Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> vol. 89 num. 1 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Breed prevalence of canine lymphoma in South Africa</b>]]> Lymphoma is a common haematopoietic neoplasm in dogs. Several breeds have been shown to have a predisposition to lymphoma; however, very little information exists regarding the South African dog population. This study assessed whether any breed had increased odds of developing lymphoma compared with others, and also investigated the effects of age, sex and neutering status on disease prevalence. Two study populations and their corresponding reference populations were studied retrospectively. Odds ratios (ORs) for lymphoma in 49 dog breeds, together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI), were calculated. Age effect was assessed by calculating ORs for different age categories in one of the populations. The chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in the prevalence of the various sex and neutering categories in one lymphoma population compared with its reference population. Fourteen breeds had significantly increased odds of developing lymphoma, and one breed had significantly decreased odds (p < 0.050). The median ages of the two lymphoma populations were 6.5 and 8.0 years, with the 6.1-9.0 year category having significantly increased odds of developing lymphoma (OR 1.61, CI 1.2-2.16, p = 0.002). In one of the lymphoma populations, higher proportions of males (p = 0.033) and neutered females (p = 0.006) were found when compared with the reference population. These findings suggest that certain breeds in South Africa have a higher risk of developing lymphoma, and that sex hormones may play a role in lymphoma pathogenesis. The findings may provide useful information for pet owners and veterinarians. <![CDATA[<b>Immunological response to <i>Brucella abortus</i> strain 19 vaccination of cattle in a communal area in South Africa</b>]]> Brucellosis is of worldwide economic and public health importance. Heifer vaccination with live attenuated Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) is the cornerstone of control in low- and middle-income countries. Antibody persistence induced by S19 is directly correlated with the number of colony-forming units (CFU) per dose. There are two vaccination methods: a 'high' dose (5-8 × 10(10) CFU) subcutaneously injected or one or two 'low' doses (5 × 10(9) CFU) through the conjunctival route. This study aimed to evaluate serological reactions to the 'high' dose and possible implications of the serological findings on disease control. This study included 58 female cases, vaccinated at Day 0, and 29 male controls. Serum was drawn repeatedly and tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The cases showed a rapid antibody response with peak RBT positivity (98%) at 2 weeks and iELISA (95%) at 8 weeks, then decreased in an inverse logistic curve to 14% RBT and 32% iELISA positive at 59 weeks and at 4.5 years 57% (4/7 cases) demonstrated a persistent immune response (RBT, iELISA or Brucellin skin test) to Brucella spp. Our study is the first of its kind documenting the persistence of antibodies in an African communal farming setting for over a year to years after 'high' dose S19 vaccination, which can be difficult to differentiate from a response to infection with wild-type B. abortus. A recommendation could be using a 'low' dose or different route of vaccination. <![CDATA[<b>Rabies of canid biotype in wild dog (<i>Lycaon pictus</i>) and spotted hyaena (<i>Crocuta crocuta</i>) in Madikwe Game Reserve, South Africa in 2014-2015: Diagnosis, possible origins and implications for control</b>]]> Both domestic and wild carnivore species are commonly diagnosed with rabies virus (RABV) infection in South Africa. Although the majority of confirmed rabies cases in wild carnivore species are reported from the yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), the rest are from other wild carnivores including the highly endangered wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Lyssavirus infection was confirmed in two wild dogs and a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Madikwe Game Reserve, North West province in South Africa, in 2014 and 2015, using a direct fluorescent antibody test and immunohistochemistry. There had been no new wild dog introductions to the Madikwe Game Reserve for many years and the wild dogs were last vaccinated against rabies approximately 11 years prior to the incident. The first euthanised wild dog was the last surviving of a break-away pack of 6, and the second was the last of a larger pack of 18, the rest of which died with no carcasses being found or carcasses too decomposed for sampling. Subsequent antigenic typing of the lyssaviruses indicated that they were canid RABVs. The RABVs originating from 22 wild carnivore species, 7 dogs, and a caprine, mostly from the North West province, were genetically characterised by targeting a partial region of the nucleoprotein gene. The nucleotide sequence analyses of these viruses and two previously characterised RABVs confirmed that the outbreak viruses were also canid rabies, phylogenetically clustering with virus isolates originating from black-backed jackals recovered between 2012 and 2015 from the North West province, and domestic dogs from neighbouring communal areas. The source(s) of the mortalities and possible reservoir host(s) for the virus could only be speculated upon from data on specific predator numbers, movements and behaviour, kills, park management and the changing environmental ecology, which were monitored closely in Madikwe over several years. The most likely rabies sources were from boundary fence contacts between wild carnivores within the park, with domestic dogs