Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Information Management]]> vol. 22 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Elements of a flexible information architecture: A South African perspective</b>]]> BACKGROUND: For an organisation to remain competitive, it needs to be aware of, anticipate and adapt to the dynamically changing business environment. Based on the literature study, the research proposes that information and the flexible architecture thereof should be regarded as a core capability of the organisation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research article was to identify the elements that are used to measure the effectiveness of an information architecture. The research furthermore postulates that the elements should be utilised as a design approach in the conceptualisation of a flexible alternative information architecture. METHOD: A qualitative mono-method research methodology was utilised to investigate which elements are used by experts in the field to measure the effectiveness of information architectures. The Delphi technique was used to collect data from a purposive sample of experts in the field of information architecture. RESULTS: Based on the literature review and the results of the Delphi technique, the components identified by the expert panel as alternative elements of an information architecture included contextualisation, audit, governance, flexibility and administration. CONCLUSION: Considering information architecture as more than just a concept, and extending the notion to a design philosophy, the application and use of the identified elements may contribute to the longevity of the organisation. Thus, the alignment and realignment of the information architectural elements of the organisation will fuel informational flexibility. <![CDATA[<b>Examining the usage of Instagram as a source of information for young consumers when determining tourist destinations</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Online social networking websites have revolutionised communication in the postmodern era of today. Specifically, Instagram has witnessed a phenomenal growth, and the site is particularly popular with young consumers in South Africa. Instagram is seen by this cohort as a source of information to determine their tourism destinations. OBJECTIVES: This research examined how perceived usefulness of Instagram, perceived ease of use of Instagram and perceived credibility of Instagram influence attitude towards the use of Instagram, intent on using Instagram and actual use of Instagram to identify tourist destinations amongst young consumers. METHOD: A survey questionnaire was administered to 349 young student consumers who were based in the Johannesburg Metropolitan area of the Gauteng province, South Africa. A structural equation modelling procedure was utilised in testing the proposed relationships RESULTS: The results indicate that all the hypotheses suggested have been positive and significant. It is worth noting that there was the strongest connection between attitude towards Instagram for identifying travel destinations and intention to use Instagram for identifying travel destinations. CONCLUSION: Tourism organisation marketers may be able to devote time in researching the practicality of using Instagram to increase awareness of tourist locations. <![CDATA[<b>A framework for selecting analytics tools to improve healthcare big data usefulness in developing countries</b>]]> BACKGROUND: In many developing countries including South Africa, there are challenges in understanding how the different networks of patients, diagnoses, and medical personnel are formed, as well as the types of big data that are generated. The challenges include the relationship and interaction that exist between the big data within the various networks. Some of the challenges manifest into different factors such as inaccuracy of data, inconsistency, incompleteness of data, and lack of cohesion. The trajectory of the challenge is the inability to select the most appropriate analytics tools for big data analysis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to propose a solution that can be used to address the challenges in selecting analytics tools, to enhance big data usefulness for the improvement of healthcare services, particularly in developing countries. METHOD: Literature of within 10 years of publication in the areas of big data, big data analytics and healthcare were gathered and used as data. The analysis of the data followed the hermeneutics approach within the interpretivist paradigm. RESULTS: From the analysis, factors that influence big data and analytics tools' usefulness were found, based on which a solution (framework) is proposed. The solution is intended to contribute to the works of information systems and technologies (IS/IT) personnel, health practitioners and academics. CONCLUSION: The relationships that exit between actors, and the actors' interactions in the process of providing medical services contribute to the sources of big data. Therefore, it is necessary to holistically analyse healthcare big data from both technical and non-technical perspectives. <![CDATA[<b>Using historical data to explore transactional data quality of an African power generation company</b>]]> BACKGROUND: In developing countries, despite large public companies' reliance on master data for decision-making, there is scant evidence to demonstrate their effective use of transactional data in decision-making because of its volatility and complexity. For the state-owned enterprise (SOE) studied, the complexity of generating high-quality transactional data manifests in relationships between customer call transactional data related to an electricity supply problem (captured by call centre agents, i.e. data creators) and technician-generated feedback (i.e. data consumers. OBJECTIVES: To establish the quality of customer calls transactional data captured using source system measurements. To compare this data set with field technicians' downstream system transactions that indicated incorrect transactional data. METHOD: