Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820090004&lang=en vol. 80 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Cysticercosis working group in Eastern and Southern Africa - 6th General Assembly</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Call for contributions on the history of veterinary science</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Heartwater: An abridged historical account</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Heartwater was first recognised and recorded in South Africa as early as 1838. Since then the disease has been described from almost all the countries in Africa south of the Sahara, from certain islands around Africa and from a number of islands in the Caribbean. Most of the research on the disease, at least until fairly recently, was conducted in South Africa. Progress in research on the disease has been slow but a few important findings are highlighted in this paper. <![CDATA[<b>'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus), the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis) the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta), a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly. <![CDATA[<b>The intravenous pharmacokinetics of diminazene in healthy dogs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Diminazene remains one of South Africa's most commonly used antiprotozoal agents for the management of babesiosis in dogs . Although the drug has been on the market for over 40 years, its intravenous pharmacokinetics are poorly known. To better understand the pharmacokinetics of the drug Berenil®, it was reconstituted in sterile water and administered intravenously to 6 adult German shepherd dogs. All 6 dogs demonstrated the previously described secondary peak in the plasma concentration versus time profile. The plasma pharmacokinetics for diminazene are described by both non-compartmental and compartmental models. From non-compartmental analysis, the area under curve to the last sample point (AUQast), clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vz) were 4.65 ± 1.95 ng/ml/h, 0.77 ± 0.18 l/kg/h and2.28 ± 0.60 l/kg respectively. For compartmental modelling, the plasma concentrations were fitted to both a 2-compartmental open model and a recirculatory enterohepatic model. From the recirculation model, the rate of release and re-entry into the central compartment varied markedly with the rate of release from the gall bladder (Ttom) being estimated at 27 ± 20.90 h. Once released, drug re-entry into the central compartment was variable at 9.70 ± 5.48 h. With normal biliary excretion time being about 2 h, this indicates that the redistribution cannot be occurring physiologically from the bile. Although it was not possible to identify the site from which sequestration and delayed release is occurring, it is believed that it is most likely from the liver. The study therefore showed that the secondary peak described for the pharmacokinetics of intramuscular administered diminazene in the dog is not related to biphasic absorption. <![CDATA[<b>Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape province, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered. <![CDATA[<b>A retrospective study of chronic nasal disease in 75 dogs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Chronic nasal disease is a common problem in dogs. To determine the aetiology, a retrospective study in 75 dogs with persistent and chronic nasal disease was done. All dogs were evaluated by means of survey nasal radiographs, antegrade and retrograde rhinoscopy, bacterial and fungal cultures, and histopathology. A definitive diagnosis was made in 74/75 cases (98.6 %). Nasal neoplasia was the most common diagnosis (46.7 %), median age 108 months, followed by lympho-plasmacytic rhinitis (20 %), median age 112 months, and fungal rhinitis (10.7 %), median age 53.5 months. Other diagnoses included nasal foreign body (5.3 %), median age 51 months, and primary bacterial rhinitis (6.7 %), median age 116.5 months. Rare aetiologies identified were nasal polyps, granulomatous rhinitis, oro-nasal fistula and naso-pharyngeal stenosis. This study showed that by using a structured combination of survey radiography, rhinoscopy, cultures and histopathology, a diagnosis could be made in dogs with chronic nasal disease. <![CDATA[<b>Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium. <![CDATA[<b>Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 ± 0.2 %. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery. <![CDATA[<b>An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80 % of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237) of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20) slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3), while the rest (n = 37) sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per ml in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per ml. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and Escherichia coli (n = 15). During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was considered that informal slaughter can prejudice livestock welfare. It was concluded that the current situation is not acceptable in terms of meat safety. Thus, the Veterinary Public Health Directorate of the National Veterinary Services has prioritised the monitoring of butchers, registration of slaughter slabs and a general extension campaign to improve hygiene and animal welfare standards for slaughter in Lesotho. This paper highlights the major risks associated with meat consumption without Veterinary Public Health intervention in accordance with international standards. <![CDATA[<b>A comparison of epidural anaesthesia with lignocaine, bupivacaine and a lignocaine-bupivacaine mixture in cats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A mixture of 2 % lignocaine (LIG) and 0.5 % bupivacaine (BUP), at respective dose rates of 2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg (LIG-BUP), was compared to LIG (4 mg/kg) and BUP (1 mg/kg) for lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia in 5 sedated cats. Each cat received all 3 treatment regimens at 1-week intervals. The cats were premedicated with an intramuscular injection of atropine sulphate (0.04 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg). Onset and duration of analgesia, and time to walking were determined. Associated changes in heart rate (HR), respiratory frequency (f r) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded. Onset of analgesia with epidurally administered LIG-BUP (4.5 ± 0.7 min), LIG (3.9 ± 1.0 min) and BUP (5.0 ± 1.0 min) was similar. Duration of analgesia with LIG-BUP (49.4 ± 4.5 min) was significantly (P <0.05) longer than with LIG (40.2 ±1.0 min) but shorter than with BUP (79.4 ± 6.3 min). There were no significant differences in times to standing with LIG-BUP (26.3 ± 6.4 min), LIG (20.4 ± 4.7 min) and BUP (22.6 ± 10.3 min). Minimal changes were observed in HR, fR and RT. In conclusion, duration of