Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> vol. 81 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Veterinary education in South Africa</b>: <b>the classes of 1936 & 1937</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Vaccination against GnRH may suppress aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant (<i>Loxodonta africana</i>) bulls: a pilot study</b>]]> Aggressive behaviour and musth are constant problems in captive and sometimes in free-ranging African elephant bulls. Aggressive bulls are difficult and musth bulls almost impossible to manage without severely restricting their movement either by leg-chaining or using tranquillisers. This study investigated the relationship between faecal androgen metabolites (FAM) and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) concentrations and aggressive behaviour and tested a GnRH vaccine as a means of down-regulating aggressive behaviour and musth in 1 free-ranging and 5 captive elephant bulls. The bulls were non-aggressive (n = 3), aggressive (n = 2) or in musth (n = 1) at the onset of the study. The bulls were injected with a GnRH vaccine-adjuvant combination 3 or 4 times at 3-to 7-week intervals. Behaviour, FAM and FCM concentrations were measured during every week prior to vaccination until 4 months after the last vaccination. FAM concentrations were positively correlated with aggressive behaviour before the 1st vaccination. Androgen production, as reflected by FAM concentrations, was down-regulated in 3 of the 6 immunised bulls. At least 2 bulls and possibly a 3rd showed behavioural improvement following GnRH vaccination and in all 3 temporal gland secretion ceased. No further aggressive behaviour was observed until the end of the study in any of the bulls. The results of this 1st GnRH immunisation study suggest that it could be a useful method to control aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant bulls. <![CDATA[<b>Rabies in South Africa between 1993 and 2005: what has been achieved?</b>]]> Epidemiological analyses in time and space were carried out on all animal rabies cases reported in South Africa for the period 1993-2005. Validation of state veterinary records was done by comparing these with data from the 2 diagnostic laboratories mandated to test for animal rabies. A discrepancy between state veterinary records and laboratory results was found and is discussed. The total number of positive rabies cases reported to veterinary services between 1993 and 2005 was 4767. During this period the proportion of domestic animal rabies had increased to 79 % (19 % more than for the period 1980-1994), with 59 % of the total cases being domestic dogs. Of the domestic animal cases 74 % were canine and only 21 % were bovine; when compared to the data from 1985-1994 there was an increase of 6 % of rabies in canine anda3% decrease in bovine cases. A disturbing trend is the increase in the incidence of rabies over the last 16 years in provinces neighbouring KwaZulu-Natal province, where rabies used to be concentrated, and in Limpopo province. <![CDATA[<b>An evaluation of changes over time in serum creatine kinase activity and C-reactive protein concentration in dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy or ovariohysterectomy</b>]]> The extent of trauma in a patient can be difficult for a clinician to quantify. A prospective study was performed on 2 groups of dogs undergoing either ovariohysterectomy or hemilaminectomy. The serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of C-reactive protein were evaluated preoperatively and then at 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively in both groups. The results were compared statistically both within and between the 2 groups. A wide range of results was found at each time point for both analytes although there were no significant differences for either analyte between the 2 surgical groups preoperatively. Thereafter there were significant differences in creatine kinase activity levels between the 2 groups. C-reactive protein concentration results were very similar in the 2 groups with no statistical difference at any time point. The results of this study suggest that the evaluation of CK and CRP at any one time point in a traumatised animal is of limited value. However, the evaluation of the trend of these 2 analytes, even over a relatively short time period, may allow for useful prognostication in clinical cases. <![CDATA[<b>Dose-related effects of cerulein short infusions on proximal small bowel motility in sheep</b>]]> The effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) upon the intestinal motility has not been entirely explored in ruminants. The aim of this study was to examine the precise effects of CCK amphibian analogue, cerulein, on small-intestinal myoelectric activity in rams in the course of chronic experiments. Five rams underwent implantation of bipolar platinum electrodes to the duodenal bulb, the distal duodenum and jejunum. During continuous myoelectrical and motor recordings, 0.15 M NaCl or the various doses of cerulein were administered intravenously. Short infusions of the smallest dose of cerulein exerted a slight and mostly insignificant effect on the duodenal bulb and the duodenal myoelectric activity index (MAI) values. In the duodenal bulb, the effects of cerulein on myoelectric activity were dose-dependent and closely related to the phase of the MMC. In the duodenum, the higher doses of the hormone evoked short stimulatory response followed by longer inhibitory biphasic effects on MAI. These effects