The study compared historical customer calls transactional data (i.e. source system data) with field technician-generated feedback captured on work orders (i.e. receiving system) in a power generation SOE, to ascertain transactional data quality generated and whether field technicians responded to authentic customer calls exclusively to mitigate operational expenses. RESULTS: Mean values of customer call transactional data quality from the source system and technician-generated feedback on work orders varied by 1.26%, indicating that data quality measurements at the source system closely resembled data quality experiences of data consumers. The SOE's transactional data quality from the source system was 80.05% and that of historical data set from evaluating feedback was 81.31% - percentages that exceeded average data quality measurements in literature. CONCLUSION: Using a feedback control system (FCS) to integrate feedback generated by data consumers to data creators presents an opportunity to increase data quality to higher levels than its current norm. <![CDATA[<b>Research as a service offering of knowledge management firms in the fourth industrial revolution</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The fourth industrial revolution (4IR) is primarily based on innovative new technologies, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and the Internet of Things, which is generally considered as a driving force behind recent global changes. This revolution is reshaping economies, the global landscape and business ecosystems. The 4IR is disrupting the status quo of traditional business operations. OBJECTIVE: The research objective was to determine how a newly-developed information and knowledge management framework can be used as an enabler for knowledge management (KM) firms to successfully conduct business in the 4IR, further establishing if new innovative services are required for KM firms in the 4IR. METHODS: Qualitative research methodology was used to select business cases, and critical case sampling was used for the selection of interviewees. Structured content analysis was conducted on the business cases, and in-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with the interviewees. RESULTS: The result was the development of an information and knowledge management framework that can be used as a new 4IR enabler by KM firms. The research elaborates on a new service offering that was developed specifically for the KM firm, namely Research as a Service. CONCLUSION: Knowledge management firms need to adapt their existing business frameworks, business models and commercialisation lifecycles, to ensure that the business is prepared for successful business operations in the 4IR. <![CDATA[<b>Contributing factors to increased susceptibility to social media phishing attacks</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The migration of phishing scams to social media platforms poses a serious information security threat to social media users. Users often remain unaware of the various phishing threats on social media and consequently they thoughtlessly engage on these platforms. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article was to identify the factors that contribute to an increased susceptibility to social media phishing attacks and propose a model to reduce this susceptibility. METHOD: A systematic literature review was conducted in Emerald Insight, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar by using a search string. The identified articles underwent two rounds of screening and the articles thus included moved on to a quality assessment round. Finally, these articles were imported into MAXQDA where a content analysis was conducted, which involved extracting, coding and analysing the relevant data. RESULTS: The final 25 articles included in the study indicated that women with low technical and security knowledge between the age of 18 and 25, who habitually use social media and process content heuristically, are more susceptible to phishing attacks. The insights gained from conducting this review resulted in developing a model that highlights the individuals who are most susceptible to phishing attacks on social media. CONCLUSION: This article concludes that certain people are more susceptible to phishing attacks on social media as a result of their online habits, information processing, demographics, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) knowledge and personality traits. As such, these identified people should be more aware that they fall into this susceptibility group and thus should behave more cautiously when engaging on social media platforms. <![CDATA[<b>Active and passive information behaviour of the professoriate: A descriptive comparative pattern analysis</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The study explored and analysed patterns in active and passive information behaviour of the professoriate in different information sources in teaching and research context. Exploring patterns in human information behaviour fills the knowledge gaps in this under-researched area, besides having practical significance. OBJECTIVES: The study explored the patterns in active and passive information behaviour in different information sources used by the professoriate in the social sciences and humanities in three federal universities in Nigeria. METHODS: The study used a descriptive survey to explore the active and passive information behaviour of the professoriate. The sample consisted of 246 professors from the social sciences and humanities departments at three federal universities in Nigeria. Data were collected using an adapted questionnaire and analysed descriptively using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS: The patterns that emerged across electronic resources, media, print sources, interpersonal and academic gathering, in three usage categories, showed both consistent and divergent results. A broad pattern in frequently-used sources revealed that the more active information seeking takes place in an information source, the more chances of passive