analgesia produced by LIG-BUP was shorter compared with BUP but longer compared with LIG. Neither LIG nor LIG-BUP has any advantage over epidural BUP in terms of onset of analgesia, time to standing and physiological responses. Therefore, lumbosacral epidural administration of BUP appears to be the best choice for a long surgical procedure lasting more than 1 hour when compared with either LIG or LIG-BUP. <![CDATA[<b>Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar/plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates. <![CDATA[<b>Negative MRI findings in a case of degenerative myelopathy in a dog</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An 11-year-old male Rough collie was submitted with paraparesis, but did not respond to medical treatment. Clinical signs worsened and the dog displayed paralysis, inability to stand and loss of voluntary bladder control, whereupon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. No significant abnormalities were identified from MRI, blood tests, cerebrospinal fluid tests or radiography. After MRI, the dog developed dyspnoea and died. Autopsy and subsequent histopathological examination led to a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy. <![CDATA[<b>Putative clinical piroplasmosis in a Burchell’s zebra <i>(Equus quagga burchelli)</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 10-year-old tame zebra gelding was presented after sufferingfrom lethargy, nervousness, reported anaemia and icterus as well as a decreased appetite. These symptoms were seen over some months, with changing severity. The animal was immobilised, treated, and blood specimens were submitted for haematology and biochemistry. This report describes molecular characterisation of Theileria equi recovered from this animal, as well as the clinical findings, treatment and historical relevance of piroplasmosis in zebra in southern Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Large granular lymphocytic leukaemia complicated with histiocytic sarcoma in a dog</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 10-year-old castrated male Golden retriever, weighing 36.3 kg was referred for evaluation owing to a decline in general condition. Findings from the complete blood count revealed a marked lymphocytosis (113 000/µl). Examination of Wright-Giemsa-stainedfilms of peripheral blood revealed the presence of large granular lymphocytes (LGL). Seventy-two per cent (81 360/µl) of the lymphocytes were found to be 12-17 µm in diameter, containing nuclei with mature clumped chromatin and abundant lightly basophilic cytoplasm with a variable number of fine azurophilic granules. Based on these findings this case was diagnosed as LGL leukaemia. As a result of multiple-agent chemotherapy, the markedly elevated levels of lymphocytes gradually decreased to 7500/µl on day 122 and the patient maintained a good quality of life for the following 3 months. However, on around day 237, a soft, raised, bosselated mass on the labial region was noted. The dog was diagnosed as having histiocytic sarcoma based on cytological and histological examination of the mass. Shortly after diagnosis, the dog developed sudden onset of central nervous system signs and died on day 270. A common outcome of canine LGL is the development of acute blast crisis or lymphoma. However, this case was notable for complication with histiocytic sarcoma from another origin. <![CDATA[<b>Use of Ir<sup>192</sup> interstitial brachytherapy for an equine malignant dermal schwannoma</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 10-year-old Hanoverian mare was evaluated for a right buccal swelling that recurred 3 months following surgical resection. Ultrasonographic examination showed a broadly pedunculated subcutaneous mass at the level of 106-109 and 406-409 cheek teeth associated with an erosive mucosal lesion on the inside of the cheek. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed a well-demarcated, malignant, dermal schwannoma. Following subcutaneous placement of platinum coated Ir192 wires under general anaesthesia, low-dose radiation of 5 gray per day was delivered for 14 days. Short-term complications included loss of patency of the right nasolacrimal duct, erythema, dermatitis, leukotrichia and left-sided deviation of the muzzle. Ten months later, there has been no tumour recurrence. Findings suggest that the use of interstitial brachytherapy should be considered for a malignant, dermal schwannoma that has recurred or is not amenable to surgery. <![CDATA[<b>Construction and insertion of oesophageal cannulae for use in domestic ruminants</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The design of an oesophageal cannula for goats, sheep and cattle is described. The cannula consists of a base, threaded bar and stopper made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or wood. The surgical procedure in goats for inserting the cannula is described as well as how to keep the wound around the cannula clean. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of activated charcoal as treatment for Yellow tulp <i>(Moraea pallida)</i> poisoning in cattle</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The efficacy of activated charcoal as a treatment for cattle (n = 57) poisoned by Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida) was investigated. Treatment with activated charcoal resulted in full recovery, irrespective of the degree of posterior paresis, provided that this clinical sign did not develop within the first 12 hours after initial exposure to Yellow tulp-infested grazing. For instance, despite treatment, 1 of 7 cattle succumbed after manifesting mild posterior paresis 6 to 8 h after initial exposure and 3 of 3 treated cattle died after developing severe posterior paresis within 6 to 12 h. <![CDATA[<b>Hepatic capillariasis in a Cape ground squirrel <i>(Xerus inaurus)</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000400019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We report, for the first time, an incidental finding of Calodium hepaticum infestation in a sub-adult female Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inaurus). Post mortem examination of the squirrel revealed severe haemoperitoneum, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly with miliary white spots distributed diffusely throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Histologically the portal tracts in the liver showed granulomatous inflammation with fibrosis and numerous giant cells. Occasional adult worms were identified and there were multiple C. hepaticum eggs distributed diffusely throughout the portal tracts and the parenchyma. The spleen also contained C. hepaticum eggs. The genus Rattus is the primary host and reservoir of C. hepaticum, but C. hepaticum infections have been reported previously in other Sciuridae. Based on our findings, people should be cautious of the zoonotic potential of C. hepaticum, when they come into contact with the Cape ground squirrel.