Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Orthopaedic Journal]]> vol. 19 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Caught between a ghost and a gift: Navigating authorship issues</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Why is there an orthopod in my ICU? - An orthopaedic perspective during the COVID-19 pandemic</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Orthopaedics and COVID-19: The surgery, the surgeon and the susceptible - a scoping review</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is taxing South Africa's already over-burdened healthcare system. Orthopaedics is not exempt; patients present with COVID-19 and musculoskeletal pathology and so surgeons should be familiar with the current evidence to best manage patients and themselves. The aims of this scoping review were firstly to inform peri-operative decision-making for COVID-positive patients as well as the routine orthopaedic milieu during the pandemic; secondly to assess the outcomes of orthopaedic patients managed in endemic areas; and Anally to determine the effect the pandemic has had on our orthopaedic peersMETHODS: A scoping review was conducted following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines of 2018. The search terms 'Orthopaedics' or 'Orthopedics' and 'COVID-19' or 'Coronavirus' were used to perform the search on Scopus, PubMed and Cochrane databases. All peer-reviewed articles utilising evidence-based methodology and addressing one of the objectives were eligible. A thematic approach was used for qualitative data synthesisRESULTS: Seventeen articles were identified for inclusion. All articles represented level 4 and 5 evidence and comprised ten review-type articles, one consensus statement, two web-based surveys and four observational studies. Most articles (n=11) addressed the objective of peri-operative considerations covering the stratification and testing of patients, theatre precautions and personal protective equipment (PPE). Evidence suggests that patients should be stratified for surgery according to the urgency of their procedure, their risk of asymptomatic disease (related to the community prevalence of COVID-19) and their comorbidities. The consensus is that all patients should be screened (asked a set of standardised questions with regard their symptoms and contacts). Only symptomatic patients and those asymptomatic patients from high prevalence areas or those with high-risk contacts should be tested. Healthcare workers (HCWs) in theatre should maintain safety precautions considering every individual is a potential contact. In the operating room in addition to the standard orthopaedic surgery PPE, if a patient is COVID positive, surgeons should don an N95 respirator. The three articles that addressed the effects on the orthopaedic surgeon showed a significant redeployment rate, effects on monetary renumeration of specialists and also effects on surgeons in training causing negative emotional ramifications. Of the surgeons who have contracted the illness and have been investigated, all showed mild symptomatology and recovered fully. The final three articles concentrated on orthopaedic patient considerations; they all showed high mortality rates in the vulnerable patient populations investigated, but had significant limitationsCONCLUSION: Orthopaedics is significantly affected by the COVID pandemic but there remains a dearth of high-quality evidence to guide the specialtyLevel of evidence: Level 3 <![CDATA[<b>DEFCON 5: The Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital orthopaedic department's COVID-19 proactive action plan</b>]]> BACKGROUND: On 11 March 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic and a threat to global public health. In this paper we aim to describe the measures implemented to combat the COVID-19 pandemic in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH), Soweto, Johannesburg, the largest hospital in Africa with approximately 3 200 beds and about 6 760 staff members. At the time of writing this report, we have transitioned from level 5 to level 3 lockdownMETHODS: We performed a literature review and drew on the experiences of previous pandemic response plans worldwide. A working group comprising all relevant disciplines was created to develop standard operating procedures in line with governmental policyRESULTS: We found that by developing a multi-phase plan, we were able to maintain service delivery to all emergent patients while protecting medical staff and patients alike. This plan also allowed coordination with other disciplines and made provision for staff from within the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery to be made available to work within other departments as and when required. The implementation of this plan had to evolve constantly, adjusting to the changes in the national lockdown level and the demands of the developing situationCONCLUSION: We hope that by sharing our plan with our colleagues domestically and abroad, we can promote discussion and improve our ability to better prepare and deal with this unprecedented healthcare scenario. In order for us to win as individuals, we must fight as a teamLevel of evidence: Level 5 <![CDATA[<b>Short-term outcomes of submuscular bridge plating of length-unstable paediatric femoral shaft fractures in children - Insights from a South African tertiary hospital setting</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Femoral diaphyseal fracture is a common paediatric orthopaedic injury; however, the management of these fractures remains controversial in children between the ages of 6 and 13 years. The preferred approach for children appears to be surgical, enabling early mobilisation. Some studies have reported that submuscular bridge plating (SBP) might be a good alternative