Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> vol. 84 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria</b>]]> Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interview-based study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations. <![CDATA[<b>Investigating the contributing factors to postmortem pH changes in springbok, eland, red hartebeest and kudu edible offal</b>]]> The objective of the study was to assess pH measurements between offal organs of different species and the association between pH taken 4 h post-slaughter and different predictor variables in the liver and lungs. A linear regression analysis was conducted on selected variables to identify the main predictors and their interactions affecting the pH of meat 4 h post-slaughter. In an increasing order of magnitude during winter, the pH achieved at 16 h - 36 h post-slaughter in springbok heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lungs was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than pH 6.0. The pH attained in springbok carcasses was (p < 0.05) below 6.0, whilst no significant differences were observed from the regulatory reference (pH 6.0) in the heart. There was a positive association between the pH of game meat 4 h post-slaughter and liver congestion. The pH of game meat 4 h post-slaughter increased by 0.11 units (p < 0.05) per millilitre increase in liver congestion and decreased by 0.04 units (p < 0.05) per minute increase in the shooting-to-bleeding interval, irrespective of the species. The lack of a statistically significant association between some selected variables and pH changes in this study suggested that either the factors may have a small effect which is only detectable with large data-sets and/or the effect may be modified by other unidentified factors. As some of the offal organs had final pH readings above 6.0, alternative measures are required to inactivate certain endogenous pathogens in edible wild game offal sourced from endemic areas. <![CDATA[<b>Clinicophysiological and haemodynamic effects of fentanyl with xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised water buffaloes (<i>Bubalus bubalis</i>)</b>]]> The present study was undertaken to investigate the sedative, analgesic and clinical effects of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine with fentanyl as pre-anaesthetics in water buffaloes and to compare the dose-sparing effect of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine on thiopental for induction and isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia in water buffaloes. Six male water buffaloes randomly received intravenous fentanyl (5.0 pg/kg body weight) and xylazine (0.05 mg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 pg/kg body weight) and medetomidine (2.5 pg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 pg/kg body weight) and dexmedetomidine (5.0 pg/kg body weight) at weekly intervals in groups I1, I2 and I3, respectively. After 15 min, the animals were restrained in right lateral recumbency and anaesthesia was induced by 5% thiopental sodium administered intravenously. The intubated animal was connected to the large animal anaesthesia machine and isoflurane in 100% oxygen (5 L/min) was insufflated for 60 min. The treatments were compared by clinicophysiological, haematobiochemical and haemodynamic parameters. Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine produced more cardiovascular depression during the pre-anaesthetic period but less depression of cardio-respiratory dynamics in the post induction and maintenance period. Quicker recovery was recorded in I2 and I3 groups. A lower dose of thiopental was required in group I3 (4.33 mg/kg ± 0.66 mg/kg) than in groups I2 (4.41 mg/kg ± 0.98 mg/kg) and I1 (4.83 mg/kg ± 0.79 mg/kg). The dose of isoflurane was less in group I3 (45.50 mL ± 5.45 mL) than in group I1 and I2 (48.66 mL ± 5.10 mL and 48.00 mL ± 6.38 mL). Better anaesthesia was recorded with fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I3) than with fentanyl-medetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I2) and fentanyl-xylazine-thiopental-isoflurane (group Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine were better pre-anaesthetic agents in comparison to fentanyl-xylazine for thiopental and isoflurane anaesthesia. Fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane and fentanyl-medetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane produced effective surgical anaesthesia and were found to be safe, as cardio-pulmonary functions were well preserved during maintenance anaesthesia with no deleterious effect on vital organ functions in water buffaloes. <![CDATA[<b>Two sampling techniques for game meat</b>]]> A study was conducted to compare the excision sampling technique used by the export market and the sampling technique preferred by European countries, namely the biotrace cattle and swine test. The measuring unit for the excision sampling was grams (g) and square centimetres (cm²) for the swabbing technique. The two techniques were compared after a pilot test was conducted on spiked approved beef carcasses (n = 12) that statistically proved the two measuring units correlated. The two sampling techniques were conducted on the same game carcasses (n = 13) and analyses performed for aerobic plate count (APC), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, for both techniques. A more representative result was obtained by swabbing and no damage was caused to the carcass. Conversely, the excision technique yielded fewer organisms and caused minor damage to the carcass. The recovery ratio from the sampling technique improved 5.4 times for APC, 108.0 times for E. coli and 3.4 times for S. aureus over the results obtained from the excision technique. It was concluded that the sampling methods of excision and swabbing can be used to obtain bacterial profiles from both export and local carcasses and could be used to indicate whether game carcasses intended for the local market are possibly on par with game carcasses intended for the export market and therefore safe for human consumption. <![CDATA[<b>Pharmacokinetics, urinary excretion and plasma protein binding of ofloxacin in water buffalo calves (<i>Bubalus bubalis</i>)</b>]]> Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of an intravenous dose of 5 ofloxacin were investigated in water buffalo calves. Plasma concentrations of ofloxacin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ofloxacin was rapidly distributed from the central to the peripheral compartment as evidenced by a short distribution half-life (0.09 h ± 0.003 h) and high K12 (4.7 h-1 ± 0.1 h-1), and was detected in plasma for 8 h. The large volume of distribution (2.48 ± 0.18 obtained in this study indicated high distribution of ofloxacin in water buffalo calves. The elimination half-life, the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve and total body clearance were 2.11 h ± 0.13 h, 6.20 mg.mL-1 ± 0.23 mg.mL-1.h and 0.81 ± 0.03, respectively. About 18.7% of administered drug was bound to plasma proteins and approximately 32.5% of the administered dose was recovered in urine within 48 h. The results of the study indicated a favourable pharmacokinetic profile of ofloxacin in water buffalo calves, which suggests that ofloxacin may be effective against urinary pathogens in this species. <![CDATA[<b>Questionnaire Survey on the Occurrence of Risk factors for <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> infection amongst Farmers in Thika District, Kenya</b>]]> A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst farmers in Thika District, Kenya. Interviews were conducted in a total of 385 households using a structured questionnaire. The water consumed at household level originated from taps (74.3%), rivers or streams (15.1%), wells (5.4%) and boreholes (5.2%). A number of households (46.8%) consumed water without boiling or applying any form of treatment. All respondents washed vegetables before cooking, whilst 99.0% washed fruits before eating. Boiled milk was preferred by 99.5% of the farmers. The majority (85.2%) consumed beef more often, whilst 1.6% consumed pork. The majority (98.7%) consumed thoroughly cooked meat. Meat was preserved by 17% of farmers. Only four farmers (1.2%) who practised mixed farming used gloves when handling livestock manure. Five farmers (1.6%) reported the occurrence of abortion in ruminants and pigs on their farms within the last two years before the study. Almost half (44.9%) of the households owned cats, which were kept mainly as pets (79.8%) and for deterring rodents (20.2%). The majority of households (91.3%) fed the cats on leftovers, whilst 8.1% fed cats with raw offal. Sixteen households (9.2%) provided housing for cats. Only five households (2.8%) had litter boxes, but none of the households with