Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820200001&lang=en vol. 91 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Seal bites at sub-Antarctic Marion Island: Incidence, outcomes and treatment recommendations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Seal biologists at Marion Island (Southern Ocean) are in frequent contact with seals. During research activities, biologists may be bitten by seals, yet no standardised protocol for treating such bites is in place. Information on 22 seal bite cases at Marion Island was collected. Treatment of these bites varied, reflecting a need for standardised protocols for the treatment of bites. Recommendations for the in-field treatment of bites are presented. Five of the 22 cases had some symptoms which resembled 'seal finger' - a zoonotic infection, usually of the hands, that is contracted after a person comes into contact with tissues of seals or is bitten by one. However, in four of these cases, symptoms subsided within 4 days without antibiotic treatment; in the fifth case antibiotics were administered and symptoms subsided in 4 days. There is little evidence of the occurrence of seal finger at Marion Island, but this deserves further investigation. <![CDATA[<b>A feather cyst causing vertebral bone lysis and spinal cord compression in a Lohmann Brown layer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A feather cyst in the cervical region which, through complications of inward growth, resulted in compression of the cervical spinal cord of a Lohmann Brown layer is described. It is postulated that expansion of the cyst exerted pressure on the adjacent cervical vertebra and through bone lysis created an opening through which the cyst protruded, thereby exerting pressure on the spinal cord. The affected spinal cord segment was reduced to a fifth of its normal diameter. The bird most likely died of starvation because of limb and neck paralysis and disorientation. Although the cause of the feather cyst was not conclusively identified, moulting and trauma could have triggered its formation and subsequent growth. <![CDATA[<b>Socio-economic impacts of working horses in urban and peri-urban areas of the Cape Flats, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the Cape Flats townships, Cape Town, South Africa, there are more than 250 working cart horses. They serve the community with scrap metal and garden refuse removal, human transport and the selling of goods. A questionnaire was undertaken to understand the social and economic impacts of a horse and cart in the Cape Flats on individual owners and/or drivers, their households and the community. A mixture of classical quantitative questions combined with qualitative participatory technique questions were used. A total of 100 participants took part in the questionnaire, who cart with 163 horses between them. The majority (89%) identified the cart horse income as their primary income source. Apart from the participants, an additional 716 people were supported financially through this income, where the mean number of children supported was 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: ±0.42) per interviewed participant. Scrap metal transportation was the most common work and the season (winter) had a negative impact on their ability to work. The spatial extent to which a cart horses work was determined and related back to the impact on the horse and participant of the survey. It was demonstrated that the cart horse industry had an impact not only on those who worked in the industry, but also on the surrounding residents, either through their work or through supporting others with their income. This study revealed that the concepts of 'One Health' and 'Health in Social-Ecological Systems', in action as horse and human health within the Cape Flats are closely intertwined. <![CDATA[<b>Endoscopic recurrent laryngeal neuropathy grade prevalence in a sample of thoroughbred yearlings at public auction in South Africa (2013-2019)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Endoscopy of thoroughbred (TB) yearlings at public auctions is common in South Africa. Laryngeal function (LF) is a common concern of buyers of young TBs. Cancellation of sale because of LF abnormalities is a concern for both the vendor and the buyer, with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) being a common cause of sale cancellation. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of RLN at South African premier TB yearling sales. This study was designed as a retrospective descriptive analysis of upper respiratory tract (URT) endoscopic examinations to determine RLN grade, performed at two premier TB yearling sales in South Africa. Results of buyer-requested endoscopic examination from 2013 to 2019 were included. Results from the yearling sales were analysed for prevalence of RLN grade (using Rakestraw's 4-point system) and compared to similar previously published studies. For analysis of effects of gender on RLN grading, horses were grouped and Fisher's exact test was used to determine if there was a relationship between gender and grade. For comparison of the effects of age on grade, and sales year on grade, a Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 858 horses were examined out of 4149 offered for sale; there were 57.58% colts and 42.42% fillies (mean age of 18.1 months). The annual percentage for grade 1 was 84.04% ± 9.98%, for grade 2: 14.49% ± 10.69%, for grade 3: 0.71% ± 0.57% and for grade 4: 0.76% ± 0.94%. There were no other significant findings. The exclusive nature of the sale and the increasing proclivity for pre-sale scoping may have skewed the results. This study shows that RLN grade incidences in TB yearlings at public auctions in South Africa are as follows: grade 1: 84.04%, grade 2: 14.49%, grade 3: 0.71% and grade 4: 0.76%. The results were similar to that of an adult population of horses examined in South Africa in a previous study. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of clinical findings in 293 dogs with suspect acute pancreatitis: Different clinical presentation with left lobe, right lobe or diffuse involvement of the pancreas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Pancreatitis is a common clinical condition seen in companion animals. The correlation of the region of the pancreas affected to the presentation of clinical signs has not been previously described. A retrospective study on the clinical findings in 293 client-owned dogs diagnosed with suspect pancreatitis based on history, clinical signs, laboratory testing and abdominal ultrasonography was performed. Based on ultrasonography, dogs were divided into three groups: group 1: 41 dogs with ultrasonographic changes consistent with pancreatitis within the left lobe of the pancreas; group 2: 105 dogs with ultrasonographic changes compatible with pancreatitis within the right lobe of the pancreas; and group 3: 147 dogs with ultrasonographic evidence of diffuse pancreatitis. No significant differences regarding age, breed and sex were evident. Furthermore, statistical significance was demonstrated with the presence of pain in group 3; poor appetite in groups 2 and 3; and vomiting and diarrhoea in group 3. Pain is expected to occur with a higher frequency in diffuse pancreatitis, but it is not a common clinical sign. This may represent a more severe form of the disease when the pancreas is diffusely affected. Vomiting was more common than diarrhoea with both clinical signs more prevalent in dogs with diffuse pancreatitis, and this could be ascribed to gastric and intestinal tract involvement. Poor appetite occurred more frequently in dogs with diffuse and right lobe pancreatitis. A possible explanation can be attributed to the fact that the duodenum has many receptors and is referred to as the 'organ of nausea'. <![CDATA[<b>Demographics, distribution, ownership and naming patterns of pets presented to a mobile clinic for sterilisation in Namibia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study analysed the demographics, spatial distribution, ownership and naming patterns of dogs and cats presented to the University of Namibia's veterinary mobile clinic for sterilisation from small underserved towns around Namibia. The proportional distribution of pets was determined based on species, sex, age, owner gender, town of origin and naming categories. Overall, 84.4% (n = 2909) of the animals presented for sterilisation were dogs and the remainder were cats (15.6%, n = 539). Of the dogs presented for sterilisation, 51.9% (n = 1509) were male and 48.1% (n = 1400) were female. In cats, 51.4% (n = 277) were male, whilst 48.6% (n = 262) were female. Overall, the majority of pets (68.2%) were presented for sterilisation from urban areas than rural areas (31.8%). About 49.8% of men and 24.2% of women that presented pets for sterilisation came from urban areas, whilst 20.1% of the women and 11.7% of the men that presented pets for sterilisation were from rural areas. Of all the pets presented for sterilisation, the majority were male-owned (64%, n = 2206). Pets were mainly presented for sterilisation at < 2 years (41.1%), 2 to < 4 years (32.4%) and 4 to < 6 years (15.4%). The naming of pets was mainly after people (42.4%), circumstances (20.6%) and appearance (15.5%). This community engagement exercise yielded valuable demographic data indicating that pet origin, sex and species and owner gender were important factors in determining the voluntary presentation of pets for sterilisation in the study area. <![CDATA[<b>Testicular disorder of sexual development with cryptorchidism, penile hypoplasia and hypospadias in a giraffe (<i>Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Disorders of sexual development (DSD) in wild mammals are rarely described. A male South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) was identified with bilateral cryptorchidism. The testes were intra-abdominal, smaller and less ovoid than in normal male giraffes. The right testis was situated more cranially than the