Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Energy in Southern Africa]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1021-447X20110001&lang=es vol. 22 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The impacts of biodiesel feedstock production systems in South Africa: An application of a partial equilibrium model to the Eastern Cape social accounting matrix</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2011000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In this paper the impacts of biodiesel feedstock production in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is assessed through the application of a Partial Equilibrium Model to the Eastern Cape Social Accounting Matrix, using canola production in the Province as an 'external shock'. Six economic indicators were estimated. The results show that investment in biodiesel production in the Eastern Cape will generate, in 2007 terms, an additional GDP of R18.1 million and 410 employment opportunities per annum, R24.3 million per annum over an assumed lifetime of 20 years in capital formation, R2.1 million additional income generated in low income households, increase in government revenue, and a positive balance of payment. These indicators imply that, given the parameters that are accounted for in a Partial Equilibrium Model, every Rand invested in canola projects in the Eastern Cape will, overall, be of socio-economic advantage to the Province. It is envisaged that further applications of such models may lead to a better understanding of the implications of biofuels in the South African economy, and thereby inform decision- and policy-making in terms of the sustainability of biofuels production systems in general. <![CDATA[<b>Development of a universal DC power supply using solar photovoltaic, utility and battery power sources</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2011000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In this paper, a universal direct current (DC) power supply system was developed and tested in order to provide uninterrupted power for DC appliances. The system employs simple Diode OR logic for the three power sources (mains from utility power supply, the solar photovoltaic and battery). The parallel combination of the three diodes at the output functions like a comparator circuit and compares the outputs voltage of the three sources, so that the highest voltage at a particular time feeds the DC output and supplies the charging current to the battery. The universal DC power supply system was tested under various operating conditions and the results obtained showed a good performance of the system. The system outputs, when all the power sources were available, during utility power failure and when only the stored energy in the back-up battery was available were 13.8, 13.1 and 12.2V, respectively. The system guarantees an uninterrupted power supply, which can be used to power telecommunication equipment, audiovisual materials, computers, DC motor driven devices and other DC appliances. A typical day solar radiation varied from 547 W/m² to 865 W/m² while the generated voltage from PV varied from 11.8 V to 13.7 V. The generated voltage from solar power source increases with the increase in solar radiation. <![CDATA[<b>White certificates and white certificate trading schemes as greenhouse gas mitigation policy options for South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2011000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Energy efficiency activities driven by White Certificate Trading schemes (WCT) achieve the objective of conserving energy, and in most circumstances, also that of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The potential therefore exists that both objectives could be targeted by a single policy mechanism. Energy efficiency activities are important from a GHG mitigation perspective as they represent some of the least costly GHG mitigation activities available to economies. However, there are some significant differences between the use of a direct policy instrument to target GHG emissions mitigation, and the use of an indirect instrument such as WCT, whose direct policy objective is to achieve energy efficiency. Most importantly, WCT utilises intensity targets, whereas GHG mitigation is required by science to comprise absolute reductions. International experience does however suggest that white certificates can be fully fungible with a GHG mitigation policy instrument such as an emissions trading scheme, as long as double counting rules are firmly in place, and the design of the schemes are compatible. Given that 80 percent of the South African GHG emissions are energy related, with energy efficiency measures in industry, commerce and the residential sector representing the bulk of negative cost mitigation options available in the economy, energy efficiency has an important role to play in the country's mitigation strategy. This paper presents results on research into WCT as a policy option for South Africa conducted in 2008 and presented at the Climate Change Summit 2009. It investigates in particular the Electricity Conservation Scheme (ECS) as an option for incorporating a WCT mechanism. There is limited experience and therefore analysis on WCS available to date, and even less on the potential interaction and linkages of WCS and emissions trading schemes. This paper therefore identifies significant scope for future research on this topic. <![CDATA[<b>Emissions trading as a policy option for greenhouse gas mitigation in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2011000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Emissions trading is fast becoming one of the most popular policy instruments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions internationally. This hybrid instrument combines the certainty of mitigation volume delivered by regulation, whilst also harnessing the power of the market through an economic approach to deliver migitation price discovery and least cost mitigation opportunities. Theoretically, this is a powerful combination. However, the realities of uncertainty and lack of information result in international emissions trading experience deviating substantially from the instrument's theoretical potential. This is of particular relevance in a developing country context. Scheme design is therefore very important to counter these market failures, and policymakers are required to strike a balance between this and introducing distortions. Given that the instrument is in its infancy, performance of the various schemes up and running internationally is inconclusive. Emissions trading proponents argue that the benefits will be realised over time, once the initial teething problems are overcome. The paper is the result of research conducted in 2008 and presented at the South African Climate Policy Summit in 2009. It considers theory and international experience in application to the potential establishment of an emissions trading scheme in South Africa. Lack of data, capacity and experience with markets in the energy sector present complications in the use of the instrument as a central part of the nation's mitigation policy suite, as do market concentration issues. Should an emissions trading be proposed, the paper argues for ways in which its design could address these complications, and align with the current energy security imperative resulting from the electricity crisis in the country, the twin political objectives of poverty reduction and employment creation of the recently elected government, and the timeframes proposed by the Long Term Mitigation Scenarios. <![CDATA[<b>Green certificate trading</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2011000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Emissions trading is fast becoming one of the most popular policy instruments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions internationally. This hybrid instrument combines the certainty of mitigation volume delivered by regulation, whilst also harnessing the power of the market through an economic approach to deliver migitation price discovery and least cost mitigation opportunities. Theoretically, this is a powerful combination. However, the realities of uncertainty and lack of information result in international emissions trading experience deviating substantially from the instrument's theoretical potential. This is of particular relevance in a developing country context. Scheme design is therefore very important to counter these market failures, and policymakers are required to strike a balance between this and introducing distortions. Given that the instrument is in its infancy, performance of the various schemes up and running internationally is inconclusive. Emissions trading proponents argue that the benefits will be realised over time, once the initial teething problems are overcome. The paper is the result of research conducted in 2008 and presented at the South African Climate Policy Summit in 2009. It considers theory and international experience in application to the potential establishment of an emissions trading scheme in South Africa. Lack of data, capacity and experience with markets in the energy sector present complications in the use of the instrument as a central part of the nation's mitigation policy suite, as do market concentration issues. Should an emissions trading be proposed, the paper argues for ways in which its design could address these complications, and align with the current energy security imperative resulting from the electricity crisis in the country, the twin political objectives of poverty reduction and employment creation of the recently elected government, and the timeframes proposed by the Long Term Mitigation Scenarios. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of the economic implications of a carbon tax</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2011000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A carbon tax should be considered among the range of instruments available to the South African government, economy and society, as part of a broad portfolio of mitigation actions. A carbon tax was one of the most effective wedges or mitigation options analysed for the Long-term mitigation scenarios (LTMS) for South Africa. The LTMS strategic option 'Using the market' reduced emissions roughly as required by Science, for several decades. The LTMS research indicated that the effectiveness increases, up to certain tax levels. South Africa might consider a tax starting around R100-200 / t CO2eq, escalating in future. Our paper presents results on research on a carbon tax in South Africa conducted in 2008 and was presented at the Climate Change Summit 2009. The efficiency with which a carbon tax achieves the goal of reducing GHG emissions depends on responsiveness and substitutability. This is shown more fully on the supply-side, while further work will be needed to fully understand the response to a carbon tax on the demand side. Careful design of a carbon tax (or other economic instruments considered) will be important to ensure that it is effective in meeting its objective -reducing GHG emissions. We propose a price discovery and adjustment mechanism that sets a band around the desired 'peak, plateau and decline' trajectory. Equity demands that poor households, in particular, be shielded from any burden. Off-setting incentives, such as food subsidies or reduced VAT on basic goods, should in finance measure that which will ensure that the package of tax and incentives is a net benefit to the poor - and not to treat the tax as a revenue-raising instrument. With appropriate design, a carbon tax can be a powerful instrument of mitigation in South Africa, and at the same time, contribute to socio-economic objectives.