Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820100002&lang=en vol. 81 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Detection of BVD/MD</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>A reply to Wiwanitkit</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Veterinary nursing in South Africa (1977-2000)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The history of the university course in veterinary nursing in South Africa is reviewed from its inception in 1977 to 2000. The motivation for, and initial problems encountered in, its implementation are outlined. Selection criteria and course subjects, including clinical work, are supplied and the changes in these, following the introduction of a new curriculum in 1993/94, arehighlighted. Reference is made to the legal status of the nursing profession. <![CDATA[<b>An anatomical and clinical review of cricopharyngeal achalasia in the dog</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Cricopharyngeal achalasia is a rare cause of dysphagia in the dog. However it must be differentiated from other causes of dysphagia as it is treatable with surgery. It is a disruption of the cricopharyngeal phase of the oropharyngeal phase of deglutition. There appears to be an incoordination in the swallowing process between the relaxation of the rostral, middle pharyngeal muscles and the caudal pharyngeal muscles. It is seen as a primarycondition in young animals presenting soon after weaning onto solid food. The dogs appear clinically healthy unless there is secondary aspiration pneumonia or emaciation. These dogs may present as respiratory emergencies and require intensive support and treatment prior to corrective surgery. The diagnosis is made on videofluoroscopy. The condition carries a good prognosis for cure with surgical myectomy of the cricopharyngeal muscle and the thyropharyngeal muscle, which make up the upper oesophageal sphincter. Temporary relief prior to surgery can be achieved by injection of the cricopharyngeal muscle with botulism toxin. Surgical treatment for dysphagia secondary to an underlying neurological, neuromuscular or pharyngeal weakness carries a guarded prognosis and will make aspiration pneumonia worse. <![CDATA[<b>Changes in Mithun (<i>Bos frontalis</i>) spermatozoa during epididymal passage</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Genital organs of 10 healthy, adult Mithun bulls (6-8 years old) that were slaughtered at the dwellings of tribal people for meat were collected. Immediately after collection, spermatozoa from 3 different regions of the epididymis, i.e. the head, body and tail, were obtained to study morphological changes of the spermatozoa during passage through these regions. The prevalence of proximal cytoplasmic droplets significantly decreased from the head to the tail of the epididymis. Conversely, the percentage of distal cytoplasmic droplets increased significantly from the head to the tail region. The incidence of tailless heads rose significantly from head to body and then reduced significantly in the tail region. The percentage of total head abnormalities did, however, not change markedly, but total mid-piece and tail abnormalities differed significantly between the three epididymal regions. <![CDATA[<b>Questionnaire survey on urban and peri-urban livestock farming practices and disease control in Kisumu municipality, Kenya</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en To characterise the urban livestock keeping practices and constraints in Kisumu municipality, Kenya, a questionnaire survey was carried out. Thirty-four contact farmers were interviewed on general farm characteristics and production constraints. The farming activities were categorised as either livestock only (41 %), or mixed crops and livestock (59 %). The surveyed farmers kept mainly cattle (100 %), chickens (82 %) and goats (74 %). Most (94 %) of the farmers had kept livestock for prolonged periods mainly for income generation (97 %) and domestic consumption (59 %). These data show that livestock keeping was popular and could be harnessed to increase food security, although the farmers kept mainly low-producing indigenous cattle (98 %) which were grazed on unutilised land. The main production constraints mentioned by farmers included diseases (100 %), poor fertility (68 %) and lack of feed (56 %). The diseases varied with species of ruminants and included lumpy skin disease (71 %), diarrhoea (65 %) and helminthosis (62 %). The source of advice on management and treatment of the livestock was almost equally from private and government veterinary personnel. To improve livestock productivity, it is recommended that key stakeholders address the constraints mentioned in this study and in particular that the occurrence of diseases should be investigated with a view to developing sustainable control strategies. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of PCR assays for the detection of <i>Campylobacter fetus</i> in bovine preputial scrapings and the identification of subspecies in South African field isolates</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As a result of the high lability and slow growth of Campylobacter fetus subspecies, the laboratory diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis has always been difficult. This is especially true under South African conditions, where farms are far apart, laboratories are only present in major centres and there are high ambient temperatures. In order to overcome the shortcomings associated with traditional diagnostic methods, the implementation of a molecular assay was sought. This work describes how a previously published PCR assay (MG3F/ MG4R primers) was adapted, optimised and applied in the diagnostic laboratory to test preputial samples directly for the presence of Campylobacter fetus. Field evaluation of the assay revealed