Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820110002&lang=en vol. 82 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The role of Robben Island as a stock breeding station for the settlement at the Cape of Good Hope</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The universal notoriety of Robben Island as a penitentiary for political prisoners, notably in the 19th and 20th centuries, overshadows its previous historical significance established centuries ago. The Island, initially a source of seals and penguins to European mariners rounding the southern tip of Africa, and later for several other reasons, including its proximity to the Cape of Good Hope, played a pivotal role in the selection of this halfway station. The seals would provide blubber for train oil and the penguins, meat and eggs. The transhumant Peninsular Khoekhoe was to provide cattle and sheep by a barter process as before. Inconsistent access to Khoen livestock forced the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) to consider their own breeding programmes and ultimately the establishment of Free Burgers. Van Riebeeck confirmed the suitability of Robben Island for the fattening and breeding of sheep and this island made a substantial contribution to the provision of sheep and mutton to the fleets and the local community. Khoen sheep did not do well in the Table Valley in early summer and it was expected that they would thrive on the drier island. Predators and stock theft were major problems at the Cape and neither occurred on the island. It is contended that it was unlikely that the settlement at the Cape would have occurred and succeeded without Robben Island. <![CDATA[<b>The sensitivity of direct faecal examination, direct faecal flotation, modified centrifugal faecal flotation and centrifugal sedimentation/flotation in the diagnosis of canine spirocercosis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Several faecal examination techniques have shown variable sensitivity in demonstrating Spirocerca lupi (S. lupi) eggs. The objective of this study was to determine which faecal examination technique, including a novel modified centrifugal flotation technique, was most sensitive to diagnose spirocercosis. Ten coproscopic examinations were performed on faeces collected from 33 dogs confirmed endoscopically to have spirocercosis. The tests included a direct faecal examination, a faecal sedimentation/flotation test, 4 direct faecal flotations and 4 modified faecal centrifugal flotations. These latter 2 flotation tests utilised 4 different faecal flotation solutions: NaNO3 (SG 1.22), MgSO4 (SG 1.29), ZnSO4 (SG 1.30) and sugar (SG 1.27). The sensitivity of the tests ranged between 42 % and 67 %, with the NaNO3 solution showing the highest sensitivity in both the direct and modified-centrifugal flotations. The modified NaNO3 centrifugal method ranked 1st with the highest mean egg count (45.24 ± 83), and was superior (i.e. higher egg count) and significantly different (P < 0.05) compared with the routine saturated sugar, ZnSO4 and MgSO4 flotation methods. The routine NaNO3 flotation method was also superior and significantly different (P < 0.05) compared with the routine ZnSO4 and MgSO4 flotation methods. Fifteen per cent (n =5)of dogs had neoplastic oesophageal nodules and a further 18 % (n = 6) had both neoplastic and non-neoplastic nodules. S. lupi eggs were demonstrated in 40 % of dogs with neoplastic nodules only and 72.9 % of the dogs with non-neoplastic nodules. The mean egg count in the non-neoplastic group (61) was statistically greater (P = 0.02) than that of the neoplastic group (1). The results show that faecal examination using a NaNO3 solution is the most sensitive in the diagnosis of spirocercosis. The modified centrifugal flotation faecal method using this solution has the highest egg count. The study also found that dogs with neoplastic nodules shed significantly fewer eggs than dogs with non-neoplastic nodules. <![CDATA[<b><i>In vitro</i></b><b> antimicrobial susceptibility of <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> strains from dairy herds in KwaZulu-Natal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Staphylococcus aureus is 1 of the most important causes of bovine mastitis and is responsible for significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. One of the principal approaches used in treating intramammary infections is the administration of antimicrobials. Due to the propensity of S. aureus to develop resistance, antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring is necessary to ensure that treatment regimens are effective. As part of this investigation, 90 S. aureus strains isolated from mastitis cases submitted to Allerton Provincial Veterinary Laboratory during 2008 and 2009 were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of 10 antimicrobials. Only 8 of the 90 S. aureus isolates tested (8.9 %) were found to be susceptible to all of the antimicrobials evaluated. A very high level of resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics was noted: 47.8 % of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and 65.6 % were resistant to ampicillin. Minimal resistance to oxacillin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.1 %) was found. Seventeen (18.9 %) of the isolates tested were found to be resistant to 3 or more antimicrobials. The need for vigilant monitoring of bacterial resistance trends in the dairy industry is warranted as the potential public health implications are significant. <![CDATA[<b>Detection and characterisation of papillomavirus in skin lesions of giraffe and sable antelope in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Papillomavirus was detected electron microscopically in cutaneous fibropapillomas of a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger). The virus particles measured 45 nm in diameter. Histopathologically, the lesions showed histopathological features similar to those of equine sarcoid as well as positive immunoperoxidase-staining of tissue sections for papillomavirus antigen. