Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820090002&lang=pt vol. 80 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Review of African swine fever: Transmission, spread and control</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt African swine fever is one of the most important and serious diseases of domestic pigs. Its highly contagious nature and ability to spread over long distances make it one of the most feared diseases, since its devastating effects on pig production have been experienced not only in most of sub-Saharan Africa but also in western Europe, the Caribbean, Brazil and, most recently, the Caucasus. Unlike most diseases of livestock, there is no vaccine, and therefore prevention relies entirely upon preventing contact between the virus and the susceptible host. In order to do so it is necessary to understand the way in which the virus is transmitted and spreads. By implementing strict biosecurity measures that place barriers between the source of virus and the pigs it is possible to prevent infection. However, this has implications for free-ranging pig husbandry systems that are widespread in developing countries. Attempts to produce a vaccine are ongoing and new technology offers some hope for the future, but this will not remove the necessity for implementing adequate biosecurity on pig farms. <![CDATA[<b>Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of <i>Babesia rossi and Babesia canis</i> isolates with emphasis on effects of vaccination with soluble parasite antigens: A review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Effects of lumbosacral epidural ketamine and lidocaine in xylazine-sedated cats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In order to determine the analgesic and cardiovascular effects of the combination of epidural ketamine and lidocaine, 6 sedated cats were studied. Six healthy, young cats were used in a prospective randomised study. Each cat underwent 3 treatments, at least 1 week apart, via epidural injection: (1) ketamine (2.5 mg/kg), (2) lidocaine (4.0 mg/kg), and (3) ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) plus lidocaine (4.0 mg/kg). Epidural injections were administered through the lumbosacral space. Analgesia, motor block, sedation, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate and arterial oxygen saturation were measured. Rectal temperature was compared before and after sedation as well as after epidural administration of the drugs. Epidural administration of the ketamine/lidocaine combination induced prolonged analgesia extending from the coccygeal to the T13-L1 dermatomes, leading to severe ataxia. Cardiovascular effects were significant in all treatments: heart rate decreased,but there was a minimal reduction in arterial pressure. It was concluded that addinga dose of ketamine to epidural lidocaine in cats is feasible and effective. <![CDATA[<b>A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis in members of the families Canidae and Ursidae worldwide. Both of these infections are acute diseases, especially in young dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serum samples were collected from native pure-bred Kangal (n = 11), and Akbash dogs (n = 17) and Turkish Greyhounds (n = 15) in Eskisehir and Konya provinces. None of the dogs were previously vaccinated against CAV types. Indirect ELISA detected 88.2 %, 93.3 % and 100 % prevalences in Akbash, Greyhound and Kangal dogs, respectively. The remainder of the samples (n = 51) were collected at the Afyonkarahisar Municipality Shelter. Fourty-two of these dogs (82.3 %) were detected as seropositive. In total, 82 of 94 dogs (87.2 %) were found to be positive for CAV serum antibodies. <![CDATA[<b>C-reactive protein in canine babesiosis caused by <i>Babesia rossi</i> and its association with outcome</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt C-reactive protein (CRP) is a positive major acute-phase protein in dogs and can be used as a predictive marker for risk of disease and to monitor the response to treatment. Increased concentrations in certain diseases are associated with poor outcome. This cross-sectional, observational study of 75 dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi was designed to examine the relationship between outcome and CRP concentration at admission and the magnitude of CRP change 24 hours after admission. Diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot. CRP concentrations were determined by an automated human CRP Turbidometric Immunoassay, previously validated for use in dogs. There was no significant difference in mean CRP concentration between survivors (n = 57), 107.5 ± 49.5 mg/l and non-survivors (n = 11), 122.1 ± 64.6 mg/l at admission and using the exact logistic regression, adjusting for age and sex, there was no association with outcome (P = 0.53). Multiple regression analysis failed to show a significant relationship between admission CRP concentration and number of days of hospitalisation in the survivors, adjusting for age and sex (P = 0.65). Similarly, no significance was found in the relationship between the magnitude of change in CRP concentration 24 hours after admission, and the number of days of hospitalisation in survivors, (P = 0.34). It is concluded that CRP concentration, as a measure of the acute phase response, is not associated with outcome in canine babesiosis, and inflammation is unlikely to be the only cause of severity of disease. <![CDATA[<b>Combination therapy using intratumoral bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and vincristine in dogs with transmissible venereal tumours: Therapeutic efficacy and histological changes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Therapeutic efficacy and histological changes after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), vincristine and BCG/vincristine combination therapy of canine transmissible venereal tumours (CTVT) were studied. Twenty dogs with naturally occurring CTVT in the progression stage were divided into 4 groups and treated with intratumoral BCG, vincristine, BCG/vincristine combination therapy or intratumoral buffered saline (control group). Tumour sizes were determined weekly and tumour response to therapy was assessed. Tumour biopsies were taken weekly to evaluate histological changes. Complete tumour regression was observed in all