treatment method with favourable outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether SBP a) leads to union in length-unstable fractures with a low complication rate; b) leads to reasonable alignment and leg length equality; and c) has acceptable clinical outcomes in a South African tertiary hospital setting.METHODS: All patients with predominantly length-unstable femoral diaphyseal fractures who were treated between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012 were included in this study. Patients were treated with SBP using standard of care techniques, and hardware removal was performed at approximately eight months post-operatively. The nine months post-operative assessment between the affected and unaffected leg was used to assess the effectiveness of the SBP interventionRESULTS: A total of 29 patients (mean age 9±2 years) were included. The majority of the fractures (n=27, 93%) were length-unstable. Two patients (7%) had transverse fractures with >2 cm overlap and/or weighing >45 kg. All fractures healed within expected time frames. No overall leg length discrepancy (p=0.94) or coronal mechanical axis deviation (p=0.51) was observed between the affected and unaffected lower limbs at nine months post-surgery. No differences between the operated and non-operated sides were observed for hip flexion (p=0.88), hip external rotation (p=0.36), hip internal rotation (p=0.12) or knee flexion (p=0.96CONCLUSION: SBP provides reliable outcomes in children with diaphyseal femoral fractures and is our preferred method of fixation for a) length-unstable fractures; b) fractures close to the metaphysis; and c) children weighing more than 45 kgLevel of evidence: Level 4 <![CDATA[<b>Outcomes of primary fusion in high-energy Lisfranc injuries at a tertiary state hospital</b>]]> BACKGROUND: High-energy Lisfranc injuries are relatively uncommon but can lead to severe disability and morbidity. Primary fusion is a treatment option that can improve outcomes and reduce the reoperation rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate our series of primary fusions for high-energy Lisfranc injuries, looking specifically at type of fusion, time to union, non-union rates, reoperation rates and quality of reductionMETHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for Lisfranc injuries were identified from the REDCap surgical database and then retrieved from records. Only cases of primary fusion in adults were included. We excluded low-energy sprains and athletic injuries, ipsilateral lower limb injuries and cases where reduction and fixation were done. Radiographs were analysed from the iSite Enterprise PACS system (Philips®RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2018, 12 cases of high-energy Lisfranc injuries were identified where primary fusion was done. Seven patients (58%) underwent fusion of the first, second and third tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints. The first and second TMT joints were fused in only one case (8%), and the second and third TMT joints were fused in four cases (33%). Only one patient (8%) had removal of implants. Compression plating was the technique of choice used for fusion. There was l0o% union rate and average time to union was 84 days. Acceptable reduction was observed in nine cases (75%). Three cases (25%) of malreduction were found, among which one patient had pre-existing hallux valgusCONCLUSION: The majority of patients who underwent primary fusion of at least one TMT joint had good radiological outcome. Further studies with better clinical follow-up are neededLevel of evidence: Level 4 <![CDATA[<b>Peri-articular infiltration in the resource-restrained environment - still a worthwhile adjunct to multimodal analgesia post total knee replacement</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Peri-articular infiltrations (PAI) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) offer effective analgesia, and are cost effective, safe and easy to perform. Currently there is no gold standard technique based on evidence-based medicine; described methods are based on consensus recommendations. The latest literature supports PAI including complex and multiple drug combinations, such as liposomal bupivacaine, ropivacaine and ketorolac, which are not available in all settings. This study aims to prove that a basic PAI technique using widely available and inexpensive agents offers good and effective outcomes in a resource-poor environmentMETHODS: A double-blind randomised control trial compared the effectiveness of PAI with a simple, widely available anaesthetic solution (bupivacaine and adrenalin) to a normal saline control group. Infiltration volumes were calculated at 1 ml/kg and the infiltration technique followed a specific protocol. Post-operative outcomes included visual analogue scores (VAS), ambulation scores, morphine use, knee range of motion (ROM) and time to dischargeRESULTS: Two comparable groups of 26 patients each were included (intervention: 81% female, mean age 64.8±8.8 years vs control: 65% female, mean age 67.0±7.6 years). All pain-related measures favoured the intervention group but failed to reach statistical significance at 24 and 72 hours. Mean VAS scores at 48 hours were significantly lower in the intervention group. (VAS score 3.0±1.6 vs 4.1±1.2, p=0.013). The other parameters measured strongly favoured the intervention group but did not prove to be significantCONCLUSIONS: A volume per kilogram PAI technique making use of widely available, cost-effective agents provides a statistical reduction in VAS scores at 48 hours post TKA. This suggests that in a resource-poor environment PAI is still a valuable addition to the multimodal analgesia pathway in the post-operative management of TKA. Maximum drug doses may show even more promising