left and connected to a longer deferent duct with normal ampullae. One distended vesicular gland filled with mucoid material was identified. A short penis, situated in the perineal area, was directed caudally and presented hypospadias. Histologically, testicular hypoplasia was present; the epididymis tubules contained no spermatozoa and the deferent duct and vesicular gland were inflamed. The blood testosterone concentration was 16.27 nmol/L and oestrone sulphate concentration was 0.03 ng/mL. The aetiology of the abnormalities is unknown. <![CDATA[<b>Blood acid-base, haematological and haemostatic effects of hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) compared to succinylated gelatin colloid infusions in normovolaemic dogs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Synthetic colloids are commonly administered to dogs to treat absolute or relative hypovolaemia. Voluven® (tetrastarch 130/0.4) and Gelofusine® (succinylated gelatin) are available to veterinarians in South Africa. In humans, use of these products has caused acid-base derangements, changes in haematology and impaired haemostasis. We aimed to investigate these effects in healthy normovolaemic dogs. Eight healthy adult beagle dogs underwent a cross-over study, receiving Voluven® or Gelofusine® (10 mL/kg/h for 120 min) once each with a 14-day washout between treatments. Dogs were premedicated with dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg intramuscularly). Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and the dogs were maintained with isoflurane-in-oxygen. The anaesthetised dogs were connected to a multi-parameter monitor to monitor physiological parameters throughout. Catheters placed in a jugular vein and dorsal metatarsal artery allowed sampling of venous and arterial blood. Blood was collected immediately prior to commencement of colloid infusion, after 60 min infusion and at the end of infusion (120 min) to allow for arterial blood gas analysis, haematology and coagulation testing (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT] and thromboelastography [TEG]). There was no effect, between treatments or over time, on blood pH. The haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count and haematocrit decreased significantly over time (all p < 0.01), with no differences between treatments, and remained within normal clinical ranges. There were no differences between treatments or over time for the TEG, aPTT and PT tests of haemostasis. At the dose studied, Voluven® and Gelofusine® had comparably negligible effects on blood acid-base balance and coagulation in normovolaemic dogs. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of peripartum on the erythrogram of Holstein dairy cows</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Peripartum is a challenging phase for the health of cows. OBJECTIVES: This study analysed the haematological profile of Holstein cows during peripartum METHOD: Blood samples were collected on days 18, 12, 8, 5 and 2 before calving, at parturition, and on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45 and 60 postpartum. Analyses of red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and RBC distribution width were performed; body condition score (BCS) and milk yield were evaluated RESULTS: Red blood cell (the highest value was 6.10 × 10(12)/L at parturition and the lowest recorded value was 5.03 × 10(12)/L 21 days after parturition), haemoglobin and haematocrit (the highest values were 10.48 g/dL and 33.47% at parturition, respectively and the lowest values were 8.28 g/dL and 26.13% on day 30 after parturition, respectively); BCS (the highest and the lowest values were 3.50 points and 2.73 points on days 18 before parturition and 45 after parturition, respectively) and milk production (the lowest and the highest values were 21.48 L and 27.02 L on days 7 and 45 after parturition, respectively) were significantly different (p < 0.05) during the peripartum period. Of the total cows (n = 48), 41.7% had RBC, haemoglobin and haematocrit below the reference intervals during at least one collection point during the postpartum period CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that dairy cows included in this investigation suffered alterations in select haematological variables during the postpartum period <![CDATA[<b>Observations and perceptions of veterinarians and farmers on heartwater distribution, occurrence and associated factors in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: There is currently no scientific evidence regarding the current climatic or other epidemiological factors that could influence the occurrence of heartwater in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine whether climatic changes or other epidemiological factors influence the occurence of heartwater in South Africa. METHOD: A survey was conducted to scrutinise these factors using both veterinarians and farmers working in known areas in which heartwater had previously been confirmed to establish the value of