Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Commercii]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1684-199920190002&lang=en vol. 19 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The influence of collaboration-oriented organisational capabilities on supply chain competence among small and medium enterprises</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: In the contemporary business environment, there is need for firms to strategically interact with partners beyond boundaries, and by collaborating these firms can access resource and technologies beyond their limits. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of collaboration-oriented organisational capabilities (COOC) on supply chain competence among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Zimbabwe. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Small and medium enterprises in Zimbabwe have experienced limited growth, primarily because of their failure to nurture and steer their competencies. The literature suggests that there is value in synchronised cooperative and competitive interactions between firms as such interactions incentivise the pursuit of shared interests.. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Through a cross-sectional survey, data were collected from 388 SMEs in Zimbabwe, and structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. MAIN FINDINGS: The study specifically found that there is a positive and significant relationship between collaboration-oriented capabilities and supply chain competence. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study demonstrate the critical role of organisational capabilities in achieving supply chain competence. The study proves that collaborative capabilities are central to the supply chain success of SMEs, with the possibility of influencing also the firm's sustainable competitive advantage in line with the dynamic capabilities theory. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study sheds light on the possibility of enhancing the overall supply chain competence of SMEs by establishing and empirically testing the relationships between COOC and supply chain competence. <![CDATA[<b>Identification of personality traits affecting entrepreneurial performance in the hospitality subsector: A five-factor personality model</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Although tourism growth is higher relative to other industries in South Africa, the failure rate for entrepreneurs in the hospitality subsector is higher relative than other industries. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to identify personality traits affecting entrepreneurial performance in the hospitality subsector. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: By identifying the personality traits affecting entrepreneurial performance, steps can be made to identify individuals who are likely to be successful entrepreneurs. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A random sampling method was used to select respondents. However, only entrepreneurs that employ fewer than 50 full-time employees and who had been in operation for at least 2 years were targeted. A mixed methods research design was then followed. A meeting was held with ten entrepreneurs (qualitative) to discuss the purpose of the study. Consequently, a total of 437 entrepreneurs successfully completed questionnaires (quantitative). Exploratory factor analysis was used to analyse the data. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings clearly indicate that extraversion, conscientiousness and openness to experience significantly (p < 0.05) and positively affected the performance of entrepreneurs whilst neuroticism significantly (p < 0.05) and negatively affected the performances of entrepreneurs. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Existing entrepreneurs would do well to develop these traits or employ people with traits that complement their own to assist them in managing their enterprises. Future entrepreneurs may consider these results and decide whether, based on their personality, they are really suited to business ownership. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The research confirms that entrepreneurial attributes differ from industry to industry and are industry specific. <![CDATA[<b>On the business cycle and new business ventures: A panel analysis of selected Southern African Development Community countries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: This article investigates the relationship between entrepreneurial activities and the business cycle for selected countries in Southern African Development Community (SADC). RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to understand how business cycle affects the supply of small businesses in the selected SADC countries. MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY: The regional block has been witnessing low economic growth patterns accompanied by high unemployment rates, poverty and inequality leading policymakers to start looking at small business supply as a possible solution. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The article used panel data spanning from 2000 to 2016. It also used random and fixed-effects estimation techniques. MAIN FINDINGS: The study found a negative relationship between entrepreneurial activities and business cycle. Interestingly, our findings did not show either a bidirectional or unidirectional relationship between the variables of interest although they maintained an expected sign relationship as per a priori expectations. The findings also showed a negative relationship between inequality and new entrepreneurial activities and the variable is significant at the 1% level. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The implications of this article are that governments in these selected SADC countries prioritise nurturing small businesses so that they can grow to significantly contribute to economic growth. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The contribution of this study is in finding the nature of the relationship that exists between the business cycle and supply of small businesses in selected SADC countries. <![CDATA[<b>Managing logistical supply chain drivers: A predictor of small township retailers' odds of survival</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Formal independent small Sowetan retail businesses operate under challenging economic conditions that impede their ability to survive. However, the management of the logistical supply chain drivers can increase these small retailers' odds of survival. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To investigate whether the management of the logistical supply chain drivers can serve as a predictor of formal independent small Sowetan retail businesses' odds of survival. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Assisting formal independent small Sowetan retail businesses to integrate with local and formal supply chains, as well as increasing their odds of survival amidst the difficult economic conditions under which they operate. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A quantitative survey was conducted among 650 formal independent small Sowetan businesses, of which the responses of 556 retailers were analysed. Two binary logistic regression models were developed to determine whether the management of the logistical supply chain drivers could predict the small retailers' odds of survival. MAIN FINDINGS: The results of two binary logistic regression models showed that the management of the three logistical supply chain drivers influences the odds of formal independent small Sowetan retail businesses surviving for 5 years or longer, as well as their odds of growing their annual income. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Assisting policymakers when designing developmental initiatives for townships. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study strives to assist formal independent small Sowetan retail businesses operating within a developing country to manage their logistical supply chain drivers to increase their odds of survival and contribute to the economic development of their country. <![CDATA[<b>Social entrepreneurship as a catalyst to break the poverty trap: An analysis of the motivational factors in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Social entrepreneurship has been advocated as a way of overcoming poverty but many of the studies purporting to explain the intention to become a social entrepreneur have resulted in inconsistent and inconclusive results. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to examine the moderating influence of gender, family entrepreneurial background and culture (operationalised in this study as individualism or collectivism) on the antecedents to the formation of an intention to become a social entrepreneur in respect of financially disadvantaged students. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Educational institutions in Africa have not implemented programmes to encourage students to become social entrepreneurs. Research design, approach and method: A questionnaire survey was conducted using a convenience sampling method in which a sample of 200 students was selected from a South African university. The data were analysed using hierarchical regression analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: Results provide strong support for the proposition that students' gender and culture moderate the impact of the antecedents identified in this study (being close to the social problem and innovative) on the intention to become a social entrepreneur. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: There needs to be more collaboration and dialogue within and across all South African universities so that all educational programmes can be developed that embrace the challenges face by contemporary South African society. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This article demonstrates that current intention-based models are not adequate to explain the intention to become a social entrepreneur as they exclude extraneous personal and environmental factors. <![CDATA[<b>Marketing mix strategy determinants in pork-based agri-businesses: Experiences from Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Agri-businesses, especially at the farmer level, are devoid of sound marketing strategy. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to highlight the marketing mix elements most considered by pork-based agri-businesses Motivation for the study: Zimbabwe underwent institutional transformation policies of land reform and indigenisation policies. New industry players came to the fore. However, they were devoid of sound business background. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The study utilised a questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey of 166 pig farmers, 6 pork processors and 24 pork butchers in Mashonaland Central province. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression and multiple linear regression were used to analyse the data. MAIN FINDINGS: Product, promotion, price and partnership were considered. Category of agri-business, distance the furthest buyer travelled, the merchandise handled and frequency of abattoir or processor buyers determined marketing mix strategy. Perceptive performance of the agri-businesses in terms of marketing mix strategy was determined by category of agri-business, merchandise consideration, frequency of abattoir or processor buyer, seasonality of sales and time of consideration when selling; agri-business location and the experience of the agri-business PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study concluded with the myopic use of marketing mix based strategies in the Zimbabwean agri-businesses, targeting product-based characteristics, with varying determinants. There is opportunity to strategically position where place, promotion and pricing advantages exist. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study added to insights for marketing managers, especially in a structural transformation situation, what marketing strategies are mostly utilised. This tends to avail shortfalls and opportunities that can be taken advantage of, to strategically position pork agri-businesses in Zimbabwe. <![CDATA[<b>Examining the role of knowledge management and technology operating capabilities in the development of customer-centric organisational systems</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Over the years technological competence and knowledge management have grown in significance in relation to strategic management of firms. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the role of knowledge management and technology operating capabilities in the development of customer-centric organisational systems for small and medium enterprises in Zimbabwe. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The dynamism in the business environment, coupled with the proliferation in technological advancements, is forcing firms to reorient themselves, especially towards customer centrism. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Based on a cross-sectional survey conducted on 388 firms in Zimbabwe, this study sought to investigate the influence of knowledge management capabilities and technology operating capabilities on the ability of small and medium enterprises to create customer-centric organisational systems. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect data from simple, randomly selected small firms, and structural equation modelling was used to test the direction and significance of the proposed relationships. MAIN FINDINGS: The study found that there are positive relationships between the two dimensions of knowledge management capability and one technological competence dimension. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Because external knowledge searches have become progressively significant for small and medium enterprises to attain and maintain a competitive advantage, the study findings demonstrate that knowledge acquisition and transformation are also essential for firms to create customer-oriented organisational systems. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The novelty in this study is that it decomposes absorptive capacity and technological competences and assesses the individual dimensions' influence on the dependent variable, thereby enhancing exhaustive understanding while avoiding theoretical misspecifications and empirical contradictions. <![CDATA[<b>Entrepreneurial intentions of students in a historically disadvantaged university in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The entrepreneurial intentions of students in different faculties of a historically disadvantaged university in South Africa are not known and are not measured RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the entrepreneurial intentions of students in a historically disadvantaged university in South Africa. This study was based on two objectives, namely, to determine the entrepreneurial intention of students in four different faculties in a historically disadvantaged South African university and to assess if significant differences exist between entrepreneurial intentions of students in the four different faculties of a historically disadvantaged South African university MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Graduate unemployment is on the rise in South Africa. Furthermore, the entrepreneurial intentions of students across faculties in historically disadvantaged institutions are underexplored and needs further testing. This study aims to assess the entrepreneurial intentions of students in a historically disadvantaged university in South Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Quantitative research was utilised and 377 students from a historically disadvantaged South African university were surveyed. Simple random sampling technique was utilised in the study. Reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha. Mean, standard deviation and Chi-square test were utilised in the data analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings revealed that significant differences exist between the entrepreneurial intentions of students in the four different faculties (health sciences, management and law, humanities as well as science and agriculture). The study also found that the students in the Faculty of Management and Law have a high entrepreneurial intentions. The study focused on one historically disadvantaged university in South Africa; therefore, the findings of this study should be interpreted cautiously for other universities in South Africa. Future research can be replicated in other South African universities PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings of this study have implications to policy-makers in higher education and lecturers in South Africa universities. This study recommends entrepreneurial education courses for all students in the universities and policy decisions that allow students to start businesses. This is expected to promote entrepreneurship, employment and economic development in South Africa. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The novelty of this study is the contribution to the body of knowledge on entrepreneurial intentions of university students across faculties in South Africa. In addition, studies on entrepreneurial intentions of students from historically disadvantaged universities are underexplored. The study provides useful recommendations on entrepreneurial intention of South African students from a historically disadvantaged university. <![CDATA[<b>Intrapreneurial orientation in small and medium-sized enterprises: An exploration at the employee level</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The South African economy and, in particular, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have shown uninspiring performance, reflected in low levels of job creation, worryingly low levels of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial employee activity (EEA). As SMEs are the innovation and growth engine of an economy, the poor EEA levels (0.7%) indicate lacklustre levels of innovation and intrapreneurial activity. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aims to fill the void by assessing the effect of intrapreneurial orientation (IO) at the employee level on internal SME growth MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Despite this bleak outlook, to date no study has attempted to determine the influence of an IO on SME growth metrics. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The study is quantitative in nature, using an adapted questionnaire and employing a random sampling approach. Data were analysed by means of factor, correlation and regression analyses. A total of 290 responses were received from SME employees across South Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: The empirical study showed that only risk-taking, innovativeness, personal control, self-esteem and certain managerial factors positively relate to the growth of an SME. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings provide insights for managers within SMEs on improving employee entrepreneurial activity and growth rates, by means of focusing on growth-supportive IO interventions. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings of this research are beneficial to academia and industry as the framework and measuring instrument offer additional insights into IO within SMEs. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of entrepreneurship education programmes on the development of self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intention and predictions for entrepreneurial activity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-19992019000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: South Africa is currently facing a youth unemployment crisis. Confirmation of the problem was situated in our review of the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, Quarter 3, 2015. We found that the 15-24 years age group was most affected where many were neither in employment, education or training. We asked whether the promotion of entrepreneurship among youth could be a potential solution. RESEARCH PURPOSE: Our research sought to investigate whether there existed a correlation between exposure to entrepreneurship education (EE) and the development of self-efficacy in high school South African youth in the age group of 15-18 years. We also investigated if the programme duration would influence the degree to which self-efficacy was developed, and the correlation of self-efficacy with entrepreneurial and entrepreneurial intention as a predictor of entrepreneurial activity. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Our motivation stemmed from the belief that the youth unemployment crisis will not be solved by formal employment; that entrepreneurship education needed to be promoted at the school level to address skills mismatches between education and employment creation. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: We collected our data through a questionnaire from two samples of students taking the Junior Achievement programme. The study adopted a quantitative approach and adopted the use of a Likert scale questionnaire. Of the 1 200 questionnaires distributed, 637 were usable for the short entrepreneurship education programme and 381 were usable for the long entrepreneurship education programme. The purposive sampling technique was adopted. We collected data around the participants' perceptions of self-efficacy post-entrepreneurship education intervention. We used Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Model (SEM) to analyse our data. Our tests of reliability and validity by use of CFA and SEM confirmed that we were using a stable model. MAIN FINDINGS: The research found positive correlations between the items comprising self-efficacy that can be developed through EE. Also, EE of a longer duration had stronger positive correlations with such items PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: We make practical recommendations pertinent to the type of EE schools ought to introduce. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Our research contributed to existing theory about the influence of EE on the development of self-efficacy.