African context. Therefore, the results of the study may offer affected parties some insight and clarity regarding the nature of the direct costs of business rescue. <![CDATA[<b>South African bonds as an alternative diversification asset for developed bond markets</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Globalisation of financial markets has made it progressively more difficult for effective diversification to exist, and as a result portfolio managers are in need of alternative diversification opportunities. RESEARCH PURPOSE: Developed financial markets are more likely to be integrated with one another, and better diversification opportunities may be found in emerging markets. RESEARCH MOTIVATION: Limited research focuses on bond market diversification, and most research does not include South Africa as a diversification destination. This research examines whether developed bond market investors could use South African bonds to diversify their portfolios. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This article follows a quantitative research design with a causal-comparative or quasi-experimental approach. The econometric method used was primarily co-integration analysis establishing whether diversification opportunities exist between the South African bond market and five developed bond markets. MAIN FINDINGS: Overall, the findings showed that there was no co-integrating relationship between the South African bond market and developed bond markets, indicating that diversification may be possible in the long term. Furthermore, it was found that the South African bonds were less affected by short-term shocks compared with the developed market bonds. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study indicated that South African bonds can be used to diversify a developed bond market investors portfolio. Developed bond market traders and fund managers should therefore consider holding South African bonds as a means of reducing their portfolio's overall risk. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Holding South African bonds can be used to preserve a portfolio's long-term wealth. Additionally, the resistance of South African bonds to short-run shocks also provides investors with a cushion against sudden and unexpected crises. <![CDATA[<b>Self-employment through ride-hailing: Drivers' experiences in Johannesburg, South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Ride-hailing services have gained popularity in South Africa because of their ability to provide a reliable alternative to traditional modes of transport. However, little is known about ride-hailing drivers. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the ride-hailing drivers' job satisfaction levels and the challenges they experienced. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: This study was motivated by the lack of scholarly information on the experiences of drivers involved in ride-hailing in the context of South Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This study adopted a pragmatic approach through a mixed-method, survey-based design. Fifty-three ride-hailing drivers were randomly interviewed in Johannesburg, South Africa, using a pre-designed and piloted questionnaire. Data were analysed using methods of descriptive interpretation and inductive thematic analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: A descriptive statistical analysis showed that most ride-hailing drivers provide the service to earn their primary income. Furthermore, a thematic analysis found that ride-hailing drivers felt unsafe providing these services because of the violence they experienced from minibus taxi operators in the region. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: In a country plagued by unemployment, the development of small businesses is an important income-generating opportunity for many. To further develop the employment potential of the growing ride-hailing industry, governments at various levels should provide greater support and safety measures for ride-hailing drivers. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes a unique dataset in exploring ride-hailing drivers' self-employment, job satisfaction and challenges in Johannesburg, South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the determinants of an organisational talent culture for a Botswanan local government institution</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Talented employees are essential for the service performance of local government institutions. Conducive organisational talent cultures can enable talent to deliver value-based services that meet public expectations. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To explore the determinants of an organisational talent culture for a Botswanan local government institution. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Research on organisational talent culture determinants in Botswana local government institutions is lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This research adopted a quantitative, cross-sectional research design. A self-developed questionnaire was used to measure the organisational talent culture determinants of a Botswana government institution (N = 405). The data was analysed using SPSS Statistics software. Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analyses, linear regression analyses and multivariate analysis of variances (MANOVAs) were applied to the data. MAIN FINDINGS: The factor analyses provided support for six organisational talent culture determinants: leadership talent mindset, success orientation and strategic intent, institutional values, dynamic operational capabilities, administrative governance and general people management practices. The results showed a weak application of all the organisational talent culture determinants. Leadership talent mindset was a significant predictor of organisational talent culture determinants. Significant differences exist between selected organisational culture dimensions based on the demographic characteristics of the participants PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The vital role of public sector leadership in enabling a conducive organisational talent culture is emphasised. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This research contributed to the limited empirical knowledge on organisational talent culture determinants in public sector institutions. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of risk factors on South African consumers' attitude towards online shopping</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The advances in technology have resulted in an increasing number of people choosing to shop online, globally. Despite the growing number of those shopping online and online retailers, most customers continue to avoid shopping online. This could be because of risks inherent in online shopping that have resulted in some consumers opting not to shop online RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main aim of the research study is to identify the risks influencing consumers' attitude towards online purchases MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The study was driven by the need to determine the risks associated with online shopping that influence whether consumers will shop online or not. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A survey, using the non-probability convenience sampling method, was used to reach respondents (207 consumers in South Africa who visited two shopping malls) in Gauteng, South Africa. Data were collected from consumers at the two shopping malls from March 2019 to April 2019. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the conceptual model for the study. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that product risk and privacy risk influence consumer attitude in online shopping positively and that delivery risk does not to have a great influence on attitude towards online shopping. The attitude towards online shopping was also found to positively influence their intention to shop online PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The practical implications for this study would be that retail owners and marketers would understand and manage product and privacy as risks that inhibit consumers from shopping online. Retailers should formulate appropriate marketing and retail strategies that address these risks to change consumers' perceptions about online shopping and reduce the level of risks related to online shopping. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Marketing and retail strategies should include strategies on how product risk and privacy risks will be managed and reduced to ensure they do not influence consumer's attitude against online shopping. <![CDATA[<b>Formal financial institutions financing of immigrant small and medium enterprises in South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) owned by immigrants in developing economies, such as South Africa, tend to trust formal financial institutions (FFIs) for financial support. RESEARCH PURPOSE: Even though immigrant SMEs create opportunities that have important implications for the South African economy; less than 5% of them can access credit from FFIs. This study, therefore, explores the accessibility of credit from FFIs to immigrant SMEs from a supply-side perspective. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Research studies on improving financing from FFIs to immigrant SMEs will help to boost the survival of immigrant SMEs and promote economic development in South Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This qualitative research design used an interpretivistic research paradigm to achieve the research objectives. Data were collected from 16 purposively selected participants and analysed using the five-step process of content analysis outlined by Terre Blanche, Durrheim and Kelly. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings revealed that FFIs are uninterested and biased against considering financing immigrant SMEs and tend to charge them higher interest rates. Collateral, equity contribution and the possession of a South African permanent resident permit with a South African ID are the most important requirements that impact the willingness of FFIs to finance immigrant SMEs PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Implications for the financial institutions in policy development were provided. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This research study highlights the requirements and the challenges faced by immigrant SMEs in accessing credit from FFIs. The use of qualitative research design further contributed to the literature on FFIs financing of immigrant SMEs. <![CDATA[<b>Placemaking and visitors' reviews of the Golden Mile of Durban</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Placemaking is a proclivity of cities to change space into place through zoning, naming and development into attractive, people-friendly landscapes where diverse, harmonious and sometimes contradicting amenities are coalesced to attract people. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To establish the perceptions of the visitors on appeal, experience and safety of the Golden Mile of Durban. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The study was motivated by availability of online reviews that remained unanalysed and did not aid decision-making. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Data were collected from 287 reviews sampled from the Golden Mile website. Qualitative analysis was performed on the data and categorised according to appeal, experience and safety associated with the Golden Mile. MAIN FINDINGS: The study found that placemaking is always work in progress as destinations strive for competitiveness and to avoid obsoletion. An overwhelming majority of visitors rated the Golden Mile as good to excellent on appeal, experience and safety. Some criticised the place as unsafe with a number of dilapidated buildings spoiling its appeal. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Planners and tourism developers should factor the grass root approach to placemaking by increasing security and urging property owners to revamp their buildings, thus keeping with the image of the place. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The article emphasises the significance and value added by online visitors' reviews in placemaking. <![CDATA[<b>The intention of South Africans to engage in collaborative consumption: The case of Uber</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The idea of collaborative consumption is developing among consumers, where underutilised or excess resources, skills and money are shared among peers for compensation. Collaborative consumption involves sharing, and as such, Uber, an app-based transport service enables those with spare vehicle capacity to provide a fee-based transport solution. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study investigates the intention to use this service in a South African context, specifically through the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) because of the suitability of these models in this context. Differences between regular and seldom users are also examined. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: With the widespread use of Uber in South Africa, understanding the factors contributing to the intention to use Uber requires examination. Research design, approach and method: Data were collected using a quantitative survey among panel respondents of South Africans, using electronic data collection. The research instrument comprised pre-existing items measured on a 6-point Likert scale. A total of 367 usable responses were received. Data analysis included testing for differences in means (t-test, Satterthwaite-Welch t-test, Anova F-test, Welch F-test) as well as regression analysis (by means of multiple regressions and two-stage least squares). MAIN FINDINGS: The findings indicate that South Africans intend to use the service largely due to their positive attitude towards the service, the perceived usefulness (PU) of the app and perceived behavioural (PB) control associated with the service. The value of the app has been highlighted in this research, and the importance of its functioning is evident. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The importance of providing a positive service experience impacts the intention to use the service in the future. This emphasises the importance of the service itself and the functioning of the app. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Understanding the intention to use this service enables further development of this app and associated services. <![CDATA[<b>The association between ownership concentration and payout behaviour: Evidence from South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The study investigated the association between ownership concentration and different payout methods of selected companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) in South Africa for the financial reporting periods 2012 to 2019. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The research objective was to investigate whether payout behaviour differed when low and high ownership concentration was compared. Motivation for the study: An understanding of the association between ownership concentration and payout policies is an important corporate governance aspect that could reveal the agency conflict between majority and minority shareholders. No previous South African empirical study has considered testing or investigating the two opposing agency-based hypotheses, namely the monitoring and rent extraction hypotheses, with reference to different payout methods. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH, AND METHOD: An empirical research design was followed, which is descriptive in nature. Descriptive statistics and a mixed-model analysis of variance were employed to describe the different payout methods - that is ordinary dividends, special dividends, capital distributions, additional shares, general share repurchases, and specific share repurchases - employed by companies listed on the JSE based on a distinction between low and high ownership concentration. MAIN FINDINGS: High ownership concentration was found to be associated with statistically significant lower ordinary dividends and capital distributions in support of the rent extraction hypothesis. Rent extraction highlights the agency conflict between majority and minority shareholders. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Findings of the present study revealed agency conflicts that may be informative to those charged with corporate governance to help them resolve agency conflict. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study is the first to consider the association between ownership concentration and payout behaviour in South Africa subsequent to the introduction of the dividends tax regime in 2012. The descriptive evidence submitted can serve as a basis for further explanatory research relating to ownership concentration and payout behaviour of companies.