or cats and/or naturally occurring wild carnivores outside the park. The associated risk of zoonotic infection and threat to important and endangered predators may be mitigated through regional rabies control primarily in domestic dogs and cats, as well as by preventative vaccination of at-risk park employees and their pets. The importance of ongoing prophylactic rabies protection by regular vaccination of highly endangered wildlife carnivores and the submission of carcasses for rabies diagnosis of any wild or domestic animals behaving uncharacteristically or found dead is emphasised. <![CDATA[<b>Proactive udder health management in South Africa and monitoring of antibiotic resistance of <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> in dairy herds from 2001 to 2010</b>]]> Antibiotic resistance of strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk is of concern internationally. The objective of this study was to investigate trends of resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics administered to dairy cows in 19 South African and one Zambian dairy herds (participating in the South African proactive udder health management programme) and to identify possible contributing factors. The resistance of S. aureus strains to eight commonly used antibiotics in South Africa from 2001 to 2010 was evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n = 2532) were selected from cows with subclinical mastitis in 20 herds routinely sampled as part of the proactive udder health management programme. The isolates were selected from milk samples that had somatic cell counts more than 400 000 cells/mL and were tested for antibiotic resistance using a standard Kirby-Bauer test with published clinical breakpoints. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance was evaluated as a percentage of S. aureus isolates susceptible out of the total numbers for each antibiotic selected per year. Staphylococcus aureus showed a significant increase in percentage of susceptible isolates over time for all antibiotics tested except for ampicillin. The overall prevalence of mastitis did not change during the study period. However, the prevalence of mastitis caused by S. aureus (mostly subclinical cases) in the selected herds decreased numerically but not significantly. Reduction in the incidence of antibiotic resistance shown by S. aureus was presumed to be a result of the application of the proactive udder health management programme. The fact that the overall prevalence of mastitis was kept stable was possibly because of the influence of the management programme in conjunction with the return of infections caused by non-resistant strains. <![CDATA[<b>Axial sesamoiditis in the horse: A review</b>]]> Axial sesamoiditis or osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) in the horse is described as a rare condition. The cause remains unknown and speculative, with vascular, infectious and traumatic aetiologies implicated. It is specifically associated with injury of the palmar or plantar ligament (PL), also known as the intersesamoidean ligament. Imaging findings are generally rewarding, and radiological changes are typical, if not pathognomonic, for the condition. Lesions consist of bone lysis at the apical to mid-body axial margins of the PSBs, with variable degrees of joint effusion. Radiographic technique warrants careful attention to make a diagnosis, and exposure factors may need to be adjusted. Perineural, intra-articular and intra-thecal anaesthesia does not seem to provide consistent improvement of lameness in these cases, with literature reporting inconsistent findings. Ultrasonographic findings include digital flexor sheath effusion, loss of the normal fibre structure of the PL at its attachment to the PSBs, abnormal echogenicity or change in thickness of the PL, and irregular hyperechoic cortical margins of the axial margins of the PSBs. Scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, although not necessary to make a diagnosis, may add valuable information regarding the location and extent of lesions. The prognosis remains guarded to poor for return to athletic function. The focus of this article is a comprehensive review of the proposed aetiopathogenesis of the condition, the prognosis and a summary of the literature findings with focus on the notable diagnostic imaging features, including radiography, ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. <![CDATA[<b>Comparing clinical effects of marbofloxacin and gamithromycin in goat kids with pneumonia</b>]]> The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of a single-dose of gamithromycin (GM) or marbofloxacin (MR) in kids with naturally occurring pneumonia. Thirty-six kids, aged 2-2.5 months, with body weight ranging from 12 kg to 18 kg were presented with clinical signs of pneumonia. The most prominent clinical findings were an increase in the respiratory rate, crackling lung sounds on auscultation, coughing, nasal discharge and an increased rectal temperature. Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma spp. colonies were isolated from microbiological examination of six transtracheal washes and lung tissues of one necropsied kid. The severity of pneumonia was evaluated by using cumulative clinical score (CCS). The CCS of the 36 kids used in the study were four and above. Kids were randomly divided into two equal groups; the GM group received a single subcutaneous dose of GM at a dosage of 6 mg/kg and the MR group received MR intramuscularly at a dosage of 8 mg/kg as a single-dose. No side effects related to the drugs were detected in either group. All 36 kids were clinically examined 3 weeks after the initiation of the treatment. Clinical signs in both groups were almost completely absent at the end of the study. A single administration of GM or MR was successfully used in the treatment of kids with pneumonia. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of body position on intraocular pressure in calves</b>]]> Tonometry is one of the basic diagnostic tests used for the diagnosis of glaucoma and uveitis in veterinary ophthalmology. The Icare® Rebound Tonometer which is a new tonometric device has been shown to be useful in a wide range of species. Eyes (n = 48) of 24 Simmental and Montafon calves with a mean age of 7.5 weeks (2-16 weeks), male and female, were subjected to intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement using the Icare® Rebound Tonometer with calves standing and in lateral recumbency. The mean IOP was measured as 9.02 ± 2.38 mmHg in the right eye and 9.08 ± 2.55 mmHg in the left eye. No age-related change was found in intraocular pressure of the calves between 2 and 16 weeks of age. No difference in IOP values was observed between Simmental and Montafon calves. Body position had no effect on IOP in calves. The Icare® Rebound Tonometer was shown to be a suitable diagnostic device for IOP measurement in calves. <![CDATA[<b>Analytical confirmation of imidacloprid poisoning in granivorous Cape spurfowl (<i>Pternistis capensis</i>)</b>]]> Reports were received that Cape spurfowl (Pternistis capensis) fell during flight and scrambled uncoordinatedly for cover and some died. Three carcases were submitted for necropsy examination, which revealed mainly congestion of the carcases and haemorrhages. Common causes of acute mortalities in birds were first excluded, but there was a history of possible exposure to imidacloprid-treated barley seeds. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is used to protect various crops against invertebrate pests. The combined crop contents and pooled liver samples collected from the Cape spurfowl during necropsy were submitted for liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for imidacloprid analysis. Imidacloprid and several of its metabolites were detected in the samples. Farmers should cover sown seeds with a layer of soil and remove any spilled seeds, as granivorous birds are susceptible to imidacloprid intoxication. Regulatory authorities should re-evaluate the risk posed by imidacloprid-treated seeds for pollinators and granivorous birds. <![CDATA[<b>Antibodies against Schmallenberg virus detected in cattle in the Otjozondjupa region, Namibia</b>]]> Several ruminant species have been shown to be susceptible to Schmallenberg virus (SBV), but adult animals usually recover after showing mild or no clinical signs. However, transplacental infection can occur and lead to abortion, malformations and stillborn lambs, calves and goat kids. During November and December 2014, malformations were observed in 11 stillborn calves from two farms in the north-eastern region of Namibia. Blood samples were collected from 9 of the 11 cows that delivered stillborn and malformed calves. All these animals tested negative for Rift Valley fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and were serologically positive for bluetongue virus, SBV and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus. Clinical findings and serological results suggested that SBV may be circulating in Namibia. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of the histology of the skin of the Windsnyer, Kolbroek and Large White pigs</b>]]> The skin is a protective barrier, and an endocrine, sensory and thermoregulatory organ. We investigated whether the skin of local pigs had beneficial anatomical traits compared to exotic pigs to withstand the increased heat loads predicted under future climate change scenarios. Full-thickness skin specimens were obtained from the dorsal interscapular, lateral thoraco-abdominal and ventral abdominal regions of intact boars (age 6-8 months) of two local breeds of pigs (Windsnyer [n = 5] and Kolbroek [n = 4]) and an exotic pig breed (Large White [n = 7]). The skin sections were stained with a one-step Mallory-Heidenhain stain and Fontana stain (melanin). Sweat gland perimeter was measured using Image J software. The Windsnyer breed had the thinnest dermis layer while the Large White had the thickest dermis layer across all the three body regions (analysis of variance [ANOVA]; p < 0.001). The Windsnyers had widely spaced dermal pegs compared to the other breeds. The Windsnyers had significantly more superficial and larger (~1 mm depth; 4.4 mm perimeter) sweat glands than the Kolbroek (~3 mm depth; 2.2 mm perimeter) and Large White (~4 mm depth; 2.0 mm perimeter) pigs (ANOVA; p < 0.001). The Windsnyers had visibly more melanin in the basal layer, the Kolbroek pigs had very little and the Large Whites had none. The functionality of the sweat glands of the Windsnyer breed needs to be established. The skin from the Windsnyer breed possesses traits that may confer a protective advantage for the increased solar radiation and ambient temperatures predicted with climate change. <![CDATA[<b>Use of butorphanol and diprenorphine to counter respiratory impairment in the immobilised white rhinoceros (<i>Ceratotherium simum</i>)</b>]]> Opioid-induced immobilisation results in severe respiratory impairment in the white rhinoceros. It has therefore been attempted in the field to reverse this impairment with the use of opioid agonist-antagonists, such as nalorphine, nalbuphine, butorphanol and diprenorphine; however, the efficacy of some of these treatments has yet to be determined. The efficacy of butorphanol, either alone or in combination with diprenorphine both with and without oxygen insufflation, in alleviating opioid-induced respiratory impairment was evaluated. The study was performed in two parts: a boma trial and a field trial. Rhinoceroses were immobilised specifically for the study, according to a strict protocol to minimise confounding variables. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the physiological responses of the rhinoceroses to the different treatments and their effects over time. The intravenous administration of butorphanol (at 3.3 mg per mg etorphine) plus diprenorphine (at 0.4 mg per mg etorphine) did not offer any advantage over butorphanol (at 15 mg per mg etorphine) alone with regard to improving PaO2, PaCO2 and respiratory rates in etorphine-immobilised white rhinoceroses. Both butorphanol + diprenorphine + oxygen and butorphanol + oxygen, at the doses used, significantly improved the etorphine-induced hypoxaemia in both boma- and field-immobilised white rhinoceroses. Clinically acceptable oxygenation in field-immobilised white rhinoceroses can be achieved by using either treatment regimen, provided that it is combined with oxygen insufflation. <![CDATA[<b>Detection of <i>Salmonella</i> from animal sources in South Africa between 2007 and 2014</b>]]> Retrospective laboratory-based surveillance was conducted on Salmonella serotypes isolated from various animal species from 2007 to 2014 at the Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, South Africa. During the surveillance period, 1229 salmonellae isolations were recorded. Around 108 different serotypes were recovered from nine different food and non-food animal host species. The three most common serotypes were Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Heidelberg (n = 200), Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (n = 170) and Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium (n = 146). These were followed by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Anatum (n = 62) and Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Infantis (n = 57). Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Schwarzengrund and Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Muenchen were recovered in 50 and 48 cases, respectively. Of the total number of isolations recorded during the period under review, 871 (70.8%) occurred in poultry and other birds, 162 (13.2%) in horses, 116 (9.4%) in cattle, 26 (2.1%) in sheep and goats, 22 (1.8%) in rhinoceroses, 16 (1.3%) in pigs, 8 (0.6%) in crocodiles, 6 (0.5%) in cats and 6 (0.5%) in leopards. Food animals accounted for 83.5% of the total isolations, with cattle and poultry representing approximately 72.7%. Forty-two (3.4 %) isolates were found from non-food animals that include rhinoceroses (n = 22), crocodiles (n = 8), leopards (n = 6) and cats (n = 6). Salmonella Heidelberg was the most frequently isolated serotype, whereas S. Typhimurium had the widest zoological distribution. Clinical laboratory isolation of different Salmonella serotypes from various hosts may aid in recognising the threat to livestock, public and environmental health. Moreover, it may also highlight the potential zoonotic and food safety risk implications of the detected Salmonella serotypes. <![CDATA[<b>Xenotransfusion with packed bovine red blood cells to a wildebeest calf (<i>Connochaetes taurinus</i>)</b>]]> A 4-month-old female blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) was presented for bilateral pelvic limb fracture repair. Clinical examination under anaesthesia revealed a water-hammer pulse and a haematocrit of 0.13. A xenotransfusion was performed using bovine (Bos taurus) erythrocytes because of inability to acquire a wildebeest donor. Clinical parameters improved following transfusion and the post-operative haematocrit value was 0.31. The wildebeest remained physiologically stable with a gradually declining haematocrit for the next three days. On the third post-operative day, the wildebeest refractured its femur and was humanely euthanised because of the poor prognosis for further fracture repair. Xenotransfusion using blood from domestic ruminants represents a life-saving short-term emergency treatment of anaemic hypoxia in wild ungulates. Domestic goats could be used as blood donors for rare ungulates where allodonors are not available. <![CDATA[<b>Laparoscopic repositioning of chronic gastric volvulus in a dog</b>]]> A 12-year-old spayed Newfoundland bitch was presented with chronic non-productive vomiting, regurgitation and coughing of six weeks' duration. On clinical examination, the dog was depressed with no other significant findings. Haematology and biochemistry investigations detected no abnormalities. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs revealed a megaoesophagus and an abnormally positioned pylorus. A thoracic and abdominal computed tomography scan confirmed the abnormal position of the stomach, together with moderate aspiration pneumonia. Laparoscopic examination of the peritoneal cavity revealed the greater omentum wrapped over the stomach, with a fold visualised between the abnormally positioned pyloric antrum and the gastric corpus. A 180-degree clockwise gastric rotation was laparoscopically diagnosed and corrected. The normal position of the stomach was confirmed before a laparoscopic-assisted incisional gastropexy was performed. Post-operatively the vomiting and regurgitation resolved and the patient was discharged. Twenty-four hours after discharge, the dog was presented with deteriorating clinical signs of aspiration pneumonia. The owner declined treatment, additional diagnostics as well as a necropsy and requested euthanasia. Chronic gastric volvulus should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in dogs with non-specific, chronic gastrointestinal signs. Radiography, computed tomography and laparoscopy are valuable diagnostic aids in making this diagnosis. Chronic gastric volvulus can be successfully reduced laparoscopically as reported here for the first time.