Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820110003&lang=en vol. 82 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Serial haematology results in transfused and non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This prospective longitudinal study investigated the progression of haematological changes in 32 transfused and 54 non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi over the 1st 6 days following diagnosis and treatment. The effect of patient age on the results of complete blood counts was determined. Haematology data were analysed at presentation and at 24 hours, 3 days and 6 days after presentation. Dogs were treated with diminazene aceturate at diagnosis and a blood transfusion was given if deemed clinically required. Mildly to moderately regenerative normocytic normochromic anaemia was observed in all dogs throughout the study period. Transfused dogs more often had an inflammatory leukogram at presentation and at 24 hours, than dogs that were not transfused. In dogs with a left shift, a concurrent normal or decreased segmented neutrophil count was found more commonly than neutrophilia. Severe thrombocytopenia that resolved within a week was common. Blood transfusion alleviated the anaemia, but had no significant effect on white blood cell or platelet responses. Blood cell responses were not significantly influenced by age. In conclusion, the red blood cell and white blood cell responses were less than expected in dogs with babesiosis, given the degree of anaemia and inflammation present. The magnitude of thrombocytopenia and rapid return of the platelet count to normal suggested a possible immune-mediated mechanism for the thrombocytopenia. <![CDATA[<b>The pathology of acute Nolletia gariepina poisoning of cattle</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Toxicity in cattle by the shrub Nolletia gariepina was induced experimentally by intraruminal administration of 3 g/kg dried, milled plant material as a single dose. The animals had to be starved for 24 hours before dosing, as dosing on a full rumen did not induce any signs of toxicity during 5 days of observation and clinical pathology monitoring. Clinical signs were not specific and varied according to the duration (acute versus subacute) of the toxicological process. Clinical pathological parameters indicated renal and to a lesser extent hepatic damage, with raised serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). Increased urinary sodium and potassium concentration and GGT activity, as well as proteinuria, were evident. Histological and electron microscopic examinations revealed acute renal tubular epithelial cell degeneration and necrosis, especially of the proximal convoluted tubules. Mild hepatocellular degeneration was also noticeable. <![CDATA[<b>The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the chinchilla</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (plexus lumbosacrales) (LSP) and its distribution in Chinchilla lanigera were investigated. Ten chinchillas (6 males and 4 females) were used in this research. The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the distribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus was examined. The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve arose from L3. The other branch of L3 gave rise to the genitofemoral nerve and 1 branch from L4 gave rise to the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. The trunk formed by the union of L4-5 divided into medial (femoral nerve) and lateral branches (obturator nerve). It was found that the LSP was formed by all the ventral branches of L4 at L6 and S1 at S3. At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadic plexus, was formed by contributions from L5-6 and S1. This root gave rise to the nerve branches which were disseminated to the posterior limb (cranial and caudal gluteal nerves, caudal cutaneous femoral nerve and ischiadic nerve). The ischiadic nerve divided into the caudal cutaneous surae, lateral cutaneous surae, common fibular and tibial nerve. The pudendal nerve arose from S1-2 and the other branch of S2 and S3 formed the rectal caudal nerve. The results showed that the origins and distribution of spinal nerves that constitute the LSP of chinchillas were similar to those of a few rodents and other mammals. <![CDATA[<b>A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0 cm to 463.0 cm total length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3 % of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6 % of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection. <![CDATA[<b>Diagnostic imaging of migrating kebab (sosatie) sticks</b>: <b>a review of 8 cases</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Complications related to extraluminal migration of ingested kebab (sosatie) sticks are infrequently diagnosed in small animals. A total of 8 cases diagnosed with extragastric migration of ingested kebab sticks were retrospectively evaluated. No significant breed or sex predilection was found but there was a tendency for animals to present at a younger age (less than 3 years). Clinical signs (of variable duration) were non-specific and included haemoptysis, abdominal pain, regurgitation, subcutaneous abscessation and chronic draining sinus tracts, making a clinical diagnosis difficult. Ultrasonography proved invaluable in facilitating the diagnosis of kebab stick migration in 6 of the cases and computed tomography unexpectedly identified a kebab stick that had migrated into the thorax in 1 patient. Survey radiography was generally found to be insensitive in identifying the kebab sticks. The aim of this article is to alert veterinarians to a clinical syndrome that may not be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with non-specific inflammatory disease of the thorax, abdomen or pelvic regions and to illustrate the usefulness of the various diagnostic imaging modalities in facilitating a diagnosis of kebab stick ingestion and its possible secondary complications. <![CDATA[<b>A pilot study of common health problems in smallholder pigs in Angónia and Boane districts, Mozambique</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A pilot survey was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique to determine the most important health problems facing smallholder pig producers. While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. Results of the pilot survey confirmed that, with the exception of African swine fever, ecto- and endoparasites are probably the most important