Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Energy in Southern Africa]]> vol. 20 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Reduction in air pollution using the 'basa njengo magogo' method and the applicability to low-smoke fuels</b>]]> The then Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) piloted the top-down Basa njengo Magogo alternative fire ignition method at Orange Farm during the winter of 2003. In total, 76% of households reported less smoke in their homes, while 67% reported less smoke in the streets after one month of using the method (Palmer Development Consulting, 2003). Work by Nova (Schoonraad & Swanepoel, 2003) in eMbalenhle (actual environmental tests) indicated up to a 60% reduction in smoke compared with the conventional method of bottom-up ignition. To support the findings of the environmental studies, the CSIR were appointed by the DME to conduct an experiment under controlled laboratory conditions to gather quantitative data on the reduction in particulate emissions associated with the Basa njengo Magogo method of lighting coal fires. The CSIR was further contracted to assess whether the Basa njengo Magogo technology was viable with low-smoke fuels. The experiment was conducted using traditional D-Grade coal in both the conventional bottom-up and the Basa njengo Magogo ignition techniques. Three low volatile fuels were also assessed using the Basa njengo Magogo method namely: • Anthracite (volatile content of 10.6%) • Anthracite (volatile content of 12%) • Low volatile coal (volatile content of 20.8%), from Slater Coal in Dundee. All four fuels using the Basa njengo Magogo method recorded similar times of between 11 and 13 minutes from ignition to the fires reaching cooking temperature. The bottom-up fire for conventional D-Grade coal reached cooking temperature after 55 minutes.Particulate emissions from all the Basa njengo Magogo fires were similar and up to 92% lower in particulate emissions than that of the D-Grade coal in the bottom-up fire. SO2 emissions from the two D-Grade coal fires were the lowest and were identical. The highest SO2 emission resulted from the low volatile coal. The method of lighting the fire does not have a significant effect on the SO2 emissions. The Basa njengo Magogo method of ignition uses approximately 1 kg less coal to reach cooking temperature than the traditional bottom-up method. At a cost of approximately R1.00 per kilogram of coal, this translates into a cost savings of approximately R30 per month. <![CDATA[<b>Measurement and verification of a lighting load reduction project through energy efficiency</b>]]> This paper will describe the methodology and procedures that were followed to measure and verify the impact on the electricity use of a lighting load reduction project implemented at a gold mine. The lighting retrofit was concentrated on the 100 level and 100 incline of the gold mine. Since the lights were underground, it was operational for 24 hours each day. The proposed project activity aimed to reduce the electric demand of the lighting system by replacing the current types of lighting fixtures with more energy efficient units. The possibility existed to reduce the lighting load by 157 kW. These impacts needed to be assessed in order to verify the DSM impacts and savings for the client, the ESCO and Eskom. Pre-implementation metering was done in order to determine the operational and installed capacity of the original lighting system. Together with the number of lights affected by this project activity and the 24-hour operational profile, this data defined the baseline electricity use of the project. The same metering techniques and layout have been used after implementation to determine the new installed and operational capacity of the new lighting system. This project achieved 99.36% of its contracted target of 157kW. <![CDATA[<b>A review of electrical energy management techniques: Supply and consumer side (industries)</b>]]> A review of electrical energy management techniques on the supply side and demand side is presented. The paper suggests that direct load control, interruptible load control, and time of use (TOU) are the main load management techniques used on the supply side (SS). The supply side authorities normally design these techniques and implement them on demand side consumers. Load management (LM) initiated on the demand side leads to valley filling and peak clipping. Power factor correction (PFC) techniques have also been analysed and presented. It has been observed that many power utilities, especially in developing countries, have neither developed nor implemented DSM for their electrical energy management. This paper proposes that the existing PFC techniques should be re-evaluated especially when loads are nonlinear. It also recommends automatic demand control methods to be used on the demand side in order to acquire optimal energy consumption. This would lead to improved reliability of the supply side and thereby reducing environmental degradation.