Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820110001&lang=en vol. 82 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b><i>Mycobacterium</i></b><b> spp. in naturally infected game meat and organs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>A reply to the letter of Professor Viroj Wiwanitkit</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>William Horner Andrews (1887-1953) - first Professor of Physiology at Onderstepoort</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en W H Andrews qualified as a veterinarian in London in 1908 and was recruited soon after, in 1909, by Sir Arnold Theiler to join the staff of the newly established veterinary laboratory at Onderstepoort. After initial studies on the treatment of trypanosomosis and on snake venoms he was deployed by Theiler in 1911 to start research on lamsiekte (botulism) at a field station on the farm Kaffraria near Christiana, where he met and married his wife Doris. After a stint as Captain in the SA Veterinary Corps during World War I he succeeded D T Mitchell as head of the Allerton Laboratory in 1918, where he excelled in research on toxic plants, inter alia identifying Matricaria nigellaefolia as the cause of staggers in cattle. When the Faculty of Veterinary Science was established in 1920 he was appointed as the first Professor of Physiology. After the graduation of the first class in 1924, and due to health problems, he returned to the UK, first to the Royal Veterinary College and then to the Weybridge Veterinary Laboratories of which he became Director in 1927. After his retirement in 1947 he returned to South Africa as a guest worker at Onderstepoort where he again became involved in teaching physiology when Prof. Quin unexpectedly died in 1950. Andrews died in Pretoria in 1953 and was buried in the Rebecca Street Cemetery. <![CDATA[<b>Origin and history to date of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The origin of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation is described. The 16th WAAVP Conference held in South Africa in 1997 generated a surplus of ZAR 430 460 (US$ 70 116). This was invested and a foundation established to manage the fund with the intention of using it to the mutual advantage of the WAAVP and African veterinary parasitologists. To date, more than 110 scholarship applications have been screened, and 51 full and partial scholarships awarded to young African veterinary parasitologists to attend subsequent biennial WAAVP Conferences. This investment has grown into a very successful endowment currently valued at US$ 206 553. This article is written in response to many queries across the globe about the origin of this fund and how it has been invested, managed, sustained and utilised. <![CDATA[<b>Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine-butorphanol and midazolam-butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (<i>Bubalus bubalis</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis ) 2-3 years of age and weighing 290-325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 and H2). The animals of group H1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v.) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v.), while in group H2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg) were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5 % thiopental sodium in H1 (3.85 ± 0.63 mg/kg) and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg) groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P &gt; 0.05) difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P < 0.01) after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P < 0.01) fall in RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05) fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P &gt; 0.05) after premedication and a significant (P < 0.05) occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P < 0.01) increase in CVP and a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P < 0.01) decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groups H1 and H2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in PR interval in group H2 , a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in T wave amplitude in group H1, and a significant (P < 0.01) increase in duration of T wave in group H1 . It is concluded that both combinations can be used safely in buffaloes for surgery of 2 h duration but better sedation, analgesia and muscular relaxation and more dose sparing effect on anaesthetics and shorter recovery times were observed in group H1. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of the effects of long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples on the ability of 2 diagnostic assays to identify calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Research aimed at optimising diagnostic laboratory procedures is central to the development of effective bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programmes. BVDV is a singlestranded RNA virus that crosses the placenta to infect foetuses, resulting in reproductive losses due to foetal death or persistently infected calves that die early in life. Persistently infected animals are widely accepted to be the primary reservoir of BVDV and the largest source of infection. This poses important challenges to overall animal/herd health and can cause major losses to the cattle industry. Long-term storage of bovine ear notch samples from calves persistently infected with BVDV may adversely affect the ability of diagnostic assays to detect the virus efficiently. In order to test this hypothesis, ear notch samples from 7 animals were divided into 2 groups. One set was subjected to prompt formalin fixation and the other set stored either as fresh samples without preservatives at -2 ºC, or soaked overnight in phosphate buffered saline followed by freezing of the supernatant fluid at -2 ºC. Frozen ear notches and ear notch supernatant yielded positive results with an antigen-capture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) for the duration of the study (6 months) and optical