the dogs treated with BCG, vincristine and BCG/vincristine combination therapy. BCG/vincristine combination therapy had a statistically significantly shorter regression time than BCG or vincristine therapy. No tumour regression was observed in the control group. Intratumoral BCG treatment resulted in the appearance of macrophages and increased numbers of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) followed by tumour cell apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment with vincristine resulted in increased tumour cell apoptosis, reduction in the mitotic index and a decrease in the number of TILs. Tumours from dogs on BCG/vincristine combination were characterised by reduction in the mitotic index, and appearance of numerous TILs and macrophages followed by marked tumour cell apoptosis and necrosis. This study indicates that combined BCG and vincristine therapy is more effective than vincristine in treating CTVT, suggesting that the clinical course of this disease may be altered by immunochemotherapy. <![CDATA[<b>Changes in weight gain, faecal oocyst count and packed cell volume of <i>Eimeria tenella-</i>infected broilers treated with a wild mushroom <i>(Ganoderma lucidum)</i> aqueous extract</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt An experiment was conducted to study the effect of a wild Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract in coccidian-infected broilers. At 6 weeks of age the birds were randomly allocated to 6 treatment groups of 20 Ross broilers each in wire cages. Groups A, B and C were infected with Eimeria tenella Houghton strain at the rate of 36 250 sporulated oocysts/ml per bird. The remaining 3 groups D, E and F were uninfected controls. At 7 weeks the birds in group A were treated with G. lucidum aqueous extract and those in B with amprolium in drinking water ad libitum at the rate of 200 mg/ml each for 7 days consecutively. Body weight gain, feed intake, faecal oocyst output and some haematological parameters were monitored. The result showed that all the infected birds in groups A, B and C had clinical signs of weakness and reduced appetite on day 4 post-infection. By the 5th day post-infection their faeces became bloody and watery, and large numbers of E. tenella oocysts were present in the faeces. On day 3 after treatment the oocysts detected were considerably reduced in both treated groups A and B and slightly higher in the untreated group C. The faeces of the uninfected control groups were normal and free of coccidial oocysts. After treatment for 7 days no coccidial oocysts were found in faeces of the birds that had been treated. Infected, untreated birds showed a slight drop in feed intake and weight gain from 7 to 8 weeks of age. The final mean weight gain recorded in the treated groups Aand B was comparable to that of the uninfected birds in the 3 control groups, while it was lower in the untreated group C. The feed to gain ratio was higher in C than in the other groups. A slight drop in packed cell volume was observed in groups A, B and C at 7 weeks of age, 1 week after infection. This study showed that treatment with G. lucidum results in a marked reduction in the number of E. tenella oocysts shed in the faeces, leading to improved weight gain and decreased weight loss. The results confirmed the virulence of the Houghton strain of E. tenella and the effectiveness of both amprolium and G. lucidum extract against E. tenella. <![CDATA[<b>SOS dog - The purebred dog hobby re-examined</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt An experiment was conducted to study the effect of a wild Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract in coccidian-infected broilers. At 6 weeks of age the birds were randomly allocated to 6 treatment groups of 20 Ross broilers each in wire cages. Groups A, B and C were infected with Eimeria tenella Houghton strain at the rate of 36 250 sporulated oocysts/ml per bird. The remaining 3 groups D, E and F were uninfected controls. At 7 weeks the birds in group A were treated with G. lucidum aqueous extract and those in B with amprolium in drinking water ad libitum at the rate of 200 mg/ml each for 7 days consecutively. Body weight gain, feed intake, faecal oocyst output and some haematological parameters were monitored. The result showed that all the infected birds in groups A, B and C had clinical signs of weakness and reduced appetite on day 4 post-infection. By the 5th day post-infection their faeces became bloody and watery, and large numbers of E. tenella oocysts were present in the faeces. On day 3 after treatment the oocysts detected were considerably reduced in both treated groups A and B and slightly higher in the untreated group C. The faeces of the uninfected control groups were normal and free of coccidial oocysts. After treatment for 7 days no coccidial oocysts were found in faeces of the birds that had been treated. Infected, untreated birds showed a slight drop in feed intake and weight gain from 7 to 8 weeks of age. The final mean weight gain recorded in the treated groups Aand B was comparable to that of the uninfected birds in the 3 control groups, while it was lower in the untreated group C. The feed to gain ratio was higher in C than in the other groups. A slight drop in packed cell volume was observed in groups A, B and C at 7 weeks of age, 1 week after infection. This study showed that treatment with G. lucidum results in a marked reduction in the number of E. tenella oocysts shed in the faeces, leading to improved weight gain and decreased weight loss. The results confirmed the virulence of the Houghton strain of E. tenella and the effectiveness of both amprolium and G. lucidum extract against E. tenella. <![CDATA[<b>Onderstepoort 1908-2008</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt An experiment was conducted to study the effect of a wild Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract in coccidian-infected broilers. At 6 weeks of age the birds were randomly allocated to 6 treatment groups of 20 Ross broilers each in wire cages. Groups A, B and C were infected with Eimeria tenella Houghton strain at the rate of 36 250 sporulated oocysts/ml per bird. The remaining 3 groups D, E and F were uninfected controls. At 7 weeks the birds in group A were treated with G. lucidum aqueous extract and those in B with amprolium in drinking