Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820110004&lang=en vol. 82 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>A short history of sheep scab</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The history of sheep scab is briefly discussed since it was first mentioned in 180 BC. It was probably introduced to South Africa by the early settlers and was mentioned as a problem by Simon van der Stel, although its cause was only discovered in 1809. Various measures taken over the centuries to control or eradicate the disease, which has always been of considerable economic importance, are discussed, as well as the failures and reasons why it is still with us today. <![CDATA[<b>Veterinary education in South Africa</b>: <b>the classes of 1938 and 1939</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Concise descriptions are given of the life histories of the 10 members of the classes of 1938 and 1939. All of them initially joined the government service, Hugo, Steenekamp and Schatz spending their entire careers in the South African Veterinary (Field) Services. Mansvelt, the first recipient of the much-coveted Theiler medal, was the 2nd veterinarian to be appointed Director of Veterinary Services, a position specially created for the 'Field' in 1962. Having first established a successful private practice, Hofmeyr was appointed as the 1st full-time Professor of Surgery of the Onderstepoort Faculty in 1958 and its 1st full-time Dean in 1976. Albertyn opted for a career in public health, becoming director of 1 of the largest local municipal abattoirs. Turner spent virtually his entire career in private practice and was eventually joined by Brown who had served in the British Colonial Veterinary Service for many years. Fick was a government veterinarian for his entire career, first in South Africa, then in the British Colonial Service (for 13 years) and finally returning to South Africa. Like Hugo, Muller filled a senior position in Veterinary (Field) Services before he opted for a farming career. <![CDATA[<b>Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study involves the evaluation of pre-purchase radiographic studies of South African Thoroughbred yearlings. Radiographic changes were recorded and compared with similar international studies. The study differs from other studies in that a lower prevalence of pedal osteitis (1.26 %), dorsal osteochondral fragmentation of the metatarsophalangeal joint (1.60 %), distal metacarpal sagittal ridge changes (15.7 %), ulnar carpal bone lucencies (8.33 %), carpal osteophytes (1.19 %), distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joint radiographic changes (9.92 %), tarsal osteochondrosis lesions (4.40 %) and stifle osteochondrosis lesions (0.4 %) was found. The prevalence of dorsal osteochondral fragments in the metacarpophalangeal joint was similar to other studies (1.60 %). A higher prevalence of vascular channels as well as irregular borders and lucencies was evident in the proximal sesamoid bones. There was a higher prevalence of palmar metacarpophalangeal and plantar metatarsophalangeal osteochondral fragments (2 % and 7.10 % respectively). Palmar metacarpal disease, metacarpal supracondylar lysis, proximal sesamoid bone fractures and carpal osteochondral fragmentation were absent in the current study. Additional findings recorded in the current study were proximal interphalangeal joint hyperextension (left front 15.13 %, right front 18.91 %), the solar angle (right front 2.38º, left front 2.79º), the prevalence of carpal bone 1 (30.95 %) and carpal bone 5 (1.59 %). Management, nutrition and genetics in the various groups of Thoroughbred yearlings should be further investigated in order to explain the reasons for the differences recorded in the current study. <![CDATA[<b>Brucellae through the food chain</b>: <b>the role of sheep, goats and springbok (Antidorcus marsupialis) as sources of human infections in Namibia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A confirmed case of human brucellosis motivated an investigation into the potential source of infection in Namibia. Since domestic animals are principal sources of Brucella infection in humans, 1692 serum samples were screened from sheep, goats and cattle from 4 presumably at-risk farms and 900 springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) serum samples from 29 mixed farming units for Brucella antibodies by the Rose-Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases confirmed by complement fixation test (CFT). To assess the prevalence of human brucellosis, 137 abattoir employees were tested for Brucella antibodies using the standard tube agglutination test (STAT) and by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cattle and sheep from all 4 farms were negative by RBT and CFT but 2 of the 4 farms (Ba and C) had 26/42 and 12/285 seropositive