were inversely related to the duration of hormone injection. Infusions of hormones at the higher doses caused a less pronounced biphasic effect. It is concluded that cerulein exerts an inhibitory effect upon the myoelectric activity of the duodenal bulb and a strong stimulatory and inhibitory (biphasic) effect on duodenal motility in sheep. <![CDATA[<b>The efficacy of a topically applied combination of cyphenothrin and pyriproxyfen against the southern African yellow dog tick, <i>Haemaphysalis elliptica</i>, and the cat flea, <i>Ctenocephalides felis</i>, on dogs</b>]]> The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic and residual efficacy of a topically applied combination of cyphenothrin (40 %) and pyriproxyfen (2 %) against the tick Haemaphysalis elliptica and the flea Ctenocephalides felis on dogs. Twelve dogs were infested with 50 ticks 2 days before they were treated and with approximately 100 fleas 6 days before treatment and again 2 days before treatment and with 50 ticks and approximately 100 fleas at weekly intervals thereafter. They were ranked according to their flea counts and sex 5 days before treatment and randomly allocated to an untreated control group of 6 dogs and a treated group of 6 dogs. Ticks and fleas were collected from the dogs 48 h after treatment and 48 h after each infestation and live and dead ticks and live fleas were counted. The counts of ticks and fleas were transformed to geometric means, and efficacy was calculated by comparing these means. The product had a therapeutic efficacy of 83.1 % against H. elliptica and 97.5 % against C. felis 2 days after treatment. The residual period of protection during which efficacy was > 90% was 5 weeks for both H. elliptica and C. felis. <![CDATA[<b>Retrospective study on the incidence of <i>Salmonella</i> isolations in animals in South Africa, 1996 to 2006</b>]]> A retrospective study that involves the analysis of laboratory diagnostic data collected during the period 1996-2006 was conducted. A total of 3417 Salmonella isolations involving 183 different serotypes was recorded from 1999-2006, inclusive, at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council, South Africa. The most common serotypes were Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (917 incidents), Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Dublin (248 incidents), Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (232 incidents), Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Muenchen (164 incidents), Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Heidelberg (118 incidents) and Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Chester (113 incidents). The number of recorded Salmonella isolations over the period 1996 to 2006 varies considerably from year to year. The peak of 693 isolations was recorded in 1997, and the lowest, 108 incidents, in 2001. Of the total incidents recorded during the period of survey, 2410 (70.5 %) occurred in poultry and other birds, 641 (18.75 %) occurred in cattle, 255 (7.46) in pigs and 111 (3.24 %) in sheep. Despite the large number of serotypes isolated (183), 52 % of incidents were due to only 6 serotypes in decreasing order of prevalence: S. Typhimurium, S. Dublin, S. Enteritidis, S. Muenchen, S. Heidelberg and S. Chester. Serovar Typhimurium was the most common serotype and was detected in all animal species sampled, with, 65 % (598) of the incidents occurring in poultry and 20 % (187) occurring in cattle. Of the total of 248 incidents of S. Dublin serotype, 95.6 % (237) of incidents occurred in cattle and of the 232 isolates of S. Enteritidis, 223 (96%) originated from poultry. Serovar Choleraesuis was identified in 16 isolates from pigs. The following 4 serotypes were each recorded in more than 50 incidents: S. Hadar (102), S. Schwarzengrund (99), S. Mbandaka (94) and S. Sandiego (73). The trends of annual incidence of Salmonella infection in cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and other birds during the 11-year period and the distribution of the main serotypes in individual species of animals from 1996-2006 are discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Occurrence of <i>Theileria parva</i> and other haemoprotozoa in cattle at the edge of Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa</b>]]> Theileria parva, the most important bovine theilerial species in sub-Saharan Africa, causes widespread mortality and morbidity in endemic areas. A survey was conducted using buffy-coat specimens from 60 apparently healthy adult communally herded Nguni-type cattle at the northeastern edge of the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park to determine, by means of PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridisation, the occurrence of Theileria and Babesia species. The presence of Trypanosoma species was determined using PCR-RFLP. Results showed that 6.7 % of the specimens were positive for Theileria parva. This significant finding suggests that cattle in South Africa, and not only African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), may be subclinical carriers of T. parva. Other species identified were T. mutans (83.3 %), T. velifera (70.0 %), Theileria sp. (sable) (46.8 %) and T. taurotragi (1.7 %). Two specimens (3.3 %) were positive for Babesia bovis and single specimens (1.7 %) positive for B. bigemina and B. rossi, respectively. Mixed infections, of up to 4 species, were common (65.0 %). Only 1 specimen was found to be positive for Trypanosoma vivax, and 2 for T. theileri, of which only the first species is