encounters, and vice versa. This pattern is, however, consistent in electronic resources, print sources, and academic gathering, but differs in media and interpersonal sources. Media has more instances of passive encounters than active usage whilst in interpersonal sources, information encountered in active engagements with professional colleagues did not yield significant result. CONCLUSION: Exploring patterns in human information behaviour is still evolving, with the benefit of advancing a better understanding of active and passive information behaviour at a micro level. <![CDATA[<b>Knowledge forms in the project lifecycle: A blueprint for knowledge management in small creative agencies in Johannesburg</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Knowledge-intensive Organisations (KIO) are heavily reliant on the creation, communication and archiving of different forms of knowledge for their survival. Many KIOs that are creative agencies organise their workflows according to projects. Each phase of a project produces distinct forms of knowledge. Understanding the variations in the demands on knowledge management (KM) in step with changes in knowledge forms in different project lifecycle phases allows for the development of appropriate KM. OBJECTIVES: The research set out to use the project lifecycle in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) KIO creative agencies as an organising device for outlining different knowledge forms at each phase. The objective was to map KM forms onto the knowledge forms in each project phase. METHOD: A qualitative research approach with phenomenological research design was used. The empirical site was at eight organisations in Johannesburg, South Africa in the creative industries. The data was analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: There are dramatic changes in knowledge forms at different points in a typical project lifecycle in SME KIO. However, the stages of a project are replicable and consistent between most of the projects that were analysed. CONCLUSION: A strategy for mitigating against knowledge loss in SME KIO creative agencies is to use a range of different KM that are appropriate to the forms of knowledge. Using the project phases as a blueprint can lead to more accurate forms of KM at each distinct stage in the project lifecycle. <![CDATA[<b>The gap between user perceptions and expectations of students at the main library of the University of KwaZulu-Natal: Pietermaritzburg Campus</b>]]> BACKGROUND: An academic library is defined as the heart of a university, providing a venue for students, lecturers and researchers to advance their knowledge and conduct their research. These institutions should provide learning opportunities for all who choose to use them. The materials in the library are for anyone to use, which is why university libraries are important. This study investigated the gap between postgraduate students' perception and expectations of the main academic library (Cecil Renaud) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal: Pietermaritzburg campus. OBJECTIVES: This study's objective was to determine the gap between the existence of users' expectations and perceptions of the quality service. METHOD: This study employed the quantitative research method, with a survey research design. The study population included postgraduate students in the School of Social Sciences, College of Humanities, at the University of KwaZulu-Natal: Pietermaritzburg campus RESULTS: The services that have a relatively big gap in agreement between expectations and perceptions are: computers that work well, adequate number of computer workstations and an efficient short loan service, and the library helping the user to stay abreast of developments in their field of interest. On the other hand, services that have a small gap are: a library environment that has sufficient lighting; and staff willing to help, who understand the library service need and who are sufficiently knowledgeable. CONCLUSION: The study found that there was a gap in almost all the services provided by the Cecil Renaud Main library. For example, with the comprehensive collection, there were not adequate print journals and books. In relation to access to information, the major gaps were re-shelving of journals, missing books and journals, and an inefficient short loan and interlibrary loan service. <![CDATA[<b>Gender and cognitive factors influencing information seeking of graduate students at Kenyatta University Library</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Gender has been identified as a possible influencing factor in users' information-seeking process. Previous studies have alluded to the fact that gender as a variable may be useful for a better understanding of the cognitive and social background of human information processing and may have important implications in the information-seeking process. Although a number of studies have investigated gender, amongst other variables, as having an effect on the information-seeking process of users, no attempt has been made to investigate the relationship between gender and cognitive factors on the information-seeking patterns of graduate students of Kenyatta University Library. OBJECTIVE: The study investigates gender and cognitive factors influencing the information-seeking process of graduate students at Kenyatta University Library. METHODOLOGY: To achieve this objective, the study developed a theoretical framework which can be used by academic libraries as a basis for implementing both digital and reference desk services in order to meet the dynamic user needs. The study then investigated whether there were any gender differences through the correlation coefficient in the context of expectancy theory. The motivational process amongst the male and female users was then examined to establish whether there was any difference. RESULTS: This study found no gender difference in all the variables considered, including interaction service quality, outcome (need satisfaction,) service satisfaction, users' performance of service, past experience, expectancy and effort. CONCLUSION: This study found no gender difference in all the variables investigated. The implication of the findings was that there is no need for mainstreaming gender in service programming in the library service. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the impact of cloud computing on existing South African regulatory frameworks</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The use of cloud computing services raises policy and regulatory challenges globally, more specifically on data security and privacy, amongst other issues. There is a concern on whether South African information and communications technology (ICT) policies and regulatory frameworks are sufficient to address emerging cloud computing regulatory challenges. Therefore, this necessitates a review to determine the extent to which existing regulatory frameworks are applicable to cloud computing and the challenges thereof. OBJECTIVES: The study determines the impact of cloud computing on existing South African ICT policies and regulatory frameworks and ascertains whether they are sufficient to address challenges regarding the use of cloud computing services. METHOD: The study followed an interpretivism philosophical stance. A multi-method qualitative research approach was employed and a thematic analysis was applied in which the data was collected through interviews, questionnaires and document analysis. RESULTS: The existing policies and regulatory frameworks as applicable to computing are playing 'catch-up' where technology has a footprint. Moreover, some existing policies use a blanket approach and are not specific to the subject matter. As a result, there is a need for policies that are future-proof and specific to the subject matter. CONCLUSION: The emergence of cloud computing has exposed the existing ICT policies and regulatory laws as being inadequate to address cloud computing developments, complexities and challenges, especially challenges related to public confidence regarding the use of cloud computing services and cloud competitiveness. <![CDATA[<b>The age factor in the use of peer-reviewed electronic journals by Zimbabwean academics</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The emergence of peer-reviewed electronic journals on the academic scene at the turn of the century was well received by university libraries in Zimbabwe. They established a consortium to facilitate conveyance of the resources to their patrons. Use of electronic journals by academics, however, has remained minimal almost two decades after their introduction. Efforts by librarians to address this challenge are hampered by lack of context-specific information on how age, among other demographic factors, affects adoption and use of electronic journals by academics. Such information is critical in promoting its use. OBJECTIVES: This study examined age differences in the awareness of peer-reviewed electronic journals by academics in Zimbabwean universities, use of electronic journals and possession of technological skills needed to negotiate the electronic journals environment METHOD: This study employed a quantitative approach using a survey research design. Data were collected through structured questionnaires administered to a sample of 363 academics from three universities in Zimbabwe. Data were analysed through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences to produce tables. RESULTS: Younger academics were more aware of electronic journals, however, the older academics accessed more articles. Younger academics possessed higher technological skills than older academics. CONCLUSION: There are age differences among academics with respect to awareness, use and possession of technological skills that librarians must take into account as they promote adoption and use of electronic journals. <![CDATA[<b>A technology, organisation and environment framework analysis of information and communication technology adoption by small and medium enterprises in Pietermaritzburg</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Information and communication technology (ICT) has been a major contributor to world economic growth. Information and communication technology has played a vital role when it comes to the growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In developed countries, SMEs are making use of ICT to support their business functions, although this has not been the case in most developing countries. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor argues that the survival rate of newly established businesses is generally poor, with SMEs in developing countries performing even worse than the standard survival ratesOBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the determinants that influence the intention to adopt ICT by SMEs in developing countries using Pietermaritzburg in South Africa as an example to understand this phenomenonMETHOD: The study made use of quantitative methods as its fundamental research approach. A total of 227 SMEs in Pietermaritzburg were surveyed using a close-ended questionnaire. The technology, organisation and environment framework was used as a lens to understand the study, and a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was applied to analyse the data from respondentsRESULTS: The study revealed that the technology context is the most influential determinant with a regression weight of 0.975 and that both technology and organisation contexts (-0.221) are significant determinants that influence the intention to adopt ICT amongst SMEs in developing countriesCONCLUSION: Based on the findings of the study, it is evident that SMEs need to pay particular attention to ICTs that are relevant to them, including the characteristics and resources of the organisation to successfully adopt these technologies <![CDATA[<b>Rural-based Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics teachers' and learners' acceptance of mobile learning</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) is faced with many challenges resulting in learners' poor performance at matriculation level in South Africa. However, prior