Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Energy in Southern Africa]]> vol. 31 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The electrical energy impact of small-scale onsite generation: A case study of a 75 kWp grid-tied PV system</b>]]> This study presents an analysis of a 75 kWp grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) system with a grid tie limiter to provide energy requirements for an aquaculture centre in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. A data acquisition system, comprising power and energy consumption meters, was deployed to measure solar PV generation, demand for the facility, and energy drawn from the utility grid. Statistical analysis was conducted on the data to determine the impact of the solar PV plant in reducing demand from the utility grid throughout the day, and this was extrapolated into monthly and annual contributions by the PV system to meeting the energy requirements. Findings reveal that the annual energy yield for the system was 1 864.29 kWh/kWp. The solar contribution to the total load requirement on a 24 hour cycle was 28% (139.82 MWh) from July 2018 to June 2019. Summer and winter average contributions by the PV system were 62% and 57% respectively for the period of 05:30-18:30. The mean monthly solar fraction for operating the farm between sunrise and sunset was 0.44. Furthermore, a total of 141.07 tCO2 has been avoided due to the operation of the PV system. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of different working fluids and internal geometries on the efficiency of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collectors</b>]]> In this study, a heat pipe was modified with designed and manufactured inserts of specific profiles in order to investigate the effect of the internal geometries and working fluids on the efficiency of the evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector. The experimental rig was made of a mobile frame, an insulated water tank, a solar simulator and an evacuated tube heat pipe. Using an average irradiance of700 watts per square meter, the indoor tests were conducted first on a heat pipe without any working fluid (dry mode) and later on the heat pipe containing, in turn, each of the six working fluids for each of the five geometries. Results show that, when inserting different profiles in the heat pipe, there is an enhancement of the heat transfer and hence an increase in the efficiency of the evacuated heat pipe solar collector. <![CDATA[<b>Offshore wind energy - South Africa's untapped resource</b>]]> In the context of the Anthropocene, the decoupling of carbon emissions from electricity generation is critical. South Africa has an ageing coal power fleet, which will gradually be decommissioned over the next 30 years. This creates substantial opportunity for a just transition towards a future energy mix with a high renewable energy penetration. Offshore wind technology is a clean electricity generation alternative that presents great power security and decarbonisation opportunity for South Africa. This study estimated the offshore wind energy resource available within South Africa's exclusive economic zone (EEZ), using a geographic information system methodology. The available resource was estimated under four developmental scenarios. This study revealed that South Africa has an annual offshore wind energy production potential of44.52 TWh at ocean depths of less than 50 m (Scenario 1) and 2 387.08 TWh at depths less than 1 000 m (Scenario 2). Furthermore, a GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation was conducted to determine the most suitable locations for offshore wind farm development within the South African EEZ. The following suitable offshore wind development regions were identified: Richards Bay, KwaDukuza, Durban, and Struis Bay. Based on South Africa's annual electricity consumption of297.8 TWh in 2018, OWE could theoretically supply approximately 15% and 800% of South Africa's annual electricity demand with offshore wind development Scenario 1 and 2 respectively. <![CDATA[<b>Beyond climatic intervention: The social dimension of a biogas project in Sogwala village, Zimbabwe</b>]]> There is now considerable interest to understand how local communities experiencing climatic risks can benefit from climate change responses. As this agenda unfolds, there is need to understand the impact of climate-related interventions from the perspective of local populations targeted by such projects. Existing assessment approaches tend to concentrate on the environmental and economic impacts of projects that minimise greenhouse gas emissions. This study assesses the social aspect of a domestic biogas project that was intended to address the twin challenges of poverty and climate change in Sogwala village, Zimbabwe. A three-tier methodological execution process was adopted, involving field reconnaissance, household survey and key informant interviews. The focus was on measuring the social dimension of the changes brought about by the project, from the experiences of participating households. With a consciousness of assessment challenges associated with community projects, social capital parameters were used to assess the project's contribution to the social well-being of the villagers. Overall, results show that the biogas project has the potential to facilitate social development through improved trust and social networks. Despite the contested climatic benefits associated with small-scale household biogas digesters, projects of this nature can enhance community relationships and networks, upon which other development interventions can be operationalised. HIGHLIGHTS: • Introducing the biogas project facilitated social development. • Clean energy projects create opportunities for poverty alleviation. <![CDATA[<b>Testing concurrent benefits for Section 12L tax incentives in South Africa</b>]]> The South African energy crisis harms the economy. Tax incentives are intended to help, but rules for incentives must be understood by all stakeholders for taxpayers to be encouraged to invest. Section 12L (S12L) is relatively new legislation that allows a tax deduction for verifiedyear-on-year energy efficiency savings in South Africa. Concurrent benefits are excluded from this tax incentive, to prevent a double reward for the same activity. Although the prevention of double benefits is commonly addressed in the field of measurement and verification (M), non-technical guidelines are not available. This is a critical shortcoming since multiple professions (tax, audit and legal) need to understand the technical M requirements of S12L. This study reviews the current legislation and interpretations of concurrent benefits in terms of S12L. It shows that multiple energy-related incentives are utilised by industries and that, therefore, it must be determined if different programmes overlap, so as to create concurrent benefits with S12L. It is then critical to correctly apply M to ensure exclusion of concurrent benefits. This study also provides a simplified methodology to evaluate concurrency, based on the S12L regulatory requirements and standard M methods. Three case studies show how concurrency can occur and how M practice is applied to exclude double benefits. The test for concurrency is shown to reduce to the following question: Is the same energy saving funded twice? The tests must be done to ensure no double benefit occurs. HIGHLIGHTS: • Multiple energy efficiency and power generation programmes are required to address the energy crisis South Africa. • Concurrency tests are developed to ensure double rewards are not paid for the same energy efficiency savings. • Simple and clear communication of the technical tests to different disciplines (e.g. energy, tax, audit and legal) is important. • Proposals for policy development and communication of S12L incentives and carbon tax are made. <![CDATA[<b>Sustainable electricity for sustainable health? A case study in North-Western Zambia</b>]]> This study explores the under-researched link between clean energy and public health outcomes, and offers new insights into the link between wider access to clean energy and progress towards health outcomes, in particular the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes. This is the first study to consider the impact of a run-of-river hydropower plant (RORHP) in a remote rural community in Zambia in relation to health outcomes. Exploring this relationship establishes how the health benefits which renewable energy can bring can be capitalised upon to meet the health-related objectives of the United Nations sustainable development goals. Workshops and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of stakeholders including community members, health workers, business owners, and key people involved with the plant, to establish health and social impacts of the introduction of electricity in the community of Ikelenge. Findings are used to establish both synergies and trade-offs of the RORHP on the health of the community, and recommendations are made for the continued improvement of health following the introduction of the RORHP, to achieve further progress towards meeting SDG targets.