pathogenic. <![CDATA[<b>Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in trade cattle slaughtered in Ibadan, Nigeria, from 2004-2006</b>]]> A seroprevalence study was carried out among trade cattle slaughtered at Bodija Municipal Abattoir, Ibadan (southwestern Nigeria) over a period of 3 consecutive years from 2004 to 2006 with a view to determining the breed, sex and age distribution in the seropositivity of bovine brucellosis. In total, 1642 animals were examined for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Seroprevalences of 6.00 %, 6.17 % and 5.31 % were obtained in the years 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively but a decrease in 2006 shows no significant difference (P > 0.05). The role of the breed (P > 0.05), sex (P > 0.05) and age (P > 0.05) in the occurrence of the infection was not statistically significant at 5 %, although higher rates were obtained for females and older animals. The trend in the disease over the 3-year period showed that it is endemic in trade cattle slaughtered in Ibadan and the public health implications of this are discussed. <![CDATA[<b>The ovarian and uterine arteries in the chinchilla (<i>Chinchilla lanigera</i>)</b>]]> The purpose of this study was to describe arteries supplying the ovaries and uterus in the chinchilla. Five healthy adult female chinchillas were used. In order to reveal the arterial network by dissecting under a stereoscopic microscope, latex coloured with red ink was injected through the common carotid artery. The ovaries of the chinchilla are supplied by the arteriae ovaricae which formed end-to-end anastomoses with the cranial termination of the arteria uterina. Soon after leaving the aorta abdominalis, the arteriae ovaricae extended 2-3 mm caudolaterally, then released 1 branch and extended caudally and bifurcated into 2 further branches. One of these supplied branches to fat tissue. The other branch coursed caudally and anastomosed with the arteria circumflexa ilium profunda and dispersed into fat tissue. The arteria ovarica further subdivided into 2 rami ovaricae. The origins of the uterine arteries were exclusively from the left arteria iliaca externa. The arteria uterina gave a branch to the arteria umbilicalis and consecutive branches which supplied to the ureter, urinary bladder and cranial aspects of the vagina. It also gave rise to 2-3 branches to the cervix and further supplied 10-12 meandering branches to the uterine horns. The arteria uterina gave rise to many tortuous arteries to the uterus and provided 2 further branches to the ovary. <![CDATA[<b>Bilateral axillary skin fold flaps used for dorsal thoracic skin wound closure in a dog</b>]]> A 10-year-old greyhound-cross dog was presented with a large, chronic skin wound extending over the interscapular region. The substantial skin defect was closed by making use of bilateral axillary skin fold flaps. It was possible to elevate the 2 skin flaps sufficiently to allow them to meet at the dorsal midline and thus facilitate complete closure of a large and awkwardly positioned wound. Small dorsal areas of the skin flaps underwent necrosis, but the resulting defects were closed without difficulty in a subsequent procedure. To the author's knowledge, this is the 1st clinical report of the use of bilateral axillary skin fold flaps in this fashion and describes an additional use of a versatile skin flap procedure. <![CDATA[<b>Description of the pathology of a gazelle that died during a major outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Israel</b>]]> Naturally occurring foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in wildlife is a relatively mild condition but occasionally it can be devastating as has been documented in impala in South Africa and in mountain gazelles in Israel. This report describes pathological changes in an adult male gazelle with FMD from an outbreak in the Nature Reserve of Ramot-Issachar region and the lower Galilee in Israel. The outbreak was characterised by the malignant form of the disease, which is uncommon among domestic animals. Lesions observed included, ulceration in the oral cavity, oesophagus and ruminal pillars, coronitis, multifocal cardiac necrosis and pancreatic necrosis and inflammation. Pneumonia, caused by Muellerius capillaries was an incidental finding. <![CDATA[<b>Multiple eyelid apocrine hidrocystoma in a domestic short-haired cat</b>]]> A 12-year-old domestic short-haired cat was referred for evaluation of periocular masses. The tail had similar masses and was amputated previously by the referring veterinarian. On examination, multiple pigmented nodules, 3-15 mm in diameter, were found in the periocular skin, primarily involving the palpebral eyelid margin. A wedge excisional biopsy revealed small cuboidal cells forming multiple tubular and cystic structures indicative of apocrine cystadenomas, similar to apocrine hidrocystomas described in humans. The nodules were lanced followed by liquid nitrogen cryofreezing. <![CDATA[<b>Errata</b>]]> A 12-year-old domestic short-haired cat was referred for evaluation of periocular masses. The tail had similar masses and was amputated previously by the referring veterinarian. On examination, multiple pigmented nodules, 3-15 mm in diameter, were found in the periocular skin, primarily involving the palpebral eyelid margin. A wedge excisional biopsy revealed small cuboidal cells forming multiple tubular and cystic structures indicative of apocrine cystadenomas, similar to apocrine hidrocystomas described in humans. The nodules were lanced followed by liquid nitrogen cryofreezing.