litter boxes used gloves when cleaning them out. Disposal of cat faeces was done mainly by women (55.5%). Only one farmer (0.3%) had some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, but was not aware of the transmission mechanism. The study highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of risk factors for toxoplasmosis. <![CDATA[<b>Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria</b>]]> Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd. <![CDATA[<b>Circulation of bluetongue virus in goats in the Karamoja region of Uganda</b>]]> The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in indigenous goats from the Karamoja region of northern Uganda was investigated. A total of 300 goats were sampled (serum and whole blood) from five districts within the Karamoja region. The samples were analysed for the presence of bluetongue (BT) antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for the presence of BTV viral RNA by real-time Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), because BTV is an RNA virus. Of the 300 goats tested, 269 (90%) were positive for BTV antibodies, indicating high levels of BTV circulation within the region. Out of the 150 whole blood samples tested for the presence of the virus by realtime RT-PCR, 84 (56%) were positive for BTV RNA. This study, which is the first of its kind in Uganda, showed a high seroprevalence of BT antibodies and active circulation of BTV in a high proportion of goats in the Karamoja region. <![CDATA[<b>A comparison between tick species collected in a controlled and control free area on a game ranch in South Africa</b>]]> Despite the large number of collection records, there are no recent collections of ixodid ticks of this magnitude in the Waterberg area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Free-living ticks on a commercial game farm were obtained by a total of 432 drag-samples in eight sample sites from September 2003 to August 2008. The ticks were collected to establish the difference between tick species and densities associated with acaricide-controlled (semi-intensive) and control-free areas on a game farm in the Thabazimbi District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of eight tick species were collected, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis elliptica, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus zambeziensis and Rhipicephalus spp. The most abundant tick species collected was Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. The difference in species and numbers reflects the effectiveness of acaricide treatment against ticks and its relevance to tick numbers on a game farm. <![CDATA[<b>Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010-2011</b>]]> Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, deadend introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population. <![CDATA[<b>The comparison of bolus tracking and test bolus techniques for computed tomography thoracic angiography in healthy beagles</b>]]> Computed tomography thoracic angiography studies were performed on five adult beagles using the bolus tracking (BT) technique and the test bolus (TB) technique, which were performed at least two weeks apart. For the BT technique, 2 mL/kg of 300 mgl/mL iodinated contrast agent was injected intravenously. Scans were initiated when the contrast in the aorta reached 150 Hounsfield units (HU). For the TB technique, the dogs received a test dose of 15% of 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent, followed by a series of low dose sequential scans. The full dose of the contrast agent was then administered and the scans were conducted at optimal times as identified from time attenuation curves. Mean attenuation in HU was measured in the aorta (Ao) and right caudal pulmonary artery (rCPA). Additional observations included the study duration, milliAmpere (mA), computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI[vol]) and dose length product (DLP). The attenuation in the Ao (BT = 660 52 HU ± 138 49 HU, TB = 469 82 HU ± 199 52 HU, p = 0.13) and in the rCPA (BT = 606 34 HU ± 143 37 HU, TB = 413 72 HU ± 174.99 HU, p = 0.28) did not differ significantly between the two techniques. The BT technique was conducted in a significantly shorter time period than the TB technique (p = 0.03). The mean mA for the BT technique was significantly lower than the TB technique (p = 0.03), as was the mean CTDI(vol) (p = 0.001). The mean DLP did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p = 0.17). No preference was given to either technique when evaluating the Ao or rCPA but the BT technique was shown to be shorter in duration and resulted in less DLP than the TB technique. <![CDATA[<b>Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of <i>Staphylococcus intermedius</i> isolates from clinical cases of canine pyoderma in South Africa</b>]]> Successful treatment of canine pyoderma has become compromised owing to the development of antimicrobial resistance with accompanying recurrence of infection. Canine skin samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for microbiological culture and sensitivity between January 2007 and June 2010, from which Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, were selected for this investigation. Antimicrobial resistance of S. intermedius was most prevalent with reference to ampicillin followed by resistance to tetracycline and then potentiated sulphonamides. In general, antimicrobial resistance was low and very few methicillin-resistant isolates were detected. Temporal trends were not noted, except for ampicillin, with isolates becoming more susceptible, and potentiated sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole), with isolates becoming more resistant. In general, both the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration tests yielded similar results for the antimicrobial agents tested. The main difference was evident in the over-estimation of resistance by the Kirby-Bauer test for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, penicillin and doxycycline. Knowledge of trends in bacterial resistance is important for veterinarians when presented with canine pyoderma. Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. intermedius isolated from canine pyodermas will guide veterinarians' use of the most appropriate agent and encourage prudent use of antimicrobials in companion animals. <![CDATA[<b>Fat absorption and deposition in Japanese quail (<i>Coturnix coturnix japonica</i>) fed a high fat diet</b>]]> Dietary fat contributes significantly to the energy requirements of poultry. Not all species are able to increase their absorptive capacity for fats in response to a high fat diet. The effects of a high fat diet (10% canola oil) on the lipid absorption and deposition in the liver, breast and thigh muscles of male and female Japanese quail were investigated. Thirty-eight Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly divided into a high fat diet (HFD) and a standard diet (STD) group. The birds were fed the diets for seven weeks after which half of the birds were subjected to oral fat loading tests (OFLT) with plant oils containing long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides. The remaining birds were included for the lipid deposition measurements. Thereafter the birds were euthanised, blood samples were collected and liver, breast and thigh muscle lipid deposition was determined. Female quail on both diets had significantly higher plasma triglyceride concentrations (p < 0.05) compared with their male counterparts. No significant differences in plasma triglyceride concentrations were observed after the OFLTs. Female quail had significantly heavier liver masses compared with the males but there was no significant difference in the liver lipid content per gram liver mass. Female quail on the HFD had higher lipid content (p < 0.05) in the breast muscle compared with their male counterparts whilst male quail on the HFD had higher lipid content (p < 0.05) in the thigh muscle in comparison with both males and females on the standard diet. Dietary supplementation with 10% canola oil did not alter gastrointestinal tract lipid absorption, but it caused differences between the sexes in muscle lipid accumulation, the physiological significance of which requires further investigation. <![CDATA[<b>Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria</b>: <b>Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates</b>]]> The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%). <![CDATA[<b>Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection</b>: <b>A lion case study</b>]]> Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site. <![CDATA[<b>Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (<i>Bos grunniens</i>)</b>]]> The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm -500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals. <![CDATA[<b>Experimental study on histopathological changes and tissue tropism of Iranian infectious bronchitis serotype 793/B-like virus in SPF chickens</b>]]> Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is prevalent in all countries with intensive poultry flocks. This disease is characterised primarily by respiratory signs, but some IBV strains may also infect other organs such as the intestinal and urogenital tracts. The aim of this study was to characterise the histopathological lesions and tissue tropism of Iranian isolate IR/773/2001(793/B) of avian infectious bronchitis virus in different organs of experimentally infected SPF chickens. Forty-two one-day-old, specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were divided randomly into two groups (21 chicks to each group). At the age of 12 days, one group was inoculated intra-ocularly with 10³ EID50 of the 793/B isolate, and the other was kept as the control group. Tissue samples were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 days post-inoculation (PI). The IBV virus was detected in the caecal tonsils and cloaca from the 2nd to the 12th day PI. The virus was also detected in the kidneys from days 4-10 PI and in the bursa of Fabricius from days 4-12 PI. The virus was detected in the trachea, lungs and thymus. The most obvious histopathological lesions were found in the trachea, kidney, lungs and bursa of Fabricius. Amongst the lymphoid tissues, histopathological changes were found most frequently in the bursa of Fabricius. The results of this study indicated that the 793/B serotype of IBV is unlikely to cause mortality, severe clinical signs or gross lesions in infected chickens, but its replication in some tissues including the bursa of Fabricius could render birds susceptible to other micro-organisms. <![CDATA[<b>Canine aflatoxicosis outbreak in South Africa (2011)</b>: <b>A possible multi-mycotoxins aetiology</b>]]> This study analysed 60 dog food samples obtained from commercial outlets following the 2011 aflatoxicosis outbreak in South Africa. Results obtained from the selected dog food samples revealed that 87% of samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs) (mainly AFB1 and AFB2). Amongst these samples, 45 (75%) were above the 20 parts per billion (ppb) set by most countries and 10 ppb regulated by the Fertilizers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act (Act No. 36 of 1947) for South Africa. In addition to AFs, other mycotoxins were also detected in the same samples with fumonisins (FBs) (mainly FB1and FB2) contaminating 98% of samples with 49 (81.81) above the tolerable limit of 1000 ppb in feedstuff set up by the Federal Drug Agency (FDA) (USA). The FBs mean obtained was 1556 ppb (Table 1) with contamination varying between 5.2 and 4653.8 ppb. Ochratoxin A (OTA) was detected in 41 (68%) of the analysed samples, with a mean value of 13.7 ppb. Amongst these samples, 15 (25%) were above the 20 ppb highest limit set by the Codex Alimentarius standard. Zearalenone (ZEA) was detected in 96% of samples, with a mean value of 354.1 ppb. Thirty-three samples (55%) were above the regulated level 1000 ppb tolerable limit. The recoveries were up to ten times the tolerable daily limits of the FDA and EU. The correlation between mycotoxin findings and clinical signs reported on patients presented for aflatoxicosis led to the conclusion that the outbreak was associated with the presence of other mycotoxins found simultaneously in the analysed samples by additive or synergistic effects. <![CDATA[<b>Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria</b>: <b>Implications for livestock disease management and public health</b>]]> After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in southwestern Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg) and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg) in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38) were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney - findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline) and 0.017% (penicillin-G) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised. <![CDATA[<b>Comparative <i>Brucella abortus</i> antibody prevalence in cattle under contrasting husbandry practices in Uganda</b>]]> A study was conducted in the Luwero and Nakasongola districts in central Uganda to determine and compare the prevalence and distribution of antibodies against Brucella abortus in cattle under contrasting husbandry practices, using two serological tests. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were systematically sampled from 29 farms and subsequently tested using the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Indirect Antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA). The overall prevalence of antibodies against Brucella abortus in the Nakasongola and Luwero districts was 2.4% and 4.7% on RBPT, compared with 1.2% and 3.34 % on I-ELISA. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by RBPT and indirect antibody ELISA (p > 0.05). It was noted that antibodies against Brucella abortus were widely spread over different farms regardless of the cattle grazing system (p > 0.05). Based on the findings, it is feasible to use RBPT as a cheaper screening alternative for brucellosis. A comprehensive national brucellosis study should be undertaken to study the epidemiology and prevalence of brucellosis in Uganda. <![CDATA[<b>Creation of a contusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle using a drop-mass technique</b>]]> This study reports our experience in developing a simple, minor injury. After reviewing the literature, a 'drop-mass' method was selected where a 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped up to 15 times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis of New Zealand white rabbits. To determine the extent of injury and degree of healing, biopsies were obtained six days after injury from the healing vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH) and examined by light microscopy (LM). The 'optimal' injury was created after seven drops, where quite severe, mild and moderately severe trauma was caused to muscle in the juxta-bone, mid and sub-dermal regions respectively. In each region, the muscle exhibited features of healing six days after injury. The 'drop-mass' technique appears to cause a contusion within a single muscle of at least three degrees of severity. This previously unreported observation is of particular importance to other researchers wishing to investigate contusion injury in other animal models. <![CDATA[<b>Molecular detection of Yaba monkey tumour virus from a vervet monkey</b>]]> Yaba monkey tumour virus (YMTV) was first diagnosed in a colony of captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been implicated as the cause of cutaneous nodules in wild baboons (Papio species), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). This article reports a case of cutaneous pox lesions caused by YMTV in a free-ranging adult female vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) from the Umkomaas coastal area in South Africa. The virus was identified by molecular sequencing from fragments of the insulin metalloprotease-like protein and intracellular mature virion membrane protein as well as the DNA polymerase genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. Although human disease caused by YMTV is normally mild, it is recommended that persons in contact with non-human primates in the area of Umkomaas who develop cutaneous lesions should inform their doctors of the possibility of this infection. The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first diagnosis of YMTV in South Africa and in vervet monkeys. <![CDATA[<b>Genetic testing of canine degenerative myelopathy in the South African Boxer dog population</b>]]> Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive disease process that is diagnosed late in life and mainly affects the pelvic limbs. Factors that make an ante-mortem definitive diagnosis of DM include: an insidious onset and clinical manifestation that mimics other disease processes of the pelvic limbs (hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament rupture, etc.) or there may even be concurrent disease processes, old-age onset and lack of reliable diagnostic methods. Until recently, South African dog owners had to submit samples to laboratories overseas for genetic testing in order to confirm an affected dog (homozygous A/A) and to aid in the ante-mortem diagnosis of DM. Only affected dogs have been confirmed to manifest the clinical signs of DM. This study aimed to verify whether genetic testing by a local genetic laboratory was possible in order to detect a missense mutation of the superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) that is implicated in causing the clinical signs of DM. The study also aimed to detect and map the inheritance of this disease process in a local Boxer dog population where the pedigree of the sampled population was known. Venous blood collected from Boxer dogs using a simple random sampling technique. The samples were genotyped for the SOD1:c.118G>A polymorphism. Carrier and affected Boxer dogs were detected. A pedigree that demonstrated the significance of inheriting a carrier or affected state in the population was mapped. The present study concludes that genotyping of the missense mutation in Boxer dogs is possible in South Africa. There are carrier and affected Boxer dogs in the local population, making DM a plausible diagnosis in aged dogs presenting with pelvic limb pathology. <![CDATA[<b>Pharmacokinetics and skin concentrations of lincomycin after intravenous and oral administration to cats</b>]]> The aim of the present study was to describe the plasma pharmacokinetic profile and skin concentrations of lincomycin after intravenous administration of a 15% solution and oral administration of 300 mg tablets at a dosing rate of 15 mg/kg to cats. Susceptibility of staphylococci (n = 31) and streptococci (n = 23) strains isolated from clinical cases was also determined. Lincomycin plasma and skin concentrations were determined by microbiological assay using Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341 as test microorganism. Susceptibility was established by the antimicrobial disc diffusion test. Individual lincomycin plasma concentration-time curves were analysed by a non-compartmental approach. After intravenous administration, volume of distribution, body clearance and elimination half-life were 0.97 L/kg ± 0.15 L/kg, 0.17 L/kg ± 0.06 L/ and 4.20 h ± 1.12 h, respectively. After oral administration, peak plasma concentration, time of maximum plasma concentration and bioavailability were 22.52 µg/mL ± 10.97 µg/mL, 0.80 h ± 0.11 h and 81.78% ± 24.05%, respectively. Two hours after lincomycin administration, skin concentrations were 17.26 µg/mL ± 1.32 µg/mL (intravenous) and 16.58 µg/mL ± 0.90 µg/mL (oral). The corresponding skin: plasma ratios were 2.08 ± 0.47 (intravenous) and 1.84 ± 0.97 (oral). The majority of staphylococci and streptococci tested in this study were susceptible to lincosamides (87.09% and 69.56%, respectively). In conclusion, lincomycin administered orally at the assayed dose showed a good pharmacokinetic profile, with a long elimination half-life and effective skin concentration. Therefore, it could be a good first option for treating skin infections in cats. <![CDATA[<b>The suitability of the Triple trap for the collection of South African livestock-associated <i>Culicoides</i> species</b>]]> The relatively large number of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) that can be collected with a light trap makes it the most widely used tool for this purpose. However, the majority of these traps were originally designed for collecting mosquitoes. The evaluation and improvement of traps to increase their effectiveness in collecting Culicoides midges will unavoidably form part of research on these insects. In the present study the efficiency of the Triple trap for collecting livestock-associated Culicoides midges was compared with that of the Onderstepoort 220 V, the BG-sentinel and the mini-CDC traps. A unique feature of the Triple trap is that selected surfaces are coated with TiO2 (titanium dioxide) which, in the presence of ultra violet light, acts as a photo-catalyser to produce CO2, which in turn may attract blood-feeding insects. Overall, the Onderstepoort trap collected significantly higher numbers of midges than the others. Relative efficiency varied between different occasions and under some conditions, for example periods with low midge abundance during the winter, the mean numbers collected with the Triple trap did not differ significantly from those of the Onderstepoort or BG-sentinel traps. By replacing the collection chamber of the Triple trap with a sock and beaker, similar to that of the Onderstepoort trap, it can effectively be used for the collection of Culicoides midges. <![CDATA[<b>The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa</b>]]> African horse sickness (AHS) is a controlled animal disease in South Africa, and as a result of the high mortality rates experienced, outbreaks in the AHS controlled area in the Western Cape Province have a significant impact on affected properties as well as on the exportation of live horses from the AHS free zone in metropolitan Cape Town. An outbreak of AHS serotype 1 occurred in the surveillance zone of the AHS controlled area of the Western Cape during the summer of 2011. The epicentre of the outbreak was the town of Mamre in the magisterial district of Malmesbury and the outbreak was confined to a defined containment zone within this area by movement control of all equids and a blanket vaccination campaign. A total of 73 cases of AHS were confirmed during this outbreak, which included four confirmed subclinical cases. The morbidity rate for the outbreak was 16% with a mortality rate of 14% and a case fatality rate of 88%. Outbreak disease surveillance relied on agent identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays, which is novel for an AHS outbreak in South Africa. The source of this outbreak was never confirmed although it is believed to be associated with the illegal movement of an infected animal into the Mamre area. This detailed description of the outbreak provides a sound scientific basis to assist decision making in future AHS outbreaks in the AHS controlled area of South Africa and in countries where AHS is an exotic or emerging disease. <![CDATA[<b>Serum neutralising antibody response of seronegative horses against lineage 1 and lineage 2 West Nile virus following vaccination with an inactivated lineage 1 West Nile virus vaccine</b>]]> Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains are endemic in South Africa and cause severe neurological disease in horses. An inactivated lineage 1 vaccine, Duvaxyn WNV, protects mice against challenge with a neuroinvasive South African lineage 2 strain of WNV. To evaluate the potential of Duvaxyn WNV to protect horses against lineage 2 strains of WNV, serum neutralising antibody responses of horses against lineage 1 WNV strain NY385/99 and lineage 2 WNV strain SPU93/01, isolated from a human with meningo-encephalitis in South Africa, were compared following vaccination with two doses of Duvaxyn WNV, 28 days apart, and a third dose one year later. Twenty-two seronegative horses were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: 16 to a vaccinated group and six retained as unvaccinated controls. Blood samples were taken from all horses on study days 0, 28, 35, 42, 49, 91, 141, 182, 231, 274, 322, 364 and 413. Primovaccination with Duvaxyn WNV resulted in high titres of serum neutralising antibodies against both strains. Following a single dose of Duvaxyn WNV on day 399, one year after primovaccination, there was a strong anamnestic response with a log(2)5-fold rise in the titres of neutralising antibodies against strains NY385/99 and SPU93/01. These results provide further evidence that Duvaxyn WNV is likely to protect horses against infection with lineage 2 strains of WNV and that a single annual booster may be sufficient to maintain immunity against lineage 2 WNV infection in horses. <![CDATA[<b>The effects of prolonged oral administration of the disinfectant calcium hypochlorite in Nigerian commercial cockerels</b>]]> This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged oral administration of calcium hypochlorite in the drinking water of commercial cockerels. It was carried out in order to ascertain probable toxicity associated with prolonged exposure to calcium hypochlorite. Thirty-two healthy birds were used; they were grouped into four groups of eight. Group 1, which served as the control, received 10 mL/kg body weight of physiological saline. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.0375 g, 0.375 g and 0.75 g of calcium hypochlorite per 10 litres of drinking water for six weeks respectively. Six weeks after the administration of calcium hypochlorite, blood was collected from the jugular vein to assess liver function, lipid profiles and for markers of oxidative stress. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in alanine aminotransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. Also, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels compared with the control. There was a significant increase in malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generation with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum glutathione level in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. In this study, calcium hypochlorite-induced hepatic damage via oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant defense system was found. Therefore, prolonged exposure of chickens to calcium hypochlorite is potentially harmful. <![CDATA[<b>First report of polymelia and a rudimentary wing in a Nigerian Nera black chicken</b>]]> A case of polymelia with a rudimentary wing is described in an eight-week-old Nera black chicken (Gallus domesticus). It is a rare disorder with chromosomal aberrations, which are associated with congenital limb malformations. The condition was observed during routine physical examination of a flock of 2000 poultry birds in the month of February 2008 in Ibadan, Nigeria. After physical examination, the bird was found to have two extra well-developed legs, which were shorter than the normal legs. These extra legs were also found to be non-functional. Similarly, a rudimentary wing, which was highly vestigial, was found on the left lateral side of the bird very close to the cloaca. The bird died at the age of eight weeks. This is the first reported case of polymelia with a rudimentary wing in a domestic chicken in Nigeria. <![CDATA[<b>The efficacy of a slow-release albendazole capsule against <i>Haemonchus contortus</i> with known resistance to albendazole</b>]]> Controlled-release albendazole capsules (CRCs) are currently registered for use in Australia and New Zealand as anthelmintic treatment in sheep. However, reports on the efficacy of such products on resistant parasite populations are sometimes controversial. This is the first study to report on the efficacy of such products under South African field conditions in sheep harbouring a population of Haemonchus contortus with known multiple anthelmintic resist,ance, including to albendazole. Treatment groups were comprised of CRC-treated and single dose albendazole-treated sheep, as well as negative controls. Groups were compared by using faecal egg count reduction tests, FAMACHA© anaemia scoring, conception rates and comparative weight gains over three and a half months. Based on a comparison of faecal egg counts, no advantage could be found using CRCs. Moreover, the use of the product actually decreased weight gain when compared with the control group animals. <![CDATA[<b>Schmallenberg virus - Is it present in South Africa?</b>]]> In July 2006, a case of two out of three lambs born to one ewe in a flock of 45 had signs that, in retrospect, were possibly consistent with Schmallenberg virus infection. This occurred in the Onderstepoort area (Gauteng Province) but a definitive diagnosis was not made. Then, in May 2008, a farmer in the Delmas area (Mpumalanga Province) reported that deformed lambs had been born to several ewes in the flock. Six of the approximately 50 mated ewes gave birth to lambs showing varying degrees of arthrogryposis, torticollis, kyphosis, mandibular brachygnathia and hydrocephalus. Of these, only two were born alive but they died within a few hours. Blood was collected from the ewes with deformed lambs, a random sample of ewes that had given birth to normal lambs and a lamb that was normal but had a twin that was deformed. The samples were tested for Wesselsbron and Akabane antibodies using a complement fixation test and a haemagglutination/haemagglutination inhibition test that were available at that time. Bluetongue virus antibodies were also tested for using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. All samples showed negative results for all diseases tested. At the time Rift Valley fever virus had not been diagnosed in that region for many years and so it was not included in the testing. It is unlikely that this was the cause as no liver pathology was detected on postmortem examination of the lambs and no adult ewes had died. The farmer reported that another farm just a few kilometres away experienced the same deformities in some of their lambs but this farm was not investigated. During investigation it was thought that the cause was possibly a new strain of Akabane virus, although there was no way to confirm it. However, with the recent discovery of the Schmallenberg virus, it is possible that this virus has been present in South Africa for at least the last four years without being identified. <![CDATA[<b>Basilar skull fracture in a Thoroughbred colt</b>: <b>Radiography or computed tomography?</b>]]> A two-year-old Thoroughbred colt was presented to the Equine Clinic, Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital for head trauma after rearing and falling backwards, hitting his head on the ground. Following medical therapy for acute onset neurological impairment secondary to a suspected basilar skull fracture, the horse was anaesthetised and computed tomography of the skull was performed. A diagnosis of a comminuted basilar skull fracture was made and skull radiographs were taken for comparison. The horse was subsequently euthanased owing to the poor prognosis; necropsy findings were compatible with imaging findings. The value and limitation of computed tomography versus radiography for the diagnosis of basilar skull fracture are discussed in this report. <![CDATA[<b>Canine spirocercosis-associated extraskeletal osteosarcoma with central nervous system metastasis</b>]]> A five-year-old male Boerboel presented for examination, collapsed for an unknown period of time. On clinical examination, multifocal subcutaneous masses and enlarged prescapular lymph nodes as well as neurological deficits that suggested a multifocal neurological syndrome were found. Fine needle aspirates of the prescapular lymph nodes revealed cells suggestive of osteosarcoma. Radiographs showed foci of mineralisation within the soft tissue masses as well as diffuse pulmonary metastasis and a caudodorsal mediastinal mass believed to be a Spirocerca lupi nodule. Computed tomography imaging, necropsy and histopathology confirmed S. lupi oesophageal neoplastic transformation (extraskeletal osteosarcoma), believed to be the primary lesion, and the majority of secondary metastasis to the brain, spine, heart, multiple muscular groups and abdominal organs. This is the first known report of extraskeletal osteosarcoma metastasis to the brain and spinal cord in a dog. <![CDATA[<b>Clinical, ultrasonography and haematology of aglepristone-induced mid-gestation pregnancy terminations in rabbits</b>]]> Aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in cats, dogs and rabbits. Although no serious side effects have been reported, there is no information available about the effects of the medicine on haematological parameters. For the first time clinical and ultrasonographic features and haematological profiles were evaluated in rabbits treated with aglepristone 15 and 16 days after mating. Ten healthy 10-14 month-old New Zealand White female rabbits were mated with fertile bucks and pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasound 15 days later. Of these, 5 does were treated with aglepristone (test group, n = 5) whilst the remaining five (control group, n = 5) were treated with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl). The treatment dose was 10 mgkg body weight, administered subcutaneously once daily on two consecutive days (day 15 and 16 post mating). Ultrasonographic, clinical and haematological assessments were performed daily. Aglepristone treatment induced embryonic fluid resorptions without foetal death in mid-gestation terminations. Following ultrasonographic and haematological examinations, it was established that aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in rabbits. <![CDATA[<b>Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis associated with otitis media-interna in goats</b>]]> Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis or caseous lymphadenitis is a common condition in sheep and goats. Two cases are described involving otitis media-interna and, in one case, cerebellar abscessation. The first case began with otitis externa and progressed to cerebellar abscessation, presumably as a result of C. pseudotuberculosis infection based on the macroscopic appearance of the abscess. The second case of otitis media-interna involved C. pseudotuberculosis with parasitic encephalitis or secondary meningo-encephalitis. Caseous lymphadenitis is a worldwide problem in livestock and also has zoonotic implications. Antimicrobial therapy of abscesses is often unrewarding due to the thick encapsulation of the abscesses and the extremely contagious nature of the organism. Alternative measures of treating this condition must be sought. In flocks or herds where caseous lymphadenitis has been diagnosed, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis for neurological conditions. The potential for spread must be kept in mind when it is suspected to be the cause of otitis