each of these factors. Based on the observations, meaningful tendencies were noted, and conclusions drawn. RESULTS: These include changes in the spatial distribution of heartwater in many areas, with serious expansion, in some instances, of up to 150 km. In total, 48% of veterinarians and 42% of farmers reported seeing increase in the number of farms affected by heartwater. Climate change as a causative factor indicated by observations of increased average temperatures, milder frosts, less rain and shorter rainy seasons was identified by the majority of farmers but not by as many veterinarians. Respondents in both groups considered vegetation change an important factor. Increasing number of wildlife, especially antelope, was seen as a major factor by most veterinarians and also by many farmers. Both groups identified the movement of livestock and wildlife as an increasingly important factor that should be of major concern for both industries because it leads to the avoidable spread of many diseases apart from heartwater. CONCLUSION: Movement controls should be reinstated and reinforced by vigorously enforced legislation. The role of genetically determined resistance or resilience to heartwater infection in ruminants should be investigated. Breeding better adapted animals could provide part of a sustainable approach to the disease. <![CDATA[<b>Parasites of veterinary importance from domestic animals in uMkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal province</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study investigated the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia infecting domestic animals from three municipalities in uMkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. A total of 208 blood samples collected from clinically healthy cattle, sheep, goats and dogs from uMkhanyakude district were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, using either genus or species-specific primers to determine the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of various protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia of veterinary importance. A total of 5/109 (4.6%) cattle were PCR-positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, 33/109 (30.3%) for Babesia bovis, 24/109 (22.02%) for Babesia bigemina and 20/109 (18.3%) for Trypanosoma sp., while 3/10 (30%) of sheep were PCR-positive for Theileria ovis and none of the goats were positive for any of the detected pathogens. The co-infection of 4/109 (3.7%) B. bovis and B. bigemina was detected in cattle. Only Ehrlichia canis was detected in dogs with infection rate of 20/48 (41.7%). Sequences of PCR-positive isolates (B. bovis, B. bigemina, E. canis, T. ovis and T. gondii) showed that they were closely related to their relevant species from various countries. These findings have expanded our knowledge about the prevalence and phylogenetic similarity between protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia isolates of South African origin. To date, this is the first study in South Africa to detect T. gondii infections from cattle blood using PCR. <![CDATA[<b>Investigation of African swine fever outbreaks in pigs outside the controlled areas of South Africa, 2012-2017</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en South Africa historically experienced sporadic African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks in domestic pigs in the northern parts of the country. This was subsequently indicated to be because of spillover from the sylvatic cycle of ASF between warthog and tampans (soft ticks) in the area. South Africa declared this area an ASF-controlled area in 1935, and the area is still controlled in terms of the Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984). Two main epidemics of ASF in domestic pigs were identified outside of the South African ASF-controlled area. The first occurred in 2012 with outbreaks in Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces, and the second occurred in 2016-2017 with outbreaks in the North West, Free State and Northern Cape provinces. These were the first ASF epidemics in South Africa associated with transmission of the disease via a domestic cycle. This study found that the spread of ASF in these epidemics was mainly via auctions, swill feeding and scavenging. These three aspects need to be addressed in terms of awareness and education on the disease including implementation of biosecurity measures in order to prevent future ASF outbreaks in South Africa. Specific biosecurity measures should be implemented in the semi-commercial sector to prevent ASF-infected pigs and pig products from being moved to naïve pigs and therefore spreading the disease. <![CDATA[<b>Molecular detection of virulence genes in <i>Salmonella</i> spp. isolated from chicken faeces in Mafikeng, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Chickens have been implicated in most Salmonella disease outbreaks because they act as carriers of the pathogen in their gut. There are over 2500 serotypes of