Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820170001&lang=pt vol. 88 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever in cattle along the Akagera-Nyabarongo rivers, Rwanda</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is caused by a zoonotic arbovirus that is endemic to eastern and southern Africa. It has also been reported in West and North Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, but people can also become infected while handling blood or other body fluids of animals and humans with RVF. In 2007, there was a large outbreak of RVF in Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and Somalia. Outbreaks were also reported in South Africa in 2008-2011. The epidemiology of RVF and factors for disease occurrence in Rwanda are neither clear nor documented. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study from December 2012 to March 2013 to generate baseline information on RVF in cattle. Purposive sampling of cattle (n = 595) was done in six districts, and serum samples were screened with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We performed a statistical analysis on the generated data, and risk factors associated with RVF seroprevalence were determined by a simple logistic regression. Overall, RVF seroprevalence was 16.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] [13.8% - 20.0%]). The highest seroprevalence was recorded in Kirehe district (36.9%) followed by Ngoma (22.3%), and the least was recorded in Nyagatare (7.9%). RVF was more likely to occur in adult cattle (19.9% [odds ratio {OR} = 1.88, 95% CI {0.98-3.61}]) compared to young cattle (10.5% [OR = 0.47, 95% CI {0.26-0.83}]). Pure exotic or cross-breeds were significantly exposed to RVF virus (seroprevalence 22.9% [OR = 4.26, 95% CI {1.82-9.99}]) in comparison to 14.1% (OR = 0.55, 95% CI [0.35-0.86]) in local breeds. Sex differences were not statistically significant. These findings indicated that cattle have been exposed to RVF virus in six districts in Rwanda with a significant risk in adult, exotic or cross-breeds in Kirehe district. <![CDATA[<b>The diagnosis of bilateral primary renal paragangliomas in a cat</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A 9-year-old sterilised female domestic short-hair cat was referred with a history of vomiting and anorexia of 3 months' duration. Biochemistry, full-blood counts, thoracic radiographs, feline pancreatic-specific lipase, abdominal ultrasonography and feline immunodeficiency virus/feline leukaemia virus (FIV/FeLV) SNAP tests had been performed. Mild hypochloraemia and moderate hypokalaemia were evident on initial presentation. Abdominal ultrasonography initially revealed unilateral renal nodules on the left side. These were subjected to fine-needle aspiration and cytological evaluation. A neuroendocrine tumour was suspected, and biopsies via midline coeliotomy were taken to confirm the diagnosis. Initial histopathology diagnosed primary renal carcinomas or neuroendocrine neoplasia; however, the definitive diagnosis became renal paragangliomas after immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy were performed. The cat was regularly monitored with serum biochemistry parameters, blood pressure determinations, thoracic radiographs and subsequent abdominal ultrasonography. Biochemistry, radiography and blood pressures remained normal over a 24-week follow-up period, while subsequent ultrasonography revealed tumour progression in both number and size in both kidneys. Primary neuroendocrine tumours of the kidney are frequently incorrectly diagnosed as other renal tumours such as renal cell carcinoma, mesonephric tumours or undifferentiated carcinomas. This case report highlights the importance of additional testing, including immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, to obtain a definitive diagnosis of paragangliomas. <![CDATA[<b>Mycotic rhinitis in a Mutton Merino ewe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Although nasal masses are uncommon in sheep and may have several causes, including neoplasia and bacterial, fungal and viral infections, these lesions may lead to economic losses resulting from weight loss and even death. It is therefore important to differentiate between various categories of upper respiratory tract obstructions and lower respiratory tract infections. The correct aetiological diagnosis of obstructive masses is essential for appropriate treatment and management to be given or action to be taken. The presentation, clinical signs, treatment and pathology of a case of suspected mycotic rhinitis in a 6-year-old Mutton Merino ewe, are described. <![CDATA[<b>Long-term surgical anaesthesia with isoflurane in human habituated Nile Crocodiles</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A suitable long-term anaesthetic technique was required for implantation of physiological sensors and telemetric devices in sub-adult Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) to allow the collection of physiological data. Five Nile crocodiles with a median body mass of 24 kg were used. After manual capture, they were blindfolded and 0.2 mL (1 mg/mL) medetomidine was administered intramuscularly in four of the animals which had an estimated body mass between 20 kg and 30 kg. One crocodile with an estimated body mass of 50 kg received 0.5 mL. For induction, 5 mL propofol (10 mg/mL) was injected intravenously into the occipital sinus. Additional doses were given when required to ensure adequate anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1.5% isoflurane. Ventilation was controlled. Local anaesthesia was administered for surgical incision and external placement of the radio transmitter. Medetomidine was antagonised with atipamezole at the end of surgery. Median heart rate during surgery was 22 beats/min, at extubation 32 beats per min and 30 beats per min the following day at the same body temperature as under anaesthesia. Median body temperature of the animals increased from 27.3 °C to 27.9 °C during anaesthesia, as room temperature increased from 24.5 °C to 29.0 °C during surgery. Anaesthesia was successfully induced with intramuscular medetomidine and intravenous propofol and was maintained with isoflurane for the placement of telemetric implants. Intraoperative analgesia was supplemented with lidocaine