research has shown that mobile learning (m-learning) can be used to alleviate the challenges of STEM education. Prior research focused on tertiary institutions' students and lecturers, in developed countries. However, very little is known about rural school STEM teachers' and learners' acceptance of m-learning. OBJECTIVES: The article investigates factors that rural-based STEM teachers and learners consider important when adopting mobile learning. Furthermore, the study also seeks to examine if there is a statistically significant difference between teachers' and learners' acceptance of mobile learning. METHOD: The research employed a quantitative approach. Stratified random sampling was used to select 350 teachers and learners to participate in the survey. Valid questionnaires received were 288 (82%), and data were analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling. RESULTS: The proposed model explained 64% of the variance in rural-based STEM teachers' and learners' behavioural intention to use m-learning. Perceived attitude towards use was found to be the best predictor of teachers' and learners' behavioural intention. The results also showed no significant difference between teachers' and learners' path coefficients. CONCLUSION: The research recommends that awareness campaigns, infrastructure, mobile devices and data need to be made available for m-learning to be successfully adopted in rural areas. <![CDATA[<b>Digitalisation strategies in a South African banking context: A consumer services analysis</b>]]> BACKGROUND: In the advent of the fourth industrial revolution, Internet-only/digital-only banks are offering alternative approaches to facilitating online transactions and banking in the absence of physical branches. As a result, traditional, offline banks may possibly experience increased pressure in growing and retaining their customer base. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental differences between traditional and digital-only banks' business models and digital user experience strategies from a consumer services perspective. As a result, in this research, we established to what extent traditional South African banks have embraced service digitalisation and compared this to the services offered by South Africa's first digital-only bank (launched in early 2019). METHOD: By means of convenience sampling, we selected the five biggest traditional banks and the first digital-only bank in South Africa (as recorded at the start of July 2019) and conducted a comparative analysis of the core digital services that were offered to consumers. RESULTS: Overall, mobile-optimised services were identified as a key digital business strategy, thereby highlighting the importance of a mobile-first approach not only to traditional and digital-only banking services strategies but also to digital business model formulation in general. CONCLUSION: While the overall South African banking landscape and banking user experience may be moving towards digital-first and mobile-first, the need for access to banking technology and services 7 days a week necessitate not only mobile-first, but accessible-foremost (i.e. access to infrastructure that facilitates access to online banking technologies, both remotely and on premise) banking business models. <![CDATA[<b>Information and communication technologies: Use and factors for success amongst academics in private and public universities in Nigeria</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The higher education sector is making a conscious effort to integrate information and communication technologies (ICTs) into the academe with a view to improving teaching, learning and access to knowledge. Unfortunately, the use of ICTs in teaching by academics in Nigerian universities is far below expectation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to report on a study that examined the underlying factors determining the use of ICTs in teaching by academics in private and public universities in Nigeria by using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) as a theoretical lens. METHOD: A mixed method approach involving the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews was adopted for the study. Data were collected from 267 academics in 3 faculties and 10 key informants who were in managerial positions at the University of Ibadan and Covenant University. RESULTS: Regression analyses indicated that only facilitating conditions (FCs) (β = −0.345, t = −3.221, p = 0.002) have significant influence on the use of ICT in teaching at the University of Ibadan. However, both effort expectancy (EE) (β = 0.380, t = 3.116, p = 0.003) and FCs (β = −0.281, t = −2.327, p = 0.023) have significant influence on the use of ICT by academics in Covenant University. The qualitative study explicates these factors: institutional policy, technological infrastructure, simplicity of use, fund and organisational support as success factors for ICT use in teaching. Further findings revealed that age had an effect on EE and FCs amongst academics at the University of Ibadan, but out of all the demographic factors, age emerged as the only variable that had an effect on social influence amongst academics in Covenant University. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that stakeholders in higher institutions should give adequate attention to these underlying factors: FCs and EE for optimal success of ICT use in teaching. The findings of this study have far-reaching implications for policy makers within the educational environs and intervention strategies on the part of the university stakeholders in supporting ICT use in teaching <![CDATA[<b>When rain clouds gather: Digital curation of South African public records in the cloud</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Many scholars lament of poor infrastructure for the management and preservation of digital records in the public sector in South Africa. For example, in South Africa, the national archives repository and its subsidiary provincial archives do not have infrastructure to ingest digital records into archival custody. As a result, digital records are left to the creating agencies to manage and preserve. The problem is compounded by the fact that very few public sector organisations in South Africa have procured systems to manage digital records. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether government departments in South Africa entrust their records to cloud storage. The study asked the questions: How are digital records managed and stored in these organisations? Do government departments entrust their records to the cloud as an alternative storage?. METHOD: Qualitative data were collected through interviews with purposively chosen chief information officers, records managers and IT managers from public entities that implemented e-government services, as well as officials from the National Archives and Services of South Africa, which is charged with the statutory regulatory role of records management in governmental bodies and the State Information Technology Agency, a public sector Information Communication Technology (ICT) company established in 1999 to consolidate and coordinate the state's information technology resources. RESULTS: The key findings suggest that although public servants informally and unconsciously save some records in the cloud, government departments in South Africa are sceptical to entrust their records in the cloud because of a number of reasons such as lack of trust in the cloud storage, jurisdiction, legal implications, privacy and security risks related to Minimum Information Security Standards, as well as lack of policy and legislative framework, specifically regarding cloud storage. CONCLUSION: Because of lack of infrastructure for management and preservation of digital records, for the purpose of increased storage and access, this study recommends that government departments should cautiously consider exploring the possibility of storing their records in a trusted digital repository cloud as an interim solution whilst observing legal obligations. As cloud storage is not very prevalent amongst government departments in South Africa, given the present challenges in managing digital records, it would be advantageous to have cloud storage tested rigorously before embarking on the exercise. <![CDATA[<b>Insight into ethical cyber behaviour of undergraduate students at selected African universities</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Worldwide, immoral cyberspace users have continued to use the Internet to commit crimes; this has caused unease and has called for quick response to the problem especially within the educational sector. The practical value of this study is in its benefit to other researchers who may be attempting to understand South African or Nigerian cyber technology user's behaviour; it may also help relevant educational authorities to get relevant understanding of behaviour in the realm of cyberspace. OBJECTIVES: This study examined undergraduate students in relation to cyber technology at the University of Zululand (UNIZULU), South Africa, and the Federal University of Agriculture in Abeokuta (FUNAAB), Nigeria. METHOD: A survey design, questionnaire as the tool for data collection was adapted and samples for the study were drawn from undergraduate students in two conveniently selected universities in South Africa and Nigeria. Overall, 450 undergraduate students were invited to participate in the survey; 380 respondents completed and returned the questionnaire, resulting in a response rate of 84.4%. RESULTS: Most of the respondents from the sampled universities reported that they were aware of what constitutes unethical cyber behaviour. Furthermore, the participants revealed that they hardly received orientation at the universities on cyber behaviour. The challenges that the students faces were reported. CONCLUSION: This study recommends that universities should sustain orientation and/or training programmes on cyber-ethics and cyber security awareness at the start of each academic year. The results of this study may spark further discussions and research on cyber technology access and use in contemporary society. <![CDATA[<b>A review of knowledge transfer tools in knowledge-intensive organisations</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Knowledge transfer is very important in knowledge-intensive organisations in both developed and developing countries. A knowledge-intensive organisation is an organisation whose operations depend on specialised knowledge. Knowledge-intensive organisations lose intellectual property when experienced employees retire from their jobs. To avoid knowledge loss, skills and expertise should be transferred from experts to non-experts on time. Knowledge transfer tools allow sharing of tacit knowledge between and amongst staff members. The study provides an analysis and review of the most effective knowledge transfer tools in knowledge-intensive organisations because an organisation's success is based on its ability to transfer knowledge. OBJECTIVES: The study had two main objectives: to identify and review knowledge transfer tools used in knowledge-intensive organisations and to recommend the best knowledge transfer tool that can be used in organisations for the purpose of enhanced competitive advantage. METHOD: A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from the research participants in knowledge-intensive organisations in Namibia. RESULTS: The results indicate that the most effective knowledge transfer tool in knowledge-intensive organisations is a community of practice; 40% of the participants considered the tool effective, and 27% considered it to be very effective. This was followed by the mentoring tool, which was ranked 54% effective and 11% very effective by the participants because it exposes mentees to new ideas and new ways of thinking. Storytelling was ranked 28% effective and 17% very effective because it is a natural learning process. Succession plans were ranked 21% effective and 12% very effective because having succession plans in place on time is essential for organisational success. Coaching and knowledge repositories were ranked below 