Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Energy in Southern Africa]]> vol. 27 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The South African Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme: A review and lessons learned</b>]]> The South African Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP) is a competitive tender process that was launched to facilitate private sector investment into grid-connected renewable energy (RE) generation. It has been an undisputed success in terms of capacity, investment and price outcomes. Since 2011 a total of 6 328 Megawatts of wind, solar photovoltaic and other RE generation capacity has been procured, amounting to USD 20.5 billion in investment. Bid tariffs have fallen sharply over the course of the programme and the most recently awarded projects are amongst the lowest priced grid-connected RE projects in the world. Considering South Africa's success in achieving more investment via independent power producers in four years than in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa over the past 25, the REIPPPP's design and management is likely to be of interest to policymakers in African (and other developing) countries. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the programme's tender documentation, implementation, and outcomes to date. Together with supporting research, this analysis has been used to develop a set of high-level lessons intended to facilitate the roll out of similar RE IPP competitive tender programmes in other emerging markets. <![CDATA[<b>Measurement and verification of irrigation pumping DSM projects: Application of novel methodology designs</b>]]> In South Africa the agricultural sector is a significant energy user, with irrigation pumping being the single biggest electricity-demanding farming activity. The agricultural and commercial sectors contribute 6.5% to annual South African electricity sales. Since 2004, Eskom demand side management (DSM) programmes actively engaged farmers to reduce peak period power usage. Farmers with higher power usage were also assisted to move from Landrate tariff structure to Ruraflex in order to incentivise away from peak-period power use. As part of the DSM programme, a number of large evening peak-load-shifting irrigation projects were implemented. Independent measurement and verification (M) assessments were made to establish attained savings over the contracted project life. The M of DSM projects normally have problems that complicate project assessments, but even taking this into account, the M team experienced exceptional difficulties and cumbersome M methodology challenges with certain irrigation projects. Normal baseline development methods were ineffective and novel M methods needed to be devised and developed. This paper explains the normal M methodology used for typical DSM projects and how it is applied. It gives guidance on baseline metering equipment, sampling and metering point selection. Further it demonstrates project specific issues and service level adjustment (SLA) anomalies that render normal M methodologies ineffective. It shows novel and alternative baseline development and SLA methods that were incorporated on DSM projects to accurately quantify project impacts. <![CDATA[<b>Assessing the effectiveness of South Africa's emissions-based purchase tax for private passenger vehicles: A consumer choice modelling approach</b>]]> South Africa is an important economy in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions and it has made progressive policy steps to address its national emissions. One significant national fiscal policy is the emissions based purchase tax for private passenger vehicles, implemented in September 2010. There has, however, been little attempt to assess the effect that this key mitigation policy has had on the emissions of new passenger vehicle fleets. This study uses a discrete consumer choice model to assess the effectiveness of this tax policy in changing consumer behaviour and reducing fleet emissions. It finds that the emissions reduction achieved by the tax were negligible compared to the increases in fleet emissions associated with the growing vehicle market. It is demonstrated that the structure of the tax policy does not suit the dynamics of the South African vehicle market and the policy would require restructuring if it is to more effectively reduce fleet emissions. In addition, for the tax policy to effect significant fleet emissions reductions in the future it will require the emergence of low- and zero-carbon vehicle technologies in the lowest price brackets of the market, possibly via subsidy policies. <![CDATA[<b>Investigation of an octagon-shaped chimney solar power plant</b>]]> South Africa has limited reserve electricity resources and many parts of the country have limited access to electricity, while electricity production capacity is at maximum and almost every gigawatt is accounted for. The energy crisis has highlighted the need to increase electricity generation capacity and to search for alternative energy sources. This study focuses on the solar chimney concept, which harnesses both solar and wind energy to generate electricity, especially in the sunny Northern Cape Province and Karoo regions of South Africa. The concept is an alternative design focusing on very low wind power, where an effective cone solar frustum power plant is able to generate sufficient wind flow to turn a turbine and produce electricity. The study focused on different chimney designs (cylindrical and octagon shapes) to evaluate the best performance. Simulations were performed to find the optimum design configuration to focus the research. The simulations evaluated the shape of the tower, tower base, heat transfer surface areas and efficiencies of the system. The results showed that the octagonal chimney outperformed the normal cylindrical one, mainly due to an increased airflow and the