infiltration. Perioperative physiological parameters remained stable and within acceptable clinical limits. Multiple factors appear to influence these variables during the recovery period, including residual anaesthetic effects, environmental temperature and physical activity. <![CDATA[<b>Tremors in white rhinoceroses (<i>Ceratotherium simum</i>) during etorphine-azaperone immobilisation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Little is known about the mechanisms causing tremors during immobilisation of rhinoceros and whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions alter their intensity. Therefore, we set out to determine the possible mechanisms that lead to muscle tremors and ascertain whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions affect tremor intensity. We studied tremors and physiological responses during etorphine-azaperone immobilisation in eight boma-held and 14 free-living white rhinoceroses. Repeated measures analysis of variance and a Friedman test were used to determine differences in variables over time and between interventions. Spearman and Pearson correlations were used to test for associations between variables. Tremor intensity measured objectively by activity loggers correlated well (p < 0.0001; r² = 0.9) with visual observations. Tremor intensity was greatest when animals were severely hypoxaemic and acidaemic. Tremor intensity correlated strongly and negatively with partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) (p = 0.0003; r² = 0.9995) and potential of hydrogen (pH) (p = 0.02, r² = 0.97). It correlated strongly and positively with adrenaline concentrations (p = 0.003; r² = 0.96), and adrenaline correlated strongly and negatively with PaO2 (p = 0.03; r² = 0.95) and pH (p = 0.03; r² = 0.94). Therefore, hypoxaemia and acidaemia were likely associated with the intensity of tremors through their activation of the release of tremorgenic levels of adrenaline. Tremors can be reduced if circulating adrenaline is reduced, and this can be achieved by the administration of butorphanol plus oxygen insufflation. Furthermore, to assist with reducing the risks associated with rhinoceros immobilisation, tremor intensity could be used as a clinical indicator of respiratory and metabolic compromise. <![CDATA[<b>An evaluation of serological tests in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) of the Rose Bengal test (RBT), the complement fixation test (CFT), the serum agglutination test (SAT), the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the indirect ELISA (iELISA) were determined in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa with known infectious status from culture (gold standard). Natural brucellosis infection status of animals was determined by culturing and identification of Brucella abortus biovar 1 from abomasal fluid, milk, hygroma fluid, lymph nodes or uterine discharges samples. The diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the tests mentioned above was determined using samples from known negative herds. There was no statistically significant difference between the tests in their ability to diagnose brucellosis. The RBT and iELISA had the highest DSe of 95.8%, whereas RBT and CFT had the highest DSp of 100%. In South African laboratories, the RBT and CFT serological tests are used, because of the cost efficacy of CFT when compared to the less labour intensive but more expensive iELISA. <![CDATA[<b>Screening for <i>Hepatozoon</i> parasites in gerbils and potential predators in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Samples of gerbils and their potential predators were screened for the presence of Hepatozoon parasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) using both microscopic examination and sequencing of partial 18S rRNA sequences. Positive samples were compared to published sequences in a phylogenetic framework. The results indicate that genets can be infected with Hepatozoon felis. A Cape fox was infected with Hepatozoon canis, whereas the sequence from an infected rodent fell within a group of parasites primarily recovered from other rodents and snakes. <![CDATA[<b>Enhanced diagnosis of rabies and molecular evidence for the transboundary spread of the disease in Mozambique</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease with veterinary and public health significance, particularly in Africa and Asia. The current knowledge of the epidemiology of rabies in Mozambique is limited because of inadequate sample submission, constrained diagnostic capabilities and a lack of molecular epidemiological research. We wanted to consider the direct, rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT) as an alternative to the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) for rabies diagnosis at the diagnostic laboratory of the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL), Directorate of Animal Science, Maputo, Mozambique. Towards this aim, as a training exercise at the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Rabies Reference Laboratory in South Africa, we performed the DRIT on 29 rabies samples from across Mozambique. With the use of the DRIT, we found 15 of the 29 samples (52%) to be negative. The DRIT-negative samples were retested by DFA at the OIE Rabies Reference Laboratory, as well as with an established real-time Polymerase chain reaction, confirming the DRIT-negative results. The DRIT-positive results (14/29) were retested with the DFA and subsequently amplified, sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses, confirming the presence of rabies RNA. Molecular epidemiological analyses that included viruses from neighbouring countries suggested that rabies cycles within Mozambique might be implicated in multiple instances of cross-border transmission. In this regard, our study has provided new insights that should be helpful in informing the next steps required to better diagnose, control and hopefully eliminate rabies in Mozambique. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of perlite, wood shavings and corncobs for bedding material in rats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Bedding material, which is a significant part of rodent housing, affects the health and well-being of laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate perlite as a bedding material for rodents and to compare it with wood shavings, expanded perlite and corncobs. The animals used in this experiment were 48 male and 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats. The bedding materials collected from experimental groups were analysed microbiologically. Blood samples from rats were subjected to biochemical analysis for catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, superoxide and dismutase, and foot pad skins of rats were subjected to histopathological examination. Body weight was determined at the end of the 30-day period. Perlite as the only bedding material had no effect on body weight, and it resulted in less microbial activity compared with the wood shavings, expanded perlite and corncobs. However, using perlite alone had negative effects on the skin, the moisture percentage of bedding and stress parameters. A wood shavings-perlite combination gave better results than perlite alone and appropriate perlite and other bedding material mixtures may result in bedding materials conducive to animal health and welfare. The frequency of changing the bedding material should be limited to once weekly. <![CDATA[<b>A study of the incidence of milk fever in Jersey and Holstein cows at a dairy farm in Beatrice, Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A 3-year prospective study investigated the incidence of milk fever in Jersey and Holstein cows at a commercial dairy farm in Beatrice, Zimbabwe. The overall incidence of milk fever at the farm was 7.98%. Incidence of milk fever in Jerseys (14.78%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in Holsteins (4.82%). Incidence of milk fever in Jerseys beyond their fourth parity (24.85%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in Jerseys in their second (5.90%), third (6.49%) and fourth (8.73%) parities. Incidence of milk fever in Holsteins beyond their fourth parity (8.29%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in Holsteins in their second (1.43%), third (1.82%) and fourth (2.91%) parities. No significant difference existed in milk fever incidences between the second, third and fourth parities in either Jersey or Holstein cows. Incidence of milk fever in Jersey cows producing over 6114 litres per 305-day lactation (27.07%) was significantly higher than that in Jerseys producing less than 6114 litres of milk per 305-day lactation (p < 0.05). Incidence of milk fever in Holsteins producing more than 9149 litres per 305-day lactation (10.49%) was significantly higher than that in Holsteins producing less than 9149 litres of milk per 305-day lactation (p < 0.05). No significant difference existed between incidences of milk fever between the first, second and third quartile producers (p &gt; 0.05) in either Jersey or Holstein cows. This study confirms that the risk of developing milk fever is higher in Jerseys and also increases with increasing parity and higher levels of milk production in both breeds, thus advocating for special considerations when dairy cows fit these criteria. <![CDATA[<b>Validity of somatic cell count as indicator of pathogen-specific intramammary infections</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The objective of this study was to determine whether somatic cell count (SCC) was an effective test, with a sensitivity exceeding 85%, to determine species-specific bacterial infections. In addition, the relation between the SCC and various udder pathogen groups was investigated. SCC thresholds of greater than 200 000 cells/mL were used in quarter and greater than 150 000 cells/mL in composite milk samples. A retrospective study was conducted on a data set for 89 635 quarter and 345 467 composite cow milk samples. Eleven SCC threshold values were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy for the following bacteria: Gram-positive major pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis; Gram-negative major pathogens: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Serratia spp.; minor pathogens: coagulase-negative staphylococci, Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus canis, Trueperella pyogenes and other Enterobacteriaceae. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated taking the effect of clustering into account with quarter milk samples. Most samples yielding major Gram-positive pathogens (88.9% in quarter and 79.9% in composite samples) and minor pathogens (61.4% in quarter and 51.7% in composite samples) had SCC greater than 200 000 cells/mL. Sensitivity of the SCC test to detect major pathogens at an SCC threshold of greater than 200 000 cells/mL in quarter samples and greater than 150 000 cells/mL in composite milk samples was 88.2% and 84.2%, respectively, but specificity was low (57.7% and 52.8%, respectively). <![CDATA[<b>Paratuberculosis in a domestic dog in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This case report shows that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection can cause clinical disease in domestic dogs, and should be considered as a differential diagnosis for gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions. A male dachshund presented with lethargy and pain. Enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were found on abdominal ultrasound examination. Cytological examination of lymph node aspirates was consistent with granulomatous inflammation, which was culture-confirmed as MAP. Although we were unable to confirm the source of infection, the dog's history included exposure to sheep in the Western Cape. <![CDATA[<b>Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a zoological collection of meerkats (<i>Suricata suricatta</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282017000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Two confirmed cases of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis occurred in an urban zoological collection of meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Both cases are suspected to be the result of feral cats gaining access to the enclosure. Toxoplasmosis has rarely been documented in meerkats. Subsequent to prophylactic treatment of all the animals and structural changes being implemented within the enclosure, no new cases have been recorded to date. Very little information is available on the disease in viverrids.