Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Energy in Southern Africa]]> vol. 20 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Household energy, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in South Africa</b>]]> Indoor air pollution due to the indoor burning of polluting fuels has been associated with Acute Lower Respiratory Infections (ALRI) amongst children less than five years old. This paper reviews evidence of the association between household energy, indoor air pollution and child ALRI in South Africa. Studies show evidence consistent with the international literature with the likelihood of ALRI between 2 and 4 amongst children living in households using polluting fuels compared to households using electricity. Indoor air pollution is responsible for the deaths of up to 1 400 children annually. Interventions have demonstrated 46 - 97% lower pollution concentrations compared to open fires. However, the sustainability of selected interventions has been questioned in certain contexts. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence and highlights opportunities for further research. <![CDATA[<b>The potential impact of small-scale flywheel energy storage technology on Uganda's energy sector</b>]]> The energy crisis in Uganda has caused a sharp decline in the growth of the industry sector from 10.8% to 4.5% between 2004/5 and 2005/6. This crisis has escalated the power disruptions, which have had adverse effects on various sectors. While business owners have resorted to importation of fossil fuel generators that have increased the cost of production, others have resorted to battery energy storage systems to cater for short outages, which are limited in life span, depth of discharge, among others. These interventions have, thus, further increased the cost of goods and services. In addition, the rural populations using solar home systems incur high battery maintenance and replacement costs. In this paper an electromechanical flywheel battery is proposed as a better alternative in mitigating energy storage problems. It is found that by replacing the battery storage systems with the electromechanical flywheel battery, a saving of up to 35% on cost of energy can be made in the solar home systems and for the industry sector, the power disruptions could be reduced. <![CDATA[<b>Energy security and liquid fuels in South Africa</b>]]> South Africa relies heavily on imported crude oil. Domestic sources and available substitutes alone cannot satisfy the country's current demand, resulting in imported crude oil accounting for over 90% of South Africa's requirements. This high level of dependence on imported crude oil exposes the economy to potential events that either interrupts supplies or leads to higher oil prices thereby undermining economic growth and development. Widening diversity of supply, demand-side measures and maintaining strategic inventories will strengthen energy security. <![CDATA[<b>SASRAD: An hourly-timestep solar radiation database for South Africa</b>]]> A methodology is presented for the correction and filling of solar radiation data at sites within South Africa, with the aim of creating a continuous, hourly-timestep dataset for multiple locations. Data from twenty sites, collected by the Agricultural Research Council, are analysed with regard to the amount of data requiring offset or multiplier adjustment, as well as the amount of bad data. A range correction algorithm is implemented based on the 90th percentile (10% exceedance) hourly irradi-ance, as a function of site latitude and elevation. The resulting, corrected data set is given the title: South African Solar Radiation Database (SAS-RAD). Comparisons are made with two other solar radiation datasets, the South African Atlas of Agrohydrology and Climatology, and a limited set of older historical data from the South African Weather Service (SAWS). Results indicate that the SASRAD dataset matches well with other datasets, with major discrepancies apparently due to problems with the other data sets, rather than the SASRAD data. The Coefficient of Multiple Determination (R²) between the Atlas and SASRAD for monthly radiation is 0.927, and the mean error between three of the SASRAD sites and the corresponding SAWS data is 1.1 MJ m-2 d-1. The fraction of data requiring correction varied from 11% to 100%, depending on the site. The range correction algorithm was successful at correcting data that had been subject to incorrect calibration, and did not remove annual trends in mean radiation levels.