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA. Bovine papillomavirus-1 was characterised by real-time PCR in the sable and giraffe, and cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed a similarity to BPV-1. As in the 1st giraffe, the lesions from a 2nd giraffe revealed locally malignant pleomorphism, possibly indicating the lesional end-point of papilloma infection. Neither virus particles nor positively staining papillomavirus antigen could be demonstrated in the 2nd giraffe but papillomavirus DNA was detected by real-time PCR which corresponded with BPV-1 and BPV-2. <![CDATA[<b>The utility of uric acid assay in dogs as an indicator of functional hepatic mass</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uric acid was used as a test for liver disease before the advent of enzymology. Three old studies criticised uric acid as a test of liver function. Uric acid, as an end-product of purine metabolism in the liver, deserved re-evaluation as a liver function test. Serum total bile acids are widely accepted as the most reliable liver function test. This study compared the ability of serum uric acid concentration to assess liver function with that of serum pre-prandial bile acids in dogs. In addition, due to the renal excretion of uric acid the 2 assays were also compared in a renal disease group. Using a control group of healthy dogs, a group of dogs with congenital vascular liver disease, a group of dogs with non-vascular parenchymal liver diseases and a renal disease group, the ability of uric acid and pre-prandial bile acids was compared to detect reduced functional hepatic mass overall and in the vascular or parenchymal liver disease groups separately. Sensitivities, specificities and predictive value parameters were calculated for each test. The medians of uric acid concentration did not differ significantly between any of the groups, whereas pre-prandial bile acids medians were significantly higher in the liver disease groups compared with the normal and renal disease group of dogs. The sensitivity of uric acid in detecting liver disease overall was 65 % while the specificity of uric acid in detecting liver disease overall was 59 %. The sensitivity and specificity of uric acid in detecting congenital vascular liver disease was 68 % and 59 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of uric acid in detecting parenchymal liver disease was 63 % and 60 %, respectively. The overall positive and negative predictive values for uric acid in detecting liver disease were poor and the data in this study indicated uric acid to be an unreliable test of liver function. In dogs suffering from renal compromise serum uric acid concentrations may increase into the abnormal range due to its renal route of excretion. <![CDATA[<b>Determination of an optimal dose of medetomidine-ketamine-buprenorphine for anaesthesia in the Cape ground squirrel (<i>Xerus inauris</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The optimal dose of medetomidine-ketamine-buprenorphine was determined in 25 Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) undergoing surgical implantation of a temperature logger into the abdominal cavity. At the end of anaesthesia, the squirrels were given atipamezole intramuscularly to reverse the effects of medetomidine. The mean dose of medetomidine was 67.6 ± 9.2 µg/kg, ketamine 13.6 ± 1.9 mg/kg and buprenorphine 0.5 ± 0.06 µg/kg. Induction time was 3.1 ± 1.4 min. This produced surgical anaesthesia for 21± 4.2 min. Atipamezole 232 ± 92 µg/kg produced a rapid recovery. Squirrels were sternally recumbent in 3.5 ± 2.2 min. <![CDATA[<b>Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope presented with a solitary large lesion just proximal to the right hind hoof, which recurred after excision, and was BPV-1 positive by RT-PCR. Other wart-like growths were present elsewhere on the body. The Cape mountain zebra either succumbed from their massive lesions or were euthanased or removed from the herd because of them. The lesions were BPV-1 and/or -2 positive by RT-PCR. The buffalo lesions were wart-like papillomatous projections in the inguinal and udder region. Stratum granulosum cells that stained immunohistochemically positive in the various species appeared koilocyte-like, as described in human papillomaviral lesions. <![CDATA[<b>A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951) with at least 3 months' wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech), presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment), crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05). Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P < 0.05) and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P < 0.05). There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike). The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05); mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05). The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed. <![CDATA[<b><i>Nicotian</i></b><b> glauca poisoning in ostriches (<i>Struthio camelus</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing 80-770 g), packed in a layer on top of other plant material, were carefully separated from the proventricular content and submitted for chemical determination of anabasine, the major toxic principle contained by this plant. A standard solid phase extraction method was used followed by an optimised liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure. Anabasine was detected in the leaf remnants (114-177 µg/g dry weight) removed from the proventriculus of the ostriches that succumbed as well as in control N. glauca leaves (193 µg/g dry weight). The analytical methods used in this study revealed the presence of anabasine in the suspicious leaf remnants, indicating that the birds had been exposed to N. glauca and had died of this poisoning. <![CDATA[<b>Bilateral multiple cystic kidney disease and renal cortical abscess in a Boerboel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Cystic renal disease is rare in dogs and although infected renal cysts have been reported in humans, no report could be found in dogs. A 58 kg, 5-year-old, castrated, male Boerboel presented with weight loss, pyrexia, lethargy and vomiting, 20 months after