results, specifically in the first 24 hours post-operatively. Further studies investigating PAI for TKA in resource-restrained environments are indicatedLevel of evidence: Level 2 <![CDATA[<b>The short-term outcome of hip revision arthroplasty with Trabecular Metal</b><b>™ components and augments</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Highly porous Trabecular Metal™ acetabular components are increasingly being used in revision hip arthroplasty as they facilitate ingrowth, provide a useful mechanism to deal with bone loss and may decrease the risk of infection. The purpose of this audit was to describe: 1) the total number of hip arthroplasty surgeries over Ave years, the ratio of revision to primary hip arthroplasty and indications for revision; 2) the short-term outcomes of revision hip arthroplasty with Trabecular Metal™ components and augmentsMETHODS: A retrospective folder and radiograph review of all patients who had revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) at a tertiary level hospital from February 2012 to February 2017 was doneRESULTS: There were 979 THAs performed over the period - 863 (87%) primary THAs, and 116 (12%) hip revision cases performed in 107 patients. Of the 116 (107 patients) hip revisions, there were seven (6%) re-revisions in Ave patients. The indications for revision were aseptic loosening 67 (59%), septic loosening 11 (10%), liner wear 18 (16%), periprosthetic fracture Ave (4%), other 15 (13%). Trabecular Metal™ was used for revision in 16 hips (14 patients), which is 14% of the total 116 revisions. There were ten females and four males with an average age of 61 years. The average duration of follow-up in this group was 18.5 months (1.5-39.2). In these 16 Trabecular Metal™ hips, there were three (19%) early failures of fixation due to technical errorsCONCLUSION: In our institution, 12% of the arthroplasty is revision surgery. The indications for revision are similar to published literature. Trabecular Metal™ revisions had a 19% early failure rate due to technical errorLevel of evidence: Level 4 <![CDATA[<b>Freedman-Bernstein musculoskeletal competence testing of South African intern doctors: is there a difference between health science faculties?</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Basic competency in musculoskeletal medicine is necessary for all graduating doctors due to the growing burden of disease. Globally and nationally research has shown deficiencies in musculoskeletal knowledge according to the Freedman-Bernstein test. In South Africa, different health science faculties show different approaches to training; this article considers if any of these demonstrate adequate training and whether significant differences exist between the faculties' results. The aim of the study is to determine whether there are significant differences between musculoskeletal learning outcomes between graduates from different health science facultiesMETHODS: A multi-centre, cross-sectional study was performed in which medical interns completed the Freedman-Bernstein test after graduation and prior to commencing their formal two-month block in orthopaedics. Data was then analysed to determine whether significant differences existed between the test scores of the eight health science faculties' graduatesRESULTS: A total of 259 completed tests were analysed. The mean score was 46% (range 4-88%, 95% CI 44-48%), and 244 of the 259 interns failed the test (94% failure rate). The lowest and highest mean scores, by health science faculty, was 34% (95% CI 28-40%) and 60% (95% CI 55-64%) respectively. An ANOVA test indicated statistically significant differences between test scores of the different health science faculties (p<0.001CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated competency scores consistent with previous literature from South Africa and shown that there are statistically significant differences between the health science faculties based on Freedman-Bernstein test scores. This evidence suggests differing levels of musculoskeletal knowledge attained at health science faculties in South Africa, and no improvement in undergraduate education in the last decadeLevel of evidence: Level 4 <![CDATA[<b>Infantile Blount's disease</b>]]> Infantile Blount's disease results in multi-planar proximal tibial deformity consisting of varus, procurvatum, internal rotation and shortening. The deformity is attributed to disordered growth of the posteromedial proximal tibial physis. The aetiology is multifactorial. It is associated with childhood obesity and African ethnicity. The ability to differentiate between infantile Blount's disease and physiological bowing depends on the findings of focused clinical examination, X-ray appearance, tibial metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle and tibial epiphyseal-metaphyseal angle. The gold standard of treatment is proximal tibial metaphyseal corrective osteotomy before the age of 4 years. The limb should be realigned to physiological valgus. The recurrence rate after realignment osteotomy is high. Recurrence is associated with age at osteotomy, obesity, higher Langenskiöld stage and medial physeal slope >60°. The surgical management of severe, recurrent or neglected infantile Blount's disease is challenging. Comprehensive clinical examination and multi-planar deformity analysis with standing long leg X-rays are essential to identify all aspects of the deformity. Distal femur coronal malalignment and significant rotational deformity should be excluded. Knee instability due to intra-articular deformity should be corrected by elevation of the medial tibial plateau. Lateral epiphysiodesis should be done at the same time as medial plateau elevation and when medial growth arrest is certain to prevent recurrence.Level of evidence: Level 5