Salmonella that have been reported worldwide and 2000 of these serovars can be found in chickens. The main objective of this study was to determine the Salmonella serotypes found in poultry farms around Mafikeng district, South Africa. Salmonella was identified according to the guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (ISO 6579:2002) standard techniques. Faecal samples were collected and analysed for Salmonella using conventional cultural methods and polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S Ribosomal Deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) gene for Salmonella identification. Out of 130 presumptive Salmonella isolates determined by urease and triple sugar iron tests, only 46 isolates were identified as Salmonella serotypes of which S. Typhimurium was the most frequent with 18 (39.1%), followed by S. Heidelberg with 9 (19.6%), S. bongori with 7 (15.2%), S. Enteritidis with 6 (13.0%) and both S. Paratyphi B and S. Newport with 3 (6.5%) each. Seven virulence genes including invA 100%, spy 39%, hilA 9%, misL 30%, sdfI 13%, orfL 11% and spiC 9% were detected from these Salmonella isolates in this study. The presence of these virulence genes indicates high pathogenicity potential of these isolates which is a serious public health concern because of zoonotic potential of Salmonella. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of practical experience on theoretical knowledge at different cognitive levels</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although theoretical training of veterinary students is uncomplicated even for larger groups, practical training remains a challenge. Much has been said about the value of practical training in curriculum design. Yet, the impact of practical training on theoretical knowledge needs further research. A cohort of 89 students with very limited clinical practical experience completed an assessment at the end of their theoretical training in small ruminants. The scores obtained by the students were compared with those obtained by a group of 35 veterinarians who volunteered to participate in the study. In addition to comparing the scores between students and practitioners, the cognitive level of each of the questions was considered. Overall, veterinarians achieved higher test scores than did the students. The veterinarians outperformed the students in all cognitive levels except for 'applying' type questions where there was no difference. Different levels of experience, namely young veterinarians (n = 11), established veterinarians (n = 13) and veterinarians approaching retirement (n = 11), were evaluated against the revised Bloom's cognitive levels. When modelling congress attendance frequency, years' experience, proportion of time spent with ruminants and revised Bloom's levels, congress attendance was not a significant variable, and thus, only the other three variables remained. This investigation found that practical experience has a positive effect on theoretical knowledge. The type of practical experience and where such practical experience is included in a curriculum need further research. Working for a number of years in a specific discipline will provide the best support for theoretical knowledge. <![CDATA[<b>Haemostatic changes associated with fluid resuscitation in canine parvoviral enteritis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The haemostatic status of dogs with canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis, within 24 h of admission after initial fluid administration, has been described previously, but the haemostatic status at admission and after standard fluid resuscitation, as well as after initial fluid redistribution, has not been investigated previously. The objective of this study was to characterise the haemostatic status at admission and describe the effect of crystalloid fluid resuscitation on haemostatic variables in dogs with CPV enteritis. Twenty-seven client-owned, hospitalised dogs with confirmed natural CPV infection and 15 healthy age-matched controls were included in a prospective, observational clinical study. The volume of resuscitation fluid, haematocrit (HCT), platelet count, thromboelastography (TEG) variables, antithrombin (AT) activity, fibrinogen- and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were measured in all dogs at admission, after fluid resuscitation and, in 10 dogs, after receiving an additional 3 hours of maintenance-rate crystalloid fluids. For the CPV group at admission, the median TEG reaction time (R) and maximum amplitude (MA) or clot strength, as well as the median HCT, fibrinogen and CRP concentrations, were significantly increased compared to the controls. After fluid resuscitation, median R was significantly shorter, MA significantly increased and HCT and AT activity significantly decreased compared to admission values. The haemostatic variables remained unchanged after 3 h of maintenance-rate crystalloid therapy. The increased clot strength present in dogs with CPV enteritis at admission was exacerbated after fluid resuscitation and persisted for hours after large-volume crystalloid fluid administration. <![CDATA[<b>Do potent immobilising-opioids induce different physiological effects in impala and blesbok?