Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Energy in Southern Africa]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1021-447X20090002&lang=es vol. 20 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Stakeholder perceptions in the factors constraining the development and implementation of public private partnerships in the Ugandan electricity sector</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2009000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Amidst increasingly constrained public budgets and inadequate service delivery, private sector participation through public private partnerships is increasingly being used as a means for delivering physical infrastructure. The government of Uganda, which is currently grappling with a crippling electricity power deficit, has over the years, pursued a number of strategies to encourage private sector participation in the electricity sector, but with limited success. This paper presents the findings of research into the relative importance as perceived by sector stakeholders, of factors that hamstring private sector participation in the development of hydropower generation facilities through public private partnerships in Uganda. The stakeholders considered in this paper are those representing the government and private sector entities in the development of the partnerships. A review of literature and project documents enabled the identification of relevant factors. Data was collected from the respondents by means of a self administered structured questionnaire and quantitative methods used for data analysis. Key findings from the research indicate that the respondents regarded the regulatory and legal frameworks as being attractive for private sector participation and this business environment is further enhanced by their confidence in the government's commitment to honour its contractual obligations. In contrast, difficulties in structuring and obtaining finance together with issues over the cumbersome approval process and resistance from environmental groups were identified as the most significant constraints to the development and implementation of public private partnerships in the Ugandan electricity sector. Recognizing the importance of an adequate and reliable supply of power in Uganda, as in so many other sub-Saharan countries, it is anticipated that the identification of the relative importance of the constraints as perceived by stakeholders, will inform the process of developing measures and strategies to mitigate the constraints thus facilitating the speedy implementation and deal closure of public private partnership initiatives with the ensuing benefits. <![CDATA[<b>Good for people can be good for business: The convergence of opportunities for delivering basic energy to low-income households in developing countries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2009000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Energy poverty affects more than 40% of the world's population. Fuels and appliances used by low-income groups have been of low-quality, expensive, non-durable and have posed serious health and safety risks to users. Energy transition theories, most noteably the energy ladder model, have postulated a gradual but complete move away from traditional, mostly biomass energy sources towards modern energy sources. Evidence however, increasingly indicates that the process did not happen as anticipated. This paper argues that energy transition from biomass fuels to full electricity use will not take place in SADC countries due to economic circumstances, increases in commercial fuel prices and the deficit in power generation capacity in the region. It further argues that wood fuel, traditionally regarded as a lower order fuel, is actually a renewable energy source that can meet the energy needs of rural people sustainably, if managed correctly. The paper suggests a re-evaluation of the value of wood fuel - from a low value fuel associated with poverty and degradation to a high value, renewable energy fuel, supplying much needed energy in a potentially sustainable manner. The paper outlines a convergence of a number of external conditions and opportunities which may alter household energy supply, making it possible for households to benefit from high quality, small quantities of electricity for lighting and communication purposes and extremely high quality, affordable appliances utilising biomass energy sources to supply thermal energy requirements. <![CDATA[<b>Possible developments in energy conversion using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2009000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Liquid metal magneto-hydrodynamic-energy-con-version (LMMHDEC) systems have been a matter of great interest and research & development since 1960. The various states of design and development of such systems go through a step-by-step progress with time. This paper highlights the phenomenon of direct thermal energy conversion systems using liquid metal as an electrodynamics fluid and gas/vapour as a thermodynamic fluid. An analysis of the technological drawbacks responsible for low efficiency of these LMMHDEC systems along with possible R & D solutions have been discussed in this technical research paper. The separation of electrodynamics fluid from thermodynamic fluid at various stages of MHD conversion remained an efficiency challenge of the various types of systems. To meet this challenge, a Dual-cycle MHD system has been designed in this paper. Both the fluids viz. thermodynamic and electrodynamics go through a phase change in this cycle. The thermal efficiency is optimized when one fluid goes into a phase change during a cycle and another fluid does not experience any phase change. The information covered in this paper enables an overview of concepts and the background to choose a cycle for a given temperature range.