an analytical sensitivity and specificity of 85.7 % and 99 %, respectively. Subsequent genotyping and phenotyping of a diverse collection of South African field isolates revealed that South Africa has an unexpected and previously unreported high incidence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. These strains were not identified correctly by the subspecies-specific primer set evaluated. Until such time that cost-effective genotyping methods are available to diagnostic laboratories in South Africa, and other countries with these atypical Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis strains, the need for bacterial culture will persist. Identification to subspecies level of isolates at present remains dependent upon a single phenotypic criterion, namely tolerance to 1 % glycine. <![CDATA[<b>The prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en About 90 % of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF) PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4 %), Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-86.7 %), Tetrameres americana (53.3-66.7 %) and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8 %) and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona (16.7-40 %) and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3 %) were the most prevalent in that order. Heterakis gallinarum and T. americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens across all the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata), Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata), Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta) and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T. americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens. <![CDATA[<b>A study of preslaughter pig handling and stunning in selected South African Highveld region abattoirs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The study hypothesis was that pre-slaughter handling is not conducted in such a way that pigs can be considered humanely slaughtered, nor is it conducive to promoting those properties of fresh meat that could enhance pork quality. The 1st phase of the investigation was aimed at confirming the present compliance level within the prescribed norms. To this end the importance of stunning induction requirements for effective electrical stunning, the welfare implications relating to the pre-slaughter handling of pigs and the stunning and sticking techniques were investigated. Pre-slaughter welfare of the pigs at the abattoir was found to be influenced at the outset by the origin and type of pig slaughtered, the daily throughput range of pigs and the type of abattoir involved. A disappointing pre-arrival aspect was that deficiencies in road motor vehicles were observed while off-loading pigs. Through poor design or lack of maintenance, another factor that hampered free movement of pigs was the off-loading facilities. The nature of animal behaviour in the pens, in the passages and when going into the stunning area was directly related to the pig handling efficiency and to the nature and extent of design and maintenance problems with equipment. None of the abattoirs had a well designed in-feed to a well planned stunning area/facility, and a very high level of pig pre-slaughter stress prevailed. The optimum position of the electrodes is virtually impossible to attain under practical conditions and the practice of repeat application of electrical stunning is common. Of the total sample size (n = 1175), 34 % were difficult to shackle, 90 % of these being from the abattoirs tending to slaughter more routinely a wide range of different sized pigs. In this survey 149 pigs (13 %) required more than a single sticking attempt to bleed out properly, considerably higher than in other published reports. <![CDATA[<b>Isolation of pathogenic aerobic bacteria from the blood of septicaemic neonatal calves and the susceptibility of isolates to various antibiotics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An automated blood culture system (BACTEC 9240) was used for the isolation of aerobic bacteria from the blood of septicaemic neonatal calves. Blood samples were collected from 90 clinically septicaemic and 20 healthy neonatal calves and inoculated into blood culture bottles. There were 89 significant isolates from 90 positive blood cultures using the BACTEC system. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen detected accounting for 56 (63 %) out of 89 isolates. The other pathogens were β-haemolytic streptococci (15.7 %), Staphylococcus aureus (10.1 %), Klebsiella sp. (5.6 %) and Corynebacterium sp. (5.6 %). All isolates showed a susceptibility rate of 100 % to enrofloxacin, cefepim, cefoperazone/sulbactam, imipenem and meropenem while some of them were ranged from 75 to 91.7 % susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/sulbactam, gentamicin and cephalosporins. <![CDATA[<b>First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep. <![CDATA[<b>Polioencephalomalacia associated with closantel overdosage in a goat</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This report describes clinical and pathological findings associated with closantel (a halogenated salicylanilide anthelmintic) overdosage in a 3-year-old goat. The clinical signs included blindness, incoordination, ataxia, depression of the palpebral and pupillary reflexes, and recumbency. No gross lesions were noted in tissue or organs at necropsy, but microscopic lesions were seen in nervous tissue and hepatic cells. Polioencephalomalacia was clearly evident. Bilaterally symmetrical status spongiosus of the white matter of the brain, bilateral laminar necrosis, microcavitations, ischaemic cell change and severe degeneration of the cerebellum were seen in nervous tissue. Fatty change and hydropic degeneration in the liver and hepato-cellular degeneration were observed