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Potent opioids are known to cause negative alterations to the physiology of immobilised antelope. How these effects differ between species has not been studied. This study aimed to compare time to recumbence and effects of opioid-based immobilisation on the physiology of impala (Aepyceros melampus) and blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi). Eight animals of each species were immobilised, with 0.09 mg/kg etorphine and 0.09 mg/kg thiafentanil respectively, in a randomised two-way cross-over study. Variables measured and analysed by means of a linear mixed model included time to recumbence, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, blood gases, lactate and glucose. In blesbok, mean time to recumbence was not significantly different with either drug (2.5 minutes and 2.2 min, respectively), but in impala thiafentanil achieved a shorter time to recumbence (2.0 min) than etorphine (3.9 min). Mean heart rates of immobilised impala were within reported physiological limits, but lower in immobilised blesbok when both opioids were used (35 beats/min to 44 beats/min vs. 104 ± 1.4 beats/min resting heart rate). Impala developed severe respiratory compromise and hypoxaemia from both opioids (overall mean PaO2 values ranged from 38 mmHg to 59 mmHg over 30 min). In contrast, blesbok developed only moderate compromise. Therefore, significantly different species-specific physiological responses to potent opioid drugs exist in blesbok and impala. Given that these different responses are clinically relevant, extrapolation of immobilising drug effects from one species of African ungulate to another is not recommended. <![CDATA[<b>A review of pathological findings in impalas (<i>Aepyceros melampus</i>) in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Impalas (Aepyceros melampus) are common African antelope. A retrospective study was conducted of 251 impala cases from game farms, national parks and zoos submitted by veterinarians and pathologists in South Africa (2003-2016). Histopathology slides as well as records of macroscopic lesions and additional diagnostic tests performed were examined. Non-infectious conditions, such as acute pulmonary congestion and oedema, cachexia, traumatic injury and anaesthetic-related mortality were the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Bacterial sepsis was the most common infectious disease, whilst skeletal muscle and myocardial sarcocystosis and verminous cholangitis and pneumonia were the most common parasitic diseases. Although the retrospective nature of this study limits the significance of the relative prevalence of lesions in the three locations, management decisions and diagnostic plans may be informed by the results. Impala from game farms had significantly more cachexia cases than those from other locations. Impala from zoos had significantly more lymphoid depletion than those from other locations. These findings suggest that nutrition and pasture management, enclosure design, management of intra- and interspecies aggression and improved anaesthetic protocols could improve animal welfare and survival of impala on game farms and in zoos. This report presents a detailed survey of diseases and conditions found in impala that provides baseline data for veterinary pathologists. <![CDATA[<b>Sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the Bojanala Region, North West Province, South Africa 2009-2013</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Bovine brucellosis affects food safety, food security and human health in rural communities in the North West Province, South Africa. The World Organisation for Animal Health suggests routine sero-surveillance and vaccination of cattle for control and to prevent zoonotic transmission. Although sero-surveillance and subsidised vaccination have been in place for decades, data from Bojanala have not previously been analysed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse historical data on routine sero-surveillance of bovine brucellosis and state subsidised vaccination, in communal, commercial and dairy cattle in the study area. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional retrospective analysis of records from all adult cows bled by the state veterinary services during routine sero-surveillance for bovine brucellosis, in the Bojanala Region, North West Province, between 2009 and 2013. Fewer communal (N = 11 815) and dairy (N = 6696), than commercial beef (N = 28 251) cows, were tested. Overall herd prevalence (33.33%), differed significantly from individual prevalence (3.18%) in all groups. Communal herds had both the highest herd prevalence (38.8%) and the highest individual prevalence (5.2%). Both herd and individual sero-prevalence were lowest in dairy cattle, possibly because registered dairy herds are routinely tested. Over the 5-year study period, only 24 086 (7.15%) of the 342 500 cows eligible for free vaccination, were vaccinated. The annual number of cattle tested was highly variable. Dairy cattle that were regularly tested had a significantly lower herd and individual prevalence. Herd prevalence would be useful for spatial mapping, whilst individual prevalence could better reflect the risk of zoonotic transmission. <![CDATA[<b>The first finding of parasitic mite, <i>Parasteatonyssus nyctinomi</i> (Mesostigmata: Gamasina: Macronyssidae), in Namibia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Sixty-four individuals of a macronyssid mite, Parasteatonyssus nyctinomi (Zumpt, Patterson 1951), were identified from Egyptian free-tailed bats Tadarida aegyptiaca (É. Geoffroy 1818) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) captured in the Kunene region of Namibia (southern Africa). This is the first report on P. nyctinomi in the country. <![CDATA[<b>Putative <i>Otobius megnini</i>-associated clinical signs in horses in South Africa (2012-2018)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Otobius megnini has been associated with certain clinical conditions in horses in both California and Mexico. A number of cases similar to those described previously have been identified by the author in South Africa. This case report summarises these cases to demonstrate that the clinical condition occurs readily in South Africa and may be increasing in occurrence. The disease has minimal coverage in the literature making it more likely that a veterinarian, unfamiliar with the disease, will miss the diagnosis. The author would like to make veterinarians aware of this as a potential differential diagnosis. This study is a retrospective review of clinical data. Clinical records of patients with similar clinical signs and treatment were reviewed and grouped together as relevant cases for this case report. Ten cases of O. megnini associated neuromuscular dysfunction are reported, suggesting a link between the occurrence of the tick and the clinical condition. Clinical signs include third eyelid prolapse, localised muscle fasciculations, elevated heart rate and limb stamping. Serum chemistry changes commonly show increased aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase enzymes activities. The occurrence of the ticks within South Africa and the increasing number of cases presented demonstrate the need for more investigation into the pathophysiology of this condition. <![CDATA[<b>Superficial angiomyxoma in a pregnant cow</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 3-year-old, pregnant, Alpine Brown cow showed a rapidly growing, pedunculated, skin mass located at the umbilical region, reaching 8 kg in weight over a 3-month period after its initial detection. Six days after parturition, the mass was completely surgically excised. During the follow-up period, the cow remained in good health, without signs of recurrence, and showed increased milk production. Histological examination of the mass revealed a loose proliferation of spindle-shaped or stellate cells, immersed in an abundant myxoid matrix with admixed numerous thin-walled blood vessels. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, and desmin. Gross and histopathological features were compatible with superficial angiomyxoma, a subtype of angiomyxoma rarely described in humans, but not in the veterinary literature. The tumour did not infiltrate into the surrounding tissues, and there was no post-excision recurrence after 3 months. The possibility of hormonal dependence of the tumour during pregnancy is discussed based on such findings in some human cases. <![CDATA[<b>Human rabies associated with domestic cat exposures in South Africa, 1983-2018</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282020000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 3-year-old, pregnant, Alpine Brown cow showed a rapidly growing, pedunculated, skin mass located at the umbilical region, reaching 8 kg in weight over a 3-month period after its initial detection. Six days after parturition, the mass was completely surgically excised. During the follow-up period, the cow remained in good health, without signs of recurrence, and showed increased milk production. Histological examination of the mass revealed a loose proliferation of spindle-shaped or stellate cells, immersed in an abundant myxoid matrix with admixed numerous thin-walled blood vessels. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, and desmin. Gross and histopathological features were compatible with superficial angiomyxoma, a subtype of angiomyxoma rarely described in humans, but not in the veterinary literature. The tumour did not infiltrate into the surrounding tissues, and there was no post-excision recurrence after 3 months. The possibility of hormonal dependence of the tumour during pregnancy is discussed based on such findings in some human cases.