health risks for producers. Porcine cysticercosis is more prevalent among pigs in traditional, free-ranging systems, while mange becomes a serious factor when pigs are permanently confined. <![CDATA[<b>Application of European standards for health and quality control of game meat on game ranches in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The health and quality compliance of game carcasses (n = 295) intended for the South African export market and aspiring to comply with the strict hygiene requirements of the European Union were compared with game carcasses (n = 330) available for the local market and currently not subjected to meat safety legislation. Samples were collected in similar seasons and geographical areas in South Africa from 2006 to 2009. Aerobic plate counts (APC) of the heart blood verified that both groups possessed similar ante mortem bacterial status. For health compliance APC, tests for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were performed on the carcasses. Surfaces of the local carcasses were swabbed using the European Enviro-biotrace sponge technique at 3 and 72 h post mortem. Unskinned but eviscerated export carcasses in the abattoir were skinned and sampled by incision using a cork borer 72 h post mortem . Temperature and pH readings were recorded at 3 and 72 h post mortem from the longissimus dorsi muscle and the readings at 3 h differed (P = 0.035). Temperatures at 72 h were lower for export than local carcasses (P < 0.001) because of earlier introduction and maintenance of the cold chain. The pH readings also differed between groups at 3 and 72 h (P < 0.001). APC results for the local group exceeded the maximum permissible count (<10(5)). S. aureus results showed differences (P <0.001), with readings from the local group being higher. The same tendency was exhibited for E. coli (P = 0.008). Imposition of hygiene guidelines for game ranchers producing meat for the local market is therefore recommended. <![CDATA[<b>Antebrachial chondrodysplasia in New Zealand white rabbits (<i>Oryctolagus cuniculus</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Rabbits obtained from a South African rabbit breeder exhibited deformities of the distal forelimbs. The clinical, radiological and histological presentation of mid-antebrachial valgus formation (a.k.a distal foreleg curvature) in these rabbits was consistent with an autosomal recessive trait associated with a chondrodystrophic lesion of the distal ulna epiphysis 1st described in the 1960s. The impact this might have on South African farming enterprises and laboratory facilities has not been established, but the heritability and welfare implications of this condition make it a concern. Mildly affected animals can adapt to the deformity with some housing adjustments, but severely affected animals may require humane euthanasia. <![CDATA[<b>Fatal congenital anaplasmosis associated with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in a crossbred calf</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Clinical disease resulting from the vertical transmission of Anaplasma marginale has only been reported on 5 occasions despite studies demonstrating successful in utero transmission. During the reported experimental induction of congenital anaplasmosis in calves, the outcome was variable but mostly led to inapparent or mild infection. There are previous case reports of fatal congenital anaplasmosis following natural infection. The clinical findings in a 2-day-old calf presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital with clinical signs of congenital anaplasmosis, which was unresponsive to treatment, are described. Subsequent post mortem diagnostic tests revealed that this calf was co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). It is postulated that immunosuppression resulting from BVDV infection predisposed to severe, fatal anaplasmosis in this calf. <![CDATA[<b>Uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (<i>Rattus norvegicus</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uterine torsion is a twisting of the uterus or uterine horn perpendicular to its long axis. We report a case of uterine torsion in an adult breeding Sprague Dawley rat. The rat died a month after her last recorded delivery. Post mortem examination of the rat revealed 270º torsion of the right uterine horn. The uterus contained a single foetus. The liver was pale and enlarged. The rest of the viscera appeared normal. Histopathological examination showed acute hepatic necrosis and pulmonary congestion with mild lymphocytic infiltrates peribronchially. The acute hepatic necrosis may have been associated with septicaemia due to compromised blood vessels following the uterine torsion. The presence of a single foetus could have resulted in foeto-maternal disproportion with resultant uterine torsion. Torsion of the uterus can be accompanied by haemostatic and metabolic complications, which could have caused the death of the rat. Although uterine torsion is a rare condition in rats, it should be considered as a potential complication of gestation in animal breeding units. <![CDATA[<b>Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope presented with a solitary large lesion just proximal to the right hind hoof, which recurred after excision, and was BPV-1 positive by RT-PCR. Other wart-like growths were present elsewhere on the body. The Cape mountain zebra either succumbed from their massive lesions or were euthanased or removed from the herd because of them. The lesions were BPV-1 and/or -2 positive by RT-PCR. The buffalo lesions were wart-like papillomatous projections in the inguinal and udder region. Stratum granulosum cells that stained immunohistochemically positive in the various species appeared koilocyte-like, as described in human papillomaviral lesions. <![CDATA[<b>ERRATUM</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope presented with a solitary large lesion just proximal to the right hind hoof, which recurred after excision, and was BPV-1 positive by RT-PCR. Other wart-like growths were present elsewhere on the body. The Cape mountain zebra either succumbed from their massive lesions or were euthanased or removed from the herd because of them. The lesions were BPV-1 and/or -2 positive by RT-PCR. The buffalo lesions were wart-like papillomatous projections in the inguinal and udder region. Stratum granulosum cells that stained immunohistochemically positive in the various species appeared koilocyte-like, as described in human papillomaviral lesions.