in livestock. <![CDATA[<b>An afebrile heartwater-like syndrome in goats</b>]]> Heartwater is a serious limiting factor for sheep and goat production in the major endemic area of sub-Saharan Africa and therefore most knowledge, research and control methods originate from this region. Whilst the usual or common clinical presentations can be used to make a presumptive diagnosis of heartwater with a good measure of confidence, this is not always the case, and animals suffering from heartwater may be misdiagnosed because their cases do not conform to the expected syndrome, signs and lesions. One aberrant form found occasionally in the Channel Island breeds of cattle and some goats is an afebrile heartwater-like syndrome. The most constant and characteristic features of this heartwater-like syndrome comprise normal temperature, clinical signs associated with generalised oedema, and nervous signs, especially hypersensitivity. The presumption that the disease under investigation is the afebrile heartwater-like syndrome entails a tentative diagnosis based on history and clinical signs and the response to presumed appropriate treatment (metadiagnosis). The afebrile heartwater-like syndrome presents similarly to peracute heartwater but without the febrile reaction. Peracute cases of heartwater have a high mortality rate, enabling confirmation of the disease on post-mortem examination. Recognition of the afebrile heartwater-like syndrome is important to prevent deaths and identify the need for appropriate control measures. <![CDATA[<b>Hypercalcaemic multicentric lymphoma in a dog presenting as clitoromegaly</b>]]> Clitoromegaly is a clinical manifestation of various local and systemic conditions in all species. The external genitalia are a very rare site of primary or metastatic lymphoma in canines, with only one previously-reported case in a dog and only sparse reports in the medical literature. Lymphoma is also very rare in dogs less than four years of age. This account reports on a T-cell multicentric lymphoma in a 16-month-old Basset hound presented primarily for clitoromegaly. The patient survived for 68 days with cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisolone therapy. The causes of clitoromegaly in all species, including humans, are tabulated with references. <![CDATA[<b>Intestinal dermoid cyst in a German shepherd dog</b>]]> A two-year-old male German shepherd dog was admitted to Shahid Bahonar Veterinary Hospital with clinical signs that included lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, abdominal pain and dehydration. Physical examination revealed nothing significant. Routine paraclinical tests only revealed a stress leukogram. Radiography revealed a mass in the stomach. Whilst performing a laparotomy, the surgeon observed an unusual mass in the subserosal layer of the proximal part of the jejunum. The histopathology of the mass revealed some scattered sebaceous and sweat glands associated with the cyst wall that confirmed the diagnosis of a dermoid cyst. Intestinal dermoid cysts are very rare and to our knowledge this is the first report of an intestinal dermoid cyst in a dog. <![CDATA[<b>Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia</b>]]> Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2). In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1), with nucleotide similarities of 95.7% - 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2), with nucleotide similarities of 97.3% - 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A) in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A), 242(1), 256(1), 294(1) and 299(S). These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia. <![CDATA[<b>Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (<i>Tragelaphus strepsiceros</i>) and eland (<i>Taurotragus oryx</i>)</b>]]> Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx) from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging) regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data. <![CDATA[<b>Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat</b>]]> A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described. <![CDATA[<b>Successful snakebite treatment in three juvenile African wild dogs <i>(Lycaon pictus)</i> with polyvalent antivenom</b>: <b>A Namibian case report</b>]]> This article reports the first documented treatment of venomous snakebite with a polyvalent snake antivenom from the South African Institute for Medical Research in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Three juvenile male animals (6.5 months of age) showed clinical signs after being bitten by an unidentified venomous snake. The signs included loss of appetite, disorientation, impaired locomotion, excessive facial swelling, profuse salivation, reduced respiratory effort and an apparent depressed mental state. Intravenous treatment with isotonic Ringer lactate solution, hetastarch 6% and dexamethazone, subcutaneous administration of procaine benzylpenicillin and benzathine benzylpenicillin, and ultimately intravenous administration of the polyvalent snake antivenom resulted in the complete recovery of all three wild dogs. <![CDATA[<b>Thyroid carcino-sarcoma in a dog</b>]]> An adult male greyhound was diagnosed with a thyroid carcino-sarcoma by means of histopathology and positive immuno-histochemistry staining for cytokeratin and vimentin. Surgery and radiotherapy of the area were successful in local tumour control. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended to treat and prevent further metastasis. The use of carboplatin, metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and toceranib failed to control the progression of distant metastasis. The survival time was seven months from the time of diagnosis. This is the eighth case of carcino-sarcoma of the thyroid documented in veterinary medicine and the first one treated with a multimodal approach based on surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. As documented in human medicine, chemotherapy appeared to be ineffective to prevent or delay the progression of the metastatic disease in this case. <![CDATA[<b>Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat</b>]]> This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS) in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs). Histopathology revealed severe oedema and congestion of the lungs, hyaline degeneration of the myocardium and congestion of the liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry detected AHS-positive staining granules in the myocardium, whilst a real-time reverse transcription quantitative Polymerase chain reaction assay of tissue samples was strongly positive for African horse sickness virus nucleic acid. Other dogs on the property showed a 43% seroconversion rate to AHS. <![CDATA[<b>Multiple myeloma in a captive lion <i>(Panthera leo)</i></b>]]> Multiple myeloma is a rare, systemic proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. A case was reported in an 11-year-old male captive lion (Panthera leo) at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria. The classic features of symptomatic multiple myeloma were all evident in this case; namely osteolytic lesions, monoclonal gammopathy in the serum with excretion of monoclonal proteins in the urine, neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow and associated renal failure and anaemia. In addition, similar to the common pattern of this disease in domestic felids, at least three extramedullary tumours were found and several organs were infiltrated by neoplastic plasma cells. The cytoplasm of approximately 50% of the neoplastic round cells, including a few giant myeloma cells, stained weakly to strongly using immunohistochemical stains for B-lymphocytes (CD79a). The normal haematological parameters and lack of any osteolytic lesions in the lion at the time of the first evaluation suggest that the primary neoplastic cells could have originated from one of the extramedullary tumour sites. Only two cases of multiple myeloma have previously been reported in captive wild felids. To the authors' knowledge, there are no case reports of multiple myeloma in lions. <![CDATA[<b>Abortions in sheep associated with <i>Arcobacter skirrowii</i> infection</b>]]> The history, circumstances, clinical signs, post mortem lesions, morbidity, mortality and laboratory findings are described in an abortion storm in sheep that occurred in Mpumalanga, South Africa, associated with infection with Arcobacter skirrowii. Altogether, about 200 Suffolk Down ewes lost 60 lambs in late pregnancy or at term. Although only three foetuses were submitted for investigation, two had signs consistent with a diagnosis of A. skirrowii infection and the organism was isolated from the placentas of both specimens. No abortions had occurred in previous years, or have subsequently. There were no animal introductions prior to the outbreak that could have indicated a source of infection. One stillborn lamb submitted subsequently had lesions consistent with dystocia, and the history and circumstantial evidence indicated that dystocia had been a factor in several more losses. No ewes or rams had shown signs of diarrhoea or other diseases associated with A. skirrowii infection. Twenty-two faecal, preputial and vaginal swab specimens taken from six rams and 13 ewes after the abortion event were all negative for A. skirrowii. This is the first report of abortions in sheep associated with A. skirrowii in South Africa. Because the genus Arcobacter is similar to Campylobacter, it is possible that infection has gone unrecognised in the past. Veterinarians and laboratories should take note and include this genus in the list of potential abortifacient organisms. The possible role of Arcobacter species in other diseases like enteritis and mastitis, as well as the potential role as a zoonosis, must be borne in mind. <![CDATA[<b>Adipsia and hypernatraemia in a 6-month-old Staffordshire bull terrier</b>]]> A 6-month-old female Staffordshire bull terrier cross presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital with lethargy, weakness, decreased appetite, abnormal vocalisation, twitching of the facial muscles and ears, circling, alopecia, pruritus, seborrhoea sicca and erythema. Serum biochemistry revealed severe hypernatraemia (200.4 mmol/L; Reference Interval 140 mmol/L - 155 mmol/L). Treatment required careful administration of intravenous fluids. The electrolytes were monitored to ensure slow and controlled sodium normalisation (the target reduction of Na concentration was by 0.5 mmol/L/h - 1 mmol/L/h or 12 mmol/L/24 h - 24 mmol/L/24 h). Despite the careful fluid calculations and close monitoring, the serum sodium levels dropped more than the recommended 0.5 mmol/L/h -1 mmol/L/h in the first 4 h and the fluids had to be adjusted. The patient's habitus improved and the central nervous system signs started to resolve after 1 day of fluid treatment. The puppy started eating food mixed with water, but made no attempt to drink water. The pruritus and erythema resolved once the sodium levels normalised and the seborrhoea sicca began to resolve. At a follow up visit 20 days post discharge the skin was normal. A diagnosis of hypernatraemia as a result of pure water loss due to hypodipsia or adipsia was made, as the puppy made no attempt to drink water when her serum sodium levels increased (a strong thirst stimulus). Hypernatraemia recurred if she was not forced to take in adequate amounts of water mixed with her food. Dermatological changes such as seborrhoea, hyperkeratosis and alopecia have been reported in a few other cases of hypernatraemia in dogs and sodium levels should be investigated in dermatological patients when no other cause can be established. This study, supported by another retrospective study done in 2008, suggests that the Staffordshire bull terrier may be a breed that is predisposed to hypernatraemia. <![CDATA[<b>Incidental <i>Mycobacterium</i>-induced granulomatous inflammation of the follicular pharyngeal tonsils in a South African farmed ostrich (<i>Struthio camelus</i>)</b>]]> Avian mycobacteriosis (AM) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which can spread from avians to other farmed animals such as cattle and pigs as well as to humans. This study is the first report of granulomatous inflammation, as a result of avian mycobacteriosis, in the follicular pharyngeal tonsils of a farmed ostrich. The head of an apparently healthy farmed adult ostrich was obtained after slaughter. Each pharyngeal fold displayed a large tissue mass. This tissue was routinely prepared for light microscopy and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid Schiff, Grocott methenamine silver, Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to identify Mycobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, respectively. Histologically, the tissue masses consisted of confluent mature micro-granulomata that were characterised by central caseous necrosis surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, macrophages and lymphoid cells and an outer mature fibrous connective tissue capsule. Within some foci of caseous necrosis were variably sized colonies of small, Gram-negative, acid-fast bacilli, which showed positive IHC labelling for Mycobacterium spp., leading to a presumptive diagnosis of AM. PCR thus proved useful in excluding the presence of notifiable Mycobacterium spp. The significance and role of the pharyngeal tonsils of ratites in diseases such as AM warrant specific attention. Moreover, as ratites are known to present with AM infections with apparently no visible loss in body condition, as presumably occurred in the present case, it is imperative that unusual masses in apparently healthy ratites be thoroughly investigated. <![CDATA[<b>Anaesthetic management of two Bengal tiger (<i>Panthera tigris tigris</i>) cubs for fracture repair</b>]]> This case series describes the anaesthetic management of two sibling Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) cubs that were found to have spontaneous femur fractures due to severe nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Both cubs received a combination of medetomidine (25 µg/kg) and ketamine (4 mg/kg) intramuscularly and were maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. An epidural injection of morphine (0.1 mg/kg) and ropivacaine (1.6 mg/kg) was administered to both tigers, which allowed a low end-tidal isoflurane concentration to be maintained throughout the femur fracture reduction operations. Both cubs experienced profound bradycardia and hypotension during general anaesthesia, and were unresponsive to anticholinergic treatment. Possible causes for these cardiovascular complications included: drug pharmacodynamics (medetomidine, morphine, isoflurane), decreased sympathetic tone due to the epidural (ropivacaine) and hypothermia. These possible causes are discussed in detail. <![CDATA[<b>Osteoarthropathy of unknown aetiology in the long bones of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (<i>Crocodylus niloticus</i>)</b>]]> Humeri of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) collected during routine post-mortem examinations were boiled, cleaned and examined for lesions. Various degrees of gross bone and articular pathology were found. The lesions were situated predominantly at the proximal and distal epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions of the bone, where growth and bone remodelling occurs. In advanced cases partial collapse of the articular surface could be identified. From the collection of crocodile bones five particular cases are described. Because of the wide distribution of origin of the affected animals, nutritional or toxicological causes seem unlikely. One of the cases presented was associated with mycoplasmosis. These forms of crocodilian bone pathology need further investigation. <![CDATA[<b>Diagnosing and managing cardiopulmonary diseases in small animals</b>]]> Humeri of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) collected during routine post-mortem examinations were boiled, cleaned and examined for lesions. Various degrees of gross bone and articular pathology were found. The lesions were situated predominantly at the proximal and distal epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions of the bone, where growth and bone remodelling occurs. In advanced cases partial collapse of the articular surface could be identified. From the collection of crocodile bones five particular cases are described. Because of the wide distribution of origin of the affected animals, nutritional or toxicological causes seem unlikely. One of the cases presented was associated with mycoplasmosis. These forms of crocodilian bone pathology need further investigation. <![CDATA[<b>Managing the clinical approach in neurological presentations</b>]]> Humeri of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) collected during routine post-mortem examinations were boiled, cleaned and examined for lesions. Various degrees of gross bone and articular pathology were found. The lesions were situated predominantly at the proximal and distal epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions of the bone, where growth and bone remodelling occurs. In advanced cases partial collapse of the articular surface could be identified. From the collection of crocodile bones five particular cases are described. Because of the wide distribution of origin of the affected animals, nutritional or toxicological causes seem unlikely. One of the cases presented was associated with mycoplasmosis. These forms of crocodilian bone pathology need further investigation. <![CDATA[<b>Ziekten