20% on knowledge transfer effectiveness. From the findings, we conclude that the most effective tool for knowledge transfer in knowledge-intensive organisations is communities of practice (CoP) followed by mentoring, storytelling, succession plans, coaching and finally knowledge repositories. CONCLUSION: The most effective knowledge transfer tool in knowledge-intensive organisations is Communities of Practice, followed by mentoring, storytelling, succession plans and lastly coaching. Communities of Practice are important for knowledge transfer in that they encourage and promote teamwork through discussions and knowledge sharing amongst employees. The study therefore recommends the creation of such Communities of Practice in knowledge-intensive organisations for effective knowledge transfer and sharing. <![CDATA[<b>Predicting communication constructs towards determining information security policies compliance</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Ineffective communication using inappropriate channels and poor listening skills have resulted in poor compliance with information security (InfoSec) policies. Lack of compliance with InfoSec policies minimises employee proficiency whilst also exposing organisations to business risk. OBJECTIVES: This research addresses management's concern regarding why employees do not comply with InfoSec policies and proposes that how policies are communicated is integral to compliance and that effective communication can serve to ameliorate compliance METHOD: The research adopts communication theories from knowledge management, psychology and information systems to draw on important constructs which are then tested in order to identify those that can strongly predict InfoSec policy compliance. The research was quantitative and used a survey to elicit responses from a sample of 100 employees selected from 6 organisations. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that of the 10 communication constructs used in the miscellany of perception and determinism (MPD) framework, half of these (five) constructs strongly predicated compliance, namely reasons for communication, media appropriateness, non-conflicting interpretations, feedback immediacy and personal focus. The rest of the constructs were weak predictors or could not predict compliance. CONCLUSION: The research advances InfoSec literature by adapting the MPD model as integral to the development, communication and importantly, compliance with InfoSec policies. The MPD model is pertinent as it aggregates theories of communication from a number of academic disciplines and underpinnings not considered before, thereby improving our understanding on how we communicate InfoSec policies for better compliance. <![CDATA[<b>Modelling the intended use of Facebook privacy settings</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The ineffective use of Facebook privacy settings has become commonplace. This has made it possible for corporates not only to harvest personal information but also to persuade or influence user behaviour in a manner that does not always protect Facebook users. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article was to develop a research model that could be used to evaluate the influence of subjective norms, information security awareness and the process of threat appraisal on the intention to use Facebook privacy settings. METHOD: In this article, the authors made use of a qualitative approach. Literature pertaining to subjective norms, information security awareness and threat appraisal was thematically analysed using Atlas.ti. Through a process of inductive reasoning, three propositions were developed. RESULTS: This study found that it is likely that an individual's intention to use Facebook privacy settings will be influenced by subjective norms, information security awareness and the process of threat appraisal. To evaluate the behavioural influence of these selected constructs and relationships, a research model was developed based on both the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory. CONCLUSION: In this article, it is argued that the ineffective use of Facebook privacy settings may be because of the behavioural influence of subjective norms. This is compounded by the fact that most users are unaware of privacy threats. This makes these users vulnerable to Facebook-based privacy threats because the process of threat appraisal is conducted with incomplete, inaccurate or missing information. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of affective and normative commitment on helping behaviour in different online contexts</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits provided by online communities and online retailing, administrators and managers are faced with several challenges to successfully manage these platforms. Helping behaviours may assist to overcome these challenges; however, knowledge about this construct in different online environments is limited. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of affective and normative commitment on helping behaviour within non-commercial and commercial online environments. METHOD: Data were collected through online questionnaires. The sample included residential online community members who actively participated in the community during the last 12 months (non-commercial sample) or had made an online purchase during the last 12 months (commercial sample). Non-probability sampling was used and the data analysis included descriptive statistics using SPSS and structural equation modelling using Mplus software. RESULTS: In both online environments, affective commitment positively influenced the helping behaviours of online community members and online customers; however, the relationship between normative commitment and helping behaviour was only significant for the non-commercial online environment. Informational support, satisfaction and subjective norm were confirmed as antecedents of affective and normative commitment for both online environments. CONCLUSION: Affectively committed online community members and online retail customers are