turbine being positioned at the outlet of the chimney (whereas it is at the bottom of a cylindrical chimney). The addition of mirrors increased the performance due to solar radiation from all the directions around the chimney. The results were confirmed by a pilot plant that was operated continuously for 24 months. <![CDATA[<b>Guidelines for energy management in the South African wine industry</b>]]> Pressure is mounting on the wine industry to consider energy management interventions to, inter alia, reduce energy consumption - to be more competitive, become more self-reliant, and to reduce the carbon footprint of the sector. This paper summarises the process undertaken to develop an appropriate energy management guideline for the South African wine industry. It is based on a literature analysis of best practices elsewhere, and a number of case studies across different sizes of winery operations in South Africa. The positive outcomes from energy management interventions at these cases are demonstrated, but a number of challenges are also highlighted. Recommendations are made accordingly. <![CDATA[<b>Developing skills for neutronic modelling of nuclear power reactors in South Africa</b>]]> In recent years, due to economic and social infrastructure development and growth, South Africa has been facing growth in energy demand. Addressing this demand includes building more coal power stations, however with attention paid in designing them to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A second response is to deploy more power sources using renewable and nuclear energy. The South African government has plans to add about 9.6 GW of nuclear energy to the electricity grid. Accepting that South Africa will seek an international vendor or vendors to supply nuclear plants, a certain degree of localisation of manufacture and operation should be planned. One localisation task that can be actively pursued is reactor analysis, including criticality, burnup, shielding and accident analysis of the reactor. Such development of expertise will support both economic and safety aspects of building and running a nuclear reactor. With this in mind, neutronic analysis of the VVER 1000 reactor was initiated. The government's intention to build a new fleet of reactors means it is important that the VVER-1000 reactor be included in studies done by the reactor analysis group at the School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering at the North-West University. The analysis was performed using MCNP6 for the cold zero power state at the beginning of cycle with the specifications obtained from the open literature. The input file was generated using the in-house code NWURCS. To ensure accuracy and precision of the results produced by the MCNP6 code, convergence studies of the MCNP6 models were carried out. Once a satisfactory model was obtained, the critical reactor state was calculated by adjusting the boron concentration in the water. Furthermore, the control rod worth, reactivity coefficients and ├čeff were also calculated and are reported in this paper. <![CDATA[<b>Managing a transition to green energy sources: The perspectives of energy practitioners in the Southern African Development Community region</b>]]> The Southern African Development Community (SADC) region has low energy security, exacerbated by electricity power cuts and load-shedding in almost all its member states. Green energy has the potential to contribute to the shortfall in the supply of energy required on the grid network during daily (morning and evening) and seasonal (winter) peak periods. The Statistica 12 program was used to analyse and compare responses between identified groups in the SADC region's Energy sector. Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of variance were used to examine associations between variables within the identified categories of respondents, and conclusions were made about six hypotheses. The categories of respondents sampled included: people associated with fossil fuel and renewable energy; people with experience of 1-6 years and more than 6 years; researchers and industry practitioners; practitioners based in South Africa and in other SADC countries; and a category based on practitioners' positions (junior managers, middle managers, and senior managers) in their respective organisations. The study found that energy practitioners generally support a transition to green energy sources and there is consensus that the uptake of green energy will be slow initially, driven by low costs of fossil-based sources, but the uptake will eventually grow exponentially to a point of driving industries in future. The study recommends that SADC countries prioritise mapping of green energy resources to facilitate the selection of suitable green energy options in order to meet local energy needs and environmental protection. Research and development of suitable green energy storage technologies to overcome intermittency of some green energy sources must be expedited in the region. <![CDATA[<b>Assessing the costs and risks of the South African electricity portfolio: A portfolio theory approach</b>]]> Portfolio theory is used to evaluate the cost and risk of the South African electricity generation portfolio in a bid to find out how the costs and risks of the South African electricity generation portfolio were managed following the 2007 and 2008 load-shedding events. The costs considered are fuel, environmental levy and operating and maintenance costs, for the Eskom power stations from 2008/09 to 2013/14. The results show that the current electricity generation mix is not efficient, due to high cost and risk; and following the 2007 and 2008 load shedding events the entire portfolio capacity was increased marginally and the open cycle gas turbine stations' fuel costs increased substantially. Future work would be to apply this study to the period following load-shedding in 2014 and 2015.