van vissen, schaal-, en schelpdieren, van belang voor de Nederlandse aquacultuur</b>]]> Humeri of farmed and wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) collected during routine post-mortem examinations were boiled, cleaned and examined for lesions. Various degrees of gross bone and articular pathology were found. The lesions were situated predominantly at the proximal and distal epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions of the bone, where growth and bone remodelling occurs. In advanced cases partial collapse of the articular surface could be identified. From the collection of crocodile bones five particular cases are described. Because of the wide distribution of origin of the affected animals, nutritional or toxicological causes seem unlikely. One of the cases presented was associated with mycoplasmosis. These forms of crocodilian bone pathology need further investigation. <![CDATA[<b>The history and achievements of the South African Veterinary Association</b>]]> This article, which was originally designed as a power point presentation, focuses on the role and achievements of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA). It is an organisation that has fostered functional cohesion not only within the profession, but also with the broader society in providing a socially and economically supportive animal care system. Some major factors that have enabled this achievement include: rational organisational structure of the SAVA; support of the promulgation and implementation of appropriate legislation; pursuance of initial and continued high quality education by various means; effective communication with the public and government bodies; international involvement; continued development of a visionary future to endorse the principle of 'One World One Health'. <![CDATA[<b>Krimpsiekte in South Africa</b>: <b>Historical perspectives</b>]]> Krimpsiekte, also known as cotyledonosis or nenta in sheep and goats, has been recognised as a disease entity since 1775. However, it was only in 1891 that Veterinary Surgeon Soga reproduced the condition by dosing Cotyledon (= Tylecodon) ventricosus leaves to goats. Professor MacOwan, a botanist, confirmed the identity of these nenta plants. From a South African veterinary toxicological point of view the date 1891 is of considerable historical significance as this was the first time that a plant was experimentally demonstrated to be toxic to livestock in South Africa. A chronological account of the history of krimpsiekte research is provided. <![CDATA[<b>The role of the Jotello F. Soga Library in the digital preservation of South African veterinary history</b>]]> The history of veterinary science in South Africa can only be appreciated, studied, researched and passed on to coming generations if historical sources are readily available. In most countries, material and sources with historical value are often difficult to locate, dispersed over a large area and not part of the conventional book and journal literature. The Faculty of Veterinary Science of the University of Pretoria and its library has access to a large collection of historical sources. The collection consists of photographs, photographic slides, documents, proceedings, posters, audio-visual material, postcards and other memorabilia. Other institutions in the country are also approached if relevant sources are identified in their collections. The University of Pretoria's institutional repository, UPSpace, was launched in 2006. This provided the Jotello F. Soga Library with the opportunity to fill the repository with relevant digitised collections of diverse heritage and learning resources that can contribute to the long-term preservation and accessibility of historical veterinary sources. These collections are available for use not only by historians and researchers in South Africa but also elsewhere in Africa and the rest of the world. Important historical collections such as the Arnold Theiler collection, the Jotello F. Soga collection and collections of the Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research and the Journal of the South African Veterinary Association are highlighted. The benefits of an open access digital repository, the importance of collaboration across the veterinary community and other prerequisites for the sustainability of a digitisation project and the importance of metadata to enhance accessibility are covered. <![CDATA[<b>Intravenous anaesthesia in goats</b>: <b>A review</b>]]> Intravenous anaesthesia is gradually becoming populär in veterinary practice. Traditionally, general anaesthesia is induced with intravenous drugs and then maintained with inhalation agents. Inhalation anaesthetic agents cause more significant dose-dependent cardiorespiratory depression than intravenous anaesthetic drugs, creating a need to use less of the inhalation anaesthetic agents for maintenance of general anaesthesia by supplementing with intravenous anaesthesia drugs. Better still, if anaesthesia is maintained completely with intravenous anaesthetic drugs, autonomic functions remain more stable intra-operatively. Patient recovery from anaesthesia is smoother and there is less pollution of the working environment than happens with inhalation anaesthetic agents. Recently, a number of drugs with profiles (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) suitable for prolonged intravenous anaesthesia have been studied, mostly in humans and, to a certain extent, in dogs and horses. There is currently very little scientific information on total intravenous anaesthesia in goats, although, in the past few years, some scholarly scientific articles on drugs suitable for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats have been published. This review article explored the information available on drugs that have been assessed for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats, with the aim of promoting incorporation of these drugs into total intravenous anaesthesia protocols in clinical practice. That way, balanced anaesthesia, a technique in which drugs are included in anaesthetic protocols for specific desired effects (hypnosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation, autonomic stabilisation) may be utilised in improving the welfare of goats undergoing general anaesthesia. <![CDATA[<b>Laryngeal paralysis in dogs</b>: <b>An update on recent knowledge</b>]]> Laryngeal paralysis is the effect of an inability to abduct the arytenoid cartilages during inspiration, resulting in respiratory signs consistent with partial airway obstruction. The aetiology of the disease can be congenital (hereditary laryngeal paralysis or congenital polyneuropathy), or acquired (trauma, neoplasia, polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy). The most common form of acquired laryngeal paralysis (LP) is typically seen in old, large breed dogs and is a clinical manifestation of a generalised peripheral polyneuropathy recently referred to as geriatric onset laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy. Diagnosing LP based on clinical signs, breed and history has a very high sensitivity (90%) and can be confirmed by laryngeal inspection. Prognosis after surgical correction depends on the aetiology: traumatic cases have a good prognosis, whereas tumour-induced or polyneuropathy-induced LP has a guarded prognosis. Acquired idiopathic LP is a slow progressive disease, with dogs reaching median survival times of 3-5 years after surgical correction. <![CDATA[<b>History of 'swine fever' in southern Africa</b>]]> The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera) has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of 'swine fever' in European settlers' pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers' pigs in Kenya. Shortly after that, reports of African swine fever in settlers' pigs emerged from South Africa and Angola. In South Africa, the report related to pigs in the north-eastern part of the country. Previously (in 1905 or earlier) a disease assumed to be classical swine fever caused high mortality among pigs in the Western Cape and was only eradicated in 1918. African swine fever was found over the following years to be endemic in most southern African countries. Classical swine fever, however, apart from an introduction with subsequent endemic establishment in Madagascar and a number of introductions into Mauritius, the last one in 2000, had apparently remained absent from the region until it was diagnosed in the Western and subsequently the Eastern Cape of South Africa in 2005. It was eradicated by 2007. The history of these diseases in the southern African region demonstrates their importance and their potential for spread over long distances, emphasising the need for improved management of both diseases wherever they occur.