an incident of haematuria was reported. The initial ultrasonographic diagnosis was bilateral multiple renal cysts of unknown aetiology. The cysts had significantly increased in size over the 20-month period and some contained echogenic specks which could be related to infection, normal cellular debris or haemorrhage. In both kidneys the renal contours were distorted (the left more than the right). The abnormal shape of the left kidney was largely due to multiple cysts and a large crescent-shaped septate mass on the cranial pole of the kidney. Aspirates of the septate mass were performed (left kidney) and the cytology and culture were indicative of an abscess. It is suggested that the previous incident of haematuria provided a portal of entry for bacteria into the cysts resulting in renal cortical abscess formation. <![CDATA[<b>Contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography and volume-rendered imaging for evaluation of cellophane banding in a dog with extrahepatic portosystemic shunt</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 4-year-old, 1.8 kg, male, castrated Maltese was presented for evaluation of urolithiasis. Urinary calculi were composed of ammonium biurate. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 44.2 and 187.3 µmol/ℓ , respectively (reference ranges 0-10 and 0-20 µmol/ℓ , respectively). Single-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) with volume-rendered imaging (VRI) was obtained. VRI revealed a portocaval shunt originating just cranial to a tributary of the gastroduodenal vein and draining into the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen. CTA revealed a 3.66 mm-diameter shunt measured at the level of the termination of the shunt and a 3.79 mm-diameter portal vein measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Surgery was performed using cellophane banding without attenuation. Follow-up single-phase CTA with VRI was obtained 10 weeks after surgery. VRI revealed no evidence of portosystemic communication on the level of a cellophane band and caudal to the cellophane band. CTA demonstrated an increased portal vein diameter (3.79-5.27 mm) measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 25 and 12.5 µmol/ℓ, respectively (aforementioned respective reference ranges), 3 months post-surgery. No problems were evident at 6 months. <![CDATA[<b>Should veterinarians consider acrylamide that potentially occurs in starch-rich foodstuffs as a neurotoxin in dogs?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Three clinically healthy Labrador puppies developed ataxia, hypermetria and convulsions shortly after eating the burnt crust of maize porridge. Two of the puppies died. Acrylamide toxicity was considered based on the history of all 3 puppies developing nervous signs after being exposed to a starch-based foodstuff that was subjected to high temperature during preparation. Acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity is thought to partially result from a distal axonopathy. <![CDATA[<b>Variability of yellow tulp (<i>Moraea pallida</i> Bak.) toxicity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida Bak.), collected predominantly during the flowering stage from a number of sites in South Africa, showed large variation in digoxin equivalent values, indicating variability in yellow tulp toxicity. Very low values were recorded for tulp collected from certain sites in the Northern Cape. <![CDATA[<b>Piroplasm parasites of white rhinoceroses (<i>Ceratotherium simum</i>) in the Kruger National Park, and their relation to anaemia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As part of a larger survey to map the geographical distribution of Babesia and Theileria parasites in the southern African rhinoceros population, white rhinoceroses were sampled during routine immobilisations in the Kruger National Park. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridisation assays were used to screen for the presence of piroplasms and complete blood counts were used to assess associated changes in clinical parameters. Of the 195 rhinoceroses sampled, 71 (36.4 %) tested positive for the presence of Theileria bicornis, with no significant change in the haematological parameters measured, while 18 (9.2 %) tested positive for Theileria equi. None of the rhinoceroses sampled tested positive for Babesia bicornis, a parasite associated with mortalities in black rhinoceroses. <![CDATA[<b>ERRATUM</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As part of a larger survey to map the geographical distribution of Babesia and Theileria parasites in the southern African rhinoceros population, white rhinoceroses were sampled during routine immobilisations in the Kruger National Park. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridisation assays were used to screen for the presence of piroplasms and complete blood counts were used to assess associated changes in clinical parameters. Of the 195 rhinoceroses sampled, 71 (36.4 %) tested positive for the presence of Theileria bicornis, with no significant change in the haematological parameters measured, while 18 (9.2 %) tested positive for Theileria equi. None of the rhinoceroses sampled tested positive for Babesia bicornis, a parasite associated with mortalities in black rhinoceroses. <![CDATA[<b>ERRATUM</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As part of a larger survey to map the geographical distribution of Babesia and Theileria parasites in the southern African rhinoceros population, white rhinoceroses were sampled during routine immobilisations in the Kruger National Park. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridisation assays were used to screen for the presence of piroplasms and complete blood counts were used to assess associated changes in clinical parameters. Of the 195 rhinoceroses sampled, 71 (36.4 %) tested positive for the presence of Theileria bicornis, with no significant change in the haematological parameters measured, while 18 (9.2 %) tested positive for Theileria equi. None of the rhinoceroses sampled tested positive for Babesia bicornis, a parasite associated with mortalities in black rhinoceroses.