goats, respectively. Post mortem examination of seropositive goats revealed no gross pathological lesions typical of brucellosis except enlarged mesenteric and iliac lymph nodes seen in a single buck. Culture for brucellae from organs of seropositive animals was negative. None of the wildlife sera tested positive by either RBT or CFT. Interviews revealed that besides the case that prompted the investigation, a family and another person from other farms with confirmed brucellosis shared a common history of consumption of unpasteurised goat milk, home-made goat cheese and coffee with raw milk and prior contact with goats, suggesting goats as the likely source of infection. All 137 abattoir employees tested negative by STAT, but 3 were positive by ELISA. The 3 abattoir workers were clinically normal and lacked historical connections with clinical cases. Although goats are often associated with B. melitensis, these studies could not explicitly implicate this species owing to cross-reactivity with B. abortus, which can also infect goats. Nevertheless, these data reinforce the need for a better National Control Programme for brucellosis in Namibia. <![CDATA[<b>A study of some infectious causes of reproductive disorders in cattle owned by resource-poor farmers in Gauteng Province, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Two hundred and thirty-nine cattle from Gauteng Province in South Africa were tested for various pathogens causing reproductive diseases including bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) virus, Neospora caninum and Brucella abortus using various tests. For BVD/MD virus, 49.37 % tested positive, 74.47 % for IBR/IPV virus, 8.96 % for Neospora caninum and 3.8 % for Brucella abortus. The result for Brucella abortus is higher than the national average, possibly due to the small sample size. A high seroprevalence of antibodies to both BVD/MD virus and IBR/IPV virus was evident. These 2 viruses should be considered, in addition to Brucella abortus, when trying to establish causes of abortion in cattle. The clinical significance of Neospora caninum as a cause of abortion in Gauteng needs further investigation. One hundred and forty-three bulls were tested for Campylobacter fetus and Trichomonas fetus, and a low prevalence of 1.4 % and 2.1 % respectively was found in this study. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime administered to lactating and non-lactating goats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this work was to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenous (iv) and intramuscular (im) ceftazidime administered to lactating (LTG; n = 6) and non-lactating (NLTG; n = 6) healthy Creole goats in 2 trials (T1 and T2). During T1 and T2, goats randomly received a single dose of im or iv ceftazidime (10 mg/kg). Serum concentration of iv ceftazidime in NLTG and LTG goats is best described by 2 and 3 compartment models, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of iv and im ceftazidime administered to LTG and NLTG showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in the constants (λz,T1 vs T2 [iv] 0.5 ± 0.1 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 /h; T1 vs T2 [im] 0.5 ± 0.2 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 /h) and in the mean times (t1/2,T1 vs T 2 [iv] 1.6 ± 0.3 vs 2.3 ±0.6 h;T 1 vs T 2 [im] 1.6 ± 0.7 vs 2.6 ± 0.9 h) of elimination. The bioavailability of ceftazidime in LTG and NLTG was 113.0 ± 17.8 and 96.0 ± 18.0 %, respectively. Ceftazidime concentration in milk at 2 h was: iv = 1.9 ± 0.2 and im = 2.4 ± 0.5 µg/m; the penetration in milk was iv = 18.3 ± 13.5 and im = 14.3 ± 10.6 %. Ninety-six hours after iv and im administration, residues of the drug were not found in milk. In conclusion, ceftazidime, when administered to goats, showed high concentration times in serum, good penetration into milk and a bioavailability that makes it suitable to be used by the im route. <![CDATA[<b>Seroepidemiological survey of <i>Rhodococcus equi</i> infection in asymptomatic horses and donkeys from southeast Turkey</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In order to assess the level of Rhodococcus equi infection in southeast Turkey, 679 sera from healthy foals and adult horses and 78 sera from donkeys were tested by indirect ELISA using a R. equi reference strain (ATCC 33701) as antigen. Eighty (11.7 %) sera from horses and 9 (11.5 %) sera from donkeys with titres >0.85 were positive. The prevalence of seropositive horses in Sanliurfa Province was higher than in Diyarbakir Province; 56 (13.9 %) horses in Sanliurfa Province and 24 (8.7 %) horses in Diyarbakir Province were defined as seropositive. In Sanliurfa Province 14.5 % of female (n = 343) and 10.1 % of male (n = 59) horses tested were defined as seropositive, while in Diyarbakir Province more males (11.4 %, n = 114) were seropositive than females (6.7 %, n = 163). Horses 1 to 5 years of age were found to have the highest seropositivity rate in both provinces. A total of 78 sera from donkeys were investigated in Sanliurfa Province, of which 9 (11.5 %) were positive by ELISA. Among the 9 positive sera, 6 (12.8 %) were from donkeys 1-5 years old and 3 (13.6 %) were from donkeys >5 years of age. No positive sera were found in donkeys less than 1 year old. Five(12.5 %) sera of females and 4(10.5 %) sera of males tested were positive. These results indicate the existence of R. equi in the horse populations in Sanliurfa and Diyarbakir Provinces. Similar infection rates were found for donkeys in Sanliurfa. This suggests the importance of serological surveys to diagnose R. equi infection in the region and to prevent the zoonotic risk. <![CDATA[<b>A literature review and investigation of staphylococcal necrotic dermatitis in sheep</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An outbreak of necrotic dermatitis in sheep was intensively investigated. Initially 19 of 147 Letelle (Merino-type) ewes were identified but closer inspection revealed 57 sheep that had skin lesions, some very slight, and that the majority (46 or 80 %) had lesions only above the lips. A small number of them had multiple lesions on the legs or vulvae apart from lip lesions. Seven had only vulvar lesions and 2 only leg lesions. Among the sheep with lip lesions, twice as many had lesions on the right as on the left. Electron micrographs did not reveal any virus particles from the lesions, but all bacterial swabs yielded pure cultures of beta-haemolytic, Gram-positive cocci that were catalase, coagulase and DNase positive. The organism was identified as Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathology was consistent with a dermotoxic insult. A review of available literature indicated that this outbreak was consistent with a diagnosis of ovine necrotic (staphylococcal) dermatitis, supported by data on signalment, lesions, distribution, size, number, epidemiology as well as specific tests. The range of differential diagnoses and possible confusers are discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Treatment rationale for dogs poisoned with aldicarb (carbamate pesticide)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The treatment rationale for dogs poisoned by aldicarb is reviewed from a pharmacological perspective. The illegal use of aldicarb to maliciously poison dogs is a major problem in some parts of the world. In South Africa, it is probably the most common canine poisoning treated by companion animal veterinarians. Aldicarb poisoning is an emergency and veterinarians need to be able to diagnose it and start with effective treatment immediately to ensure a reasonable prognosis. Successful treatment depends on the timely use of an anti-muscarinic drug (e.g. atropine). Additional supportive treatment options, including fluid therapy, diphenhydramine, benzodiazepines and the prevention of further absorption (activated charcoal) should also be considered. Possible complications after treatment are also briefly discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Patent <i>ductus</i> arteriosus repair in general practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 3-month-old female German Shepherd puppy was presented for routine vaccination. Clinical evaluation revealed a grade 5/6 continuous murmur with the point of maximal intensity over the left 4th intercostal space. Echocardiography revealed a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The PDA was closed by a team of general practitioners using the Jackson-Henderson technique, via a standard 4th intercostal thoracotomy. A multi-modal approach to analgesia and premedication was employed. A successful outcome was achieved with no murmur or evidence of cardiac disease present 6 months after surgical occlusion. The literature is reviewed with an emphasis placed on choosing techniques that are appropriate to the level of expertise of the surgical and anaesthetic teams, as well as the surgical facilities available. <![CDATA[<b>Hypercalcaemia in a dog with primary hypothyroidism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 7-year old female beagle was evaluated for symptomatic hypercalcaemia and primary hypothyroidism. Clinical findings were typical for hypothyroidism. Plasma parathyroid hormone was low and obvious causes for the hypercalcaemia were ruled out by means of abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonography of the parathyroid glands, survey thoracic radiographs, and fine needle aspirate cytology of the spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes. Treatment with thyroxine resulted in resolution of the hypercalcaemia after approximately 9 weeks of therapy. This is the 1st report of primary adult-onset hypothyroidism associated with symptomatic hypercalcaemia in a