water ad libitum at the rate of 200 mg/ml each for 7 days consecutively. Body weight gain, feed intake, faecal oocyst output and some haematological parameters were monitored. The result showed that all the infected birds in groups A, B and C had clinical signs of weakness and reduced appetite on day 4 post-infection. By the 5th day post-infection their faeces became bloody and watery, and large numbers of E. tenella oocysts were present in the faeces. On day 3 after treatment the oocysts detected were considerably reduced in both treated groups A and B and slightly higher in the untreated group C. The faeces of the uninfected control groups were normal and free of coccidial oocysts. After treatment for 7 days no coccidial oocysts were found in faeces of the birds that had been treated. Infected, untreated birds showed a slight drop in feed intake and weight gain from 7 to 8 weeks of age. The final mean weight gain recorded in the treated groups Aand B was comparable to that of the uninfected birds in the 3 control groups, while it was lower in the untreated group C. The feed to gain ratio was higher in C than in the other groups. A slight drop in packed cell volume was observed in groups A, B and C at 7 weeks of age, 1 week after infection. This study showed that treatment with G. lucidum results in a marked reduction in the number of E. tenella oocysts shed in the faeces, leading to improved weight gain and decreased weight loss. The results confirmed the virulence of the Houghton strain of E. tenella and the effectiveness of both amprolium and G. lucidum extract against E. tenella. <![CDATA[<b>Lymphoma in 3 related Rottweilers from a single household</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Over a period of approximately 1 year, 2 sibling Rottweilers and their dam in the same household developed stage IV and stage III lymphoma, respectively. All 3 initially responded to doxorubicin chemotherapy but relapsed after approximately 3 months and were subsequently euthanased. As no obvious environmental trigger could be identified in these dogs, it is speculated that an underlying genetic predisposition could have played a role in the development of lymphoma in these related dogs. <![CDATA[<b>Myotonia congenita in a Jack Russell terrier</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A 4-month-old male Jack Russell terrier was evaluated for non-painful muscle spasms and collapse associated with exercise and activity. Clinical examination revealed well-defined, non-painful hypertrophic muscles of the fore and hind limbs and exercise and excitement induced hindquarter bunny-hopping gait, which improved with activity but worsened with resting and with any sudden changes in direction of movement. Neurological examination and routine laboratory testing showed no abnormalities. DNA analysis for myotonia congenita showed the dog to have a gene mutation in the chloride ion channel, diagnostic for myotonia congenita, which has not been reported in the Jack Russell terrier breed. <![CDATA[<b>Periaortic haemangiosarcoma in an African wild dog <i>(Lycaon pictus)</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A 9-year-old apparently healthy male African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) was found dead in its enclosure at the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre. Necropsy revealed a pericardium distended by approximately 250 ml of thick blood. A soft, red, lobulated mass was attached to the periaortic fat between the level of the aortic valves and the pericardial reflection. Histologically, the mass was consistent with a haemangiosarcoma. Other findings in the heart included mild to moderate ventricular hypertrophy and moderate, acute perivascular myocardial necrosis. Sudden death was attributed to acute heart failure precipitated by cardiac tamponade. <![CDATA[<b>Nuchal crest avulsion fracture in 2 horses: A cause of headshaking</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The medical records of 2 Thoroughbred horses that developed headshaking after blunt trauma to the occipital region are reviewed. The history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, diagnosis and treatment were recorded in each case. Both horses displayed head-shaking, while one horse repeatedly lifted its upper lip and pawed excessively at the ground. In both horses, diagnostic imaging of the occipital region revealed avulsion fragments of the nuchal crest and a nuchal desmitis in association with hyperfibrinogenaemia. The presence of an avulsion fragment of the nuchal crest with associated nuchal desmitis should be considered in horses presenting with headshaking and may respond favourably to conservative therapy. <![CDATA[<b>Parasitological Society of Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The medical records of 2 Thoroughbred horses that developed headshaking after blunt trauma to the occipital region are reviewed. The history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, diagnosis and treatment were recorded in each case. Both horses displayed head-shaking, while one horse repeatedly lifted its upper lip and pawed excessively at the ground. In both horses, diagnostic imaging of the occipital region revealed avulsion fragments of the nuchal crest and a nuchal desmitis in association with hyperfibrinogenaemia. The presence of an avulsion fragment of the nuchal crest with associated nuchal desmitis should be considered in horses presenting with headshaking and may respond favourably to conservative therapy. <![CDATA[<b>Parasitological Society of Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The medical records of 2 Thoroughbred horses that developed headshaking after blunt trauma to the occipital region are reviewed. The history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, diagnosis and treatment were recorded in each case. Both horses displayed head-shaking, while one horse repeatedly lifted its upper lip and pawed excessively at the ground. In both horses, diagnostic imaging of the occipital region revealed avulsion fragments of the nuchal crest and a nuchal desmitis in association with hyperfibrinogenaemia. The presence of an avulsion fragment of the nuchal crest with associated nuchal desmitis should be considered in horses presenting with headshaking and may respond favourably to conservative therapy.