histologically. <![CDATA[<b>Oesophageal obstruction in Dorper ewes caused by impaction of a pelleted ration</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Two adult Dorper ewes developed an oesophageal obstruction (choke) by consuming a pelleted ration. The history, clinical signs and method of treatment were recorded in each case. One case was treated surgically via rumenotomy and the other conservatively. Both ewes recovered uneventfully and no recurrence was observed. Reasons for the compaction of the pelleted ration in the oesophagus are discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Yolk coelomitis in a white-throated monitor lizard (<i>Varanus albigularis</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Yolk coelomitis as a result of pre-ovulatory follicular stasis is a common disorder in captive reptiles, especially in captive lizards of various genera. The clinical signs are generally fairly non-specific and diagnosis is based on clinical signs together with most of the common diagnostic modalities. The condition is most likely a husbandry and environment-related reproductive disorder. It has not been reported in wild free-living specimens. This report describes the clinical presentation and post mortem lesions in a white-throated monitor lizard that died during treatment for non-specific clinical signs related to a severe yolk coelomitis. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5 % (helminth parasites 93.1 % and protozoan parasites 6.9 %). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %), Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %), Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %), Toxocara canis (7.9 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.4 %) Giardia intestinalis (5.6 %) and Isospora sp. (1.3 %). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 %) than those harbouring 2 (15 %) or multiple (2.1 %) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples. <![CDATA[<b>Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the northwestern region of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia. Ticks were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at a veterinary clinic in the Northern Cape Province and at 3 clinics in Namibia. The ticks collected at each place were pooled separately for each month at each locality. Eleven ixodid tick species were collected from dogs in the Northern Cape Province and new locality records for Haemaphysalis colesbergensis and Ixodes rubicundus, new locality and host records for Hyalomma glabrum, and a new host record for Rhipicephalus neumanni are reported. Six tick species were collected from dogs at the 3 clinics in Namibia. The most numerous species on dogs in both countries was R. sanguineus. The present results increase the total number of ixodid tick species collected from dogs in South Africa from 25 to 28. <![CDATA[<b>Veterinary education for global animal and public health</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the northwestern region of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia. Ticks were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at a veterinary clinic in the Northern Cape Province and at 3 clinics in Namibia. The ticks collected at each place were pooled separately for each month at each locality. Eleven ixodid tick species were collected from dogs in the Northern Cape Province and new locality records for Haemaphysalis colesbergensis and Ixodes rubicundus, new locality and host records for Hyalomma glabrum, and a new host record for Rhipicephalus neumanni are reported. Six tick species were collected from dogs at the 3 clinics in Namibia. The most numerous species on dogs in both countries was R. sanguineus. The present results increase the total number of ixodid tick species collected from dogs in South Africa from 25 to 28. <![CDATA[<b>OIE scientific and technical review: avian influenza</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the northwestern region of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia. Ticks were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at a veterinary clinic in the Northern Cape Province and at 3 clinics in Namibia. The ticks collected at each place were pooled separately for each month at each locality. Eleven ixodid tick species were collected from dogs in the Northern Cape Province and new locality records for Haemaphysalis colesbergensis and Ixodes rubicundus, new locality and host records for Hyalomma glabrum, and a new host record for Rhipicephalus neumanni are reported. Six tick species were collected from dogs at the 3 clinics in Namibia. The most numerous species on dogs in both countries was R. sanguineus. The present results increase the total number of ixodid tick species collected from dogs in South Africa from 25 to 28. <![CDATA[<b>South African Association of Veterinary Technologists: congress abstracts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282010000200020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the northwestern region of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia. Ticks were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at a veterinary clinic in the Northern Cape Province and at 3 clinics in Namibia. The ticks collected at each place were pooled separately for each month at each locality. Eleven ixodid tick species were collected from dogs in the Northern Cape Province and new locality records for Haemaphysalis colesbergensis and Ixodes rubicundus, new locality and host records for Hyalomma glabrum, and a new host record for Rhipicephalus neumanni are reported. Six tick species were collected from dogs at the 3 clinics in Namibia. The most numerous species on dogs in both countries was R. sanguineus. The present results increase the total number of ixodid tick species collected from dogs in South Africa from 25 to 28.