density (OD) values remained significantly within range. There was no significant difference between storing fresh ear notch samples or PBS at -2 ºC. However, positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining on formalin fixed ear notches started to fade between Day 17 and Day 29 when stored at room temperature. It was concluded that fresh ear notches could safely be stored at -2 ºC for a period of 6 months prior to testing for BVD viral antigens <![CDATA[<b>Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa</b>: <b>an urban perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en South Africa is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R) of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV) and 38 African white-backed (AWBV) vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range. <![CDATA[<b>A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) or 'Gumboro disease' seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90) of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (χ2= 16.1, P < 0.001) between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75 % to 90 % between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania. <![CDATA[<b>Piroplasm parasites of white rhinoceroses (<i>Ceratotherium simum</i>) in the Kruger National Park, and their relation to anaemia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As part of a larger survey to map the geographical distribution of Babesia and Theileria parasites in the southern African rhinoceros population, white rhinoceroses were sampled during routine immobilisations in the Kruger National Park. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridisation assays were used to screen for the presence of piroplasms and complete blood counts were used to assess associated changes in clinical parameters. Of the 195 rhinoceroses sampled, 71 (36.4 %) tested positive for the presence of Theileria bicornis, with no significant change in the haematological parameters measured, while 18 (9.2 %) tested positive for Theileria equi. None of the rhinoceroses sampled tested positive for Babesia bicornis, a parasite associated with mortalities in black rhinoceroses. <![CDATA[<b>Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8- 6.2 mmol/ℓ). Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Fifteen dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 %) made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004). The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the 'diabetes of injury" phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120) in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV), consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV), consisting of 2ℓ twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age. Adjusting for birth mass, birth date, dam parity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG), both pre-weaning (days 0-42) and overall (days 0-60), was higher in HMV than in RMV calves (P < 0.001). After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001). The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMV calves. Overall feed conversion rate of HMV calves was 9.6 % better than RMV calves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea. We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation. <![CDATA[<b>Uterine adenocarcinoma with transcoelomic metastases in breeder hens (<i>Gallus domesticus</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hens involved in a Newcastle disease study were euthanased at regular intervals according to a designed protocol. Of these, 7.14 % (n = 42) of the 82-week-old specific pathogen-free breeder hens were found to have well-delineated firm white to yellowish nodules of varying sizes in the abdominal cavity. Histologically, the nodules were identified as an adenocarcinoma originating in the uterus. Transcoelomic spread was evidenced by the presence of similar neoplastic cells embedded in the serosa and outer longitudinal muscle layer of the intestines as well as the liver. <![CDATA[<b>Seroprevalence of <i>Brucella abortus</i> and <i>B. canis</i> in household dogs in southwestern Nigeria</b>: <b>a preliminary report</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A preliminary serological study of 366 household dogs in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, was carried out to determine antibodies due to exposure to Brucella abortus and B. canis, using the rose bengal test (RBT) and the rapid slide agglutination (RSA) test, respectively. Results showed that 5.46 % (20/366) and 0.27 % (1/366) of the dogs screened were seropositive to B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. Of all dogs, 36 had a history of being fed foetuses from cows and 11 (30.6 %) of these tested positive in the RBT. Our findings, although based on a limited sample size and a dearth of clinical details, revealed that dogs in Nigeria may be infected with Brucella spp. given the wide range of risk factors. Further studies are recommended to elucidate the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in the country. <![CDATA[<b>Expert Companion Bird Care Series</b>: <b>Volume I</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A preliminary serological study of 366 household dogs in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, was carried out to determine antibodies due to exposure to Brucella abortus and B. canis, using the rose bengal test (RBT) and the rapid slide agglutination (RSA) test, respectively. Results showed that 5.46 % (20/366) and 0.27 % (1/366) of the dogs screened were seropositive to B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. Of all dogs, 36 had a history of being fed foetuses from cows and 11 (30.6 %) of these tested positive in the RBT. Our findings, although based on a limited sample size and a dearth of clinical details, revealed that dogs in Nigeria may be infected with Brucella spp. given the wide range of risk factors. Further studies are recommended to elucidate the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in the country.