likely to perform helping behaviours and will become affectively and normatively committed when the community and online retailer provide satisfactory service to the members and customers. Online community members who are normatively committed will help fellow members to use the service of the online community; and should online community members and online customers experience subjective norm, they will become normatively committed. <![CDATA[<b>Strategies and tools for knowledge management practices in selected academic libraries in Nigeria and South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: This study investigate strategies and tools for knowledge management practices (KMPs), in selected academic libraries in Nigeria and South Africa. The rationale were due to divergent library routines, increasingly users', influx of information resources in university library repository and Internet, among other factors. KMPs are touted key ingredients for library practices. OBJECTIVES: Based on the aforementioned statement, the study investigate strategies and tools for KMPs in selected academic libraries in Nigeria and South Africa. METHODS: The quantitative research approach was based on survey, made use of questionnaire to collect data from respondents in the selected academic libraries in South Africa and Nigeria. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical tools RESULTS: Findings indicate that, knowledge management is practiced in diverse ways to include group discussions/meetings, apprenticeships, socialisation and communities of practice, seminars, conferences and workshops. KM tools of decision support systems, database management systems, web portals, electronic document management systems (EDMS), management information systems, were used for generic and specific work operations in the library. Codification strategy serves to deepen how new knowledge promoted KM practices in academic libraries. CONCLUSION: Universally KMPs is not new, though still at its infancy in some academic institutions in Africa. The need to continually share knowledge to advance quality service delivery in meeting users' information needs becomes essential. The study recommends insightful methods of coding information and knowledge as a way to re-organise and disseminate local collections, while librarians apply various KM platforms to regulate planning KM activities in academic libraries. <![CDATA[<b>Cloud capability maturity model: A study of South African large enterprises</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The adoption of cloud services can enable enterprises to realise improved cost structures, agility and productivity, yet the rate of adoption has been measured. Despite the benefits of cloud computing and the fact that the overall adoption of public cloud services is gaining momentum, South African large enterprises are cautious in adopting the services of cloud service providers because of perceived challenges of cloud adoption. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine how do South African large enterprises assess and advance their cloud readiness and maturity such that cloud service practices contribute positively to business efficiency and agility whilst mitigating against the perceived risks of cloud computing. METHOD: This research employed a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Sixteen South African large enterprise cases were studied by interacting with respondents associated with cloud decision-making. Data were collected from specific cases, utilising non-probability sampling. RESULTS: Reinvention of the organisation can be enabled through the advanced, integrated cloud and analytic features available through the global public cloud providers such as artificial intelligence and machine learning. A cloud maturity framework and a cloud capability maturity model to optimise and advance cloud maturity status are presented. CONCLUSION: This article guides information technology (IT) managers to achieve an optimal cloud maturity status level using a proposed cloud capability maturity model. The cloud framework developed in this study will assist IT managers and decision-makers to use evidence-based management principles to determine their maturity of cloud adoption. <![CDATA[<b>Management of intellectual capital held by Tanzania's higher learning institutions: Strategies and challenges</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The economic well-being of any organisation in the world today significantly depends on the intellectual capital possessed by these institutions. However, with its richness in intellectual capital, some higher learning institutions in Tanzania are facing financial hardships. OBJECTIVES: To establish methods used by Tanzania's higher learning institutions in managing the intellectual capital in their possession, with the focus of establishing a link between such practices and the financial performance of such institutions. METHODS: This study was conducted using a multiple case study design, employing a purely qualitative research approach. Purposive sampling technique was used to involve respondents in this study. Collected data were analysed using thematic content analysis RESULTS: The visited institutions had a wide range of intellectual capital such as human, relational and structural capital. The intellectual capital found was managed using various methods, including careful recruitment of staff and knowledge-sharing strategies. Although the practices of managing some aspects of such capital were at a very basic level at the registry points, the practice was found to be very important for the economic well-being of the institution. CONCLUSION: Tanzania's higher learning institutions possess a wide range of intellectual capital, and its management methods vary depending on the aspect of such capital. More importantly, the intellectual capital had a significant link with the financial performance of the institutions. However, the process of managing intellectual capital faced some challenges, including improper succession planning and the lack of a sharing culture.