dog. <![CDATA[<b>Barbiturate ingestion in three adult captive tigers (<i>Panthera tigris</i>) and concomitant fatal botulism of one</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Zoo animals, including tigers, have been reported to suffer from barbiturate intoxication, with pentabarbitone being most commonly recorded. Clinical signs range from mild ataxia to general anaesthesia with recovery over hours to days with several factors affecting hepatic barbiturate metabolism and tissue partitioning. Botulism is an often fatal intoxication in man, animals, birds and certain fish. The occurrence in carnivores is uncommon to rare, with only 2 reports found of botulism in felids. This report relates to 3 adult captive cohabiting tigers that simultaneously developed signs of abdominal discomfort, progressive ataxia, recumbency and comatose sleep resembling stage 2 anaesthesia, alternating with periods of distracted wakefulness and ataxic movements. These signs occurred 4 days after being fed the carcass of a horse that had ostensibly died of colic and not been euthanased. The male tiger that was the dominant animal in the feeding hierarchy was worst affected and had to be given intravenous fluids. The female that was lowest in hierarchy was unaffected. After 48-72 hours of treatment at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital the females could eat and made an uneventful recovery. The male tiger showed partial recovery but died during the night a few hours after drinking water on his return to the owner. Necropsy revealed severe oesophageal dilation and impaction with decaying grass; some of this material and water were present in the pharynx and trachea, and had been aspirated causing acute widespread bronchopneumonia. Colon content tested negative for common pesticides but, together with liver, tested positive for barbiturate. Serum taken on the day of admission had tested negative for barbiturate and the residual serum from the 3 animals later tested negative for botulinum toxin. Colon and oesophageal content from the male at necropsy were positive for Clostridium botulinum toxin type C by the mouse bioassay neutralisation test, confirming that this male had had concomitant barbiturate toxicity and botulism, and had succumbed to aspiration bronchopneumonia secondary to pharyngeal, laryngeal and oesophageal paralysis and oesophageal impaction. <![CDATA[<b>A case study of rabies diagnosis from formalin-fixed brain material</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Rabies is caused by several Lyssavirus species, a group of negative sense RNA viruses. Although rabies is preventable, it is often neglected particularly in developing countries in the face of many competing public and veterinary health priorities. Epidemiological information based on laboratory-based surveillance data is critical to adequately strategise control and prevention plans. In this regard the fluorescent antibody test for rabies virus antigen in brain tissues is still considered the basic requirement for laboratory confirmation of animal cases. Occasionally brain tissues from suspected rabid animals are still submitted in formalin, although this has been discouraged for a number of years. Immunohistochemical testing or a modified fluorescent antibody technique can be performed on such samples. However, this method is cumbersome and cannot distinguish between different Lyssavirus species. Owing to RNA degradation in formalin-fixed tissues, conventional RT-PCR methodologies have also been proven to be unreliable. This report is concerned with a rabies case in a domestic dog from an area in South Africa where rabies is not common. Typing of the virus involved was therefore important, but the only available sample was submitted as a formalin-fixed specimen. A real-time RT-PCR method was therefore applied and it was possible to confirm rabies and obtain phylogenetic information that indicated a close relationship between this virus and the canid rabies virus variants from another province (KwaZulu-Natal) in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>2011 Nutritional Assessment Guidelines</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old), suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin), muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal. <![CDATA[<b>Parasitological Society of Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old), suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin), muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal. <![CDATA[<b>The equine distal limb</b>: <b>An atlas of clinical anatomy and comparative imaging (7th impression)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000400016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old), suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin), muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal.