Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820150001&lang=pt vol. 86 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (<i>Spheniscus demersus</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. <![CDATA[<b>The efficacy of a generic doxycycline tablet in the treatment of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The objective of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a generic doxycycline tablet (DoxyVet®) against Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by the bacterium E. canis and transmitted by the brown kennel tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Six disease-free and tick-free dogs were infested with E. canis-infected ticks. Once diagnosed (with polymerase chain reaction [PCR] analysis and platelet counts) as positive for infection, doxycycline tablets were administered orally once a day for 20 consecutive days, at a target dose level of 10 mg/kg. The actual dose administered was calculated as ranging between 10 mg/kg and 11.7 mg/kg. The PCR analysis, 28 days after the first administration of the tablets, failed to detect E. canis in any of the dogs. On Day 56 of the study, four of the dogs were diagnosed with E. canis for the second time and a fifth dog was diagnosed on Day 70. The platelet counts of the sixth dog remained within normal levels and it was discharged from the study on Day 84. Doxycycline tablets were then administered to the remaining five infected dogs for 28 consecutive days. Four of these dogs had no positive PCR results during the following 3 months. The fifth dog was diagnosed with E. canis for the third time 58 days after the last tablets of the second treatment had been administered, after which it was rescue treated (doxycycline for a further 28 days). The results indicate that doxycycline administered in tablet form (DoxyVet®) at 10 mg/kg - 11.7 mg/kg body mass once daily for 28 consecutive days clears most dogs of infection. The importance of a concomitant tick-control programme is therefore stressed. <![CDATA[<b>Use of the melanoma vaccine in 38 dogs: The South African experience</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The commercially available vaccine Oncept® is indicated for the management of dogs with stage II or III oral melanoma after local control has been achieved. Survival times in dogs with both oral and digit melanoma have been shown to be significantly increased following vaccination. This retrospective study was designed to document the investigators' experiences with Oncept® vaccine when used as an adjunct therapy for treatment of stage II-IV oral, digit and malignant melanoma of other sites after local control had been achieved in dogs presented to a South African specialist referral veterinary practice. Thirty-eight dogs diagnosed with melanoma (25 oral, 6 digit and 7 infiltrative at various other sites) underwent a combination of surgical excision and Oncept® vaccination. At the end of the study period there were 16 live and 22 dead dogs; median survival time of the live dogs was 29 months (range 2-46 months) versus 8 months (range 2-16 months) for those that died from progressive disease. This study showed that by using a combination of surgical excision and vaccination with Oncept® survival times in dogs with malignant melanoma of the oral cavity, digit and other sites can be increased significantly. <![CDATA[<b>Overview of the perceived risk of transboundary pig diseases in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Pig production is one of the most important animal agricultural activities in South Africa, and plays a definite role in providing food security for certain population groups in the country. As with all animal production systems, it is subject to the risk of outbreak of transboundary diseases. In the present overview, evaluations of the perceived risk of selected transboundary animal diseases of pigs, as collated from the willing participants from the provincial veterinary services of South Africa, are presented. A scenario tree revealed that infected but undetected pigs were the greatest perceived threat. The provincial veterinary services, according to participants in the study, face certain difficulties, including the reporting of disease and the flow of disease information amongst farmers. Perceived strengths in surveillance and disease monitoring include the swiftness of sample despatch to the national testing laboratory, as well as the ease of flow of information between the provincial and national agricultural authorities. The four factors were identified that were perceived to most influence animal health-service delivery: transport, access, livestock policy and resources. African swine fever was perceived to be the most important pig disease in South Africa. Because the decentralisation of veterinary services in South Africa was identified as a potential weakness, it is recommended that national and provincial veterinary services need to work together and interdependently to achieve centrally controlled surveillance systems. Regionally-coordinated surveillance activities for certain transboundary diseases were identified as needing priority for the southern African region. It is proposed that an emergency preparedness document be made available and regularly revised according to the potential risks identified on a continuous basis for South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of a diazepam-ketamine combination compared with propofol in dogs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Induction of anaesthesia occasionally has been associated with undesirable behaviour in dogs. High quality of induction of anaesthesia with propofol has been well described while in contrast variable induction and recovery quality has been associated with diazepam-ketamine. In this study, anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of diazepam-ketamine combination with propofol alone were compared in dogs undergoing elective orchidectomy. Thirty-six healthy adult male dogs were used. After habitus scoring (simple descriptive scale [SDS]), the dogs were sedated with morphine and acepromazine. Forty minutes later a premedication score (SDS) was allocated and general anaesthesia was induced using a combination of diazepam-ketamine (Group D/K) or propofol (Group P) and maintained with isoflurane. Scores for the quality of induction, intubation and degree of myoclonus were allocated (SDS). Orchidectomy was performed after which recovery from anaesthesia was scored (SDS) and times to extubation and standing were recorded. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Kappa Reliability and Kendall Tau B tests. Both groups were associated with acceptable quality of induction and recovery from anaesthesia. Group P, however, was associated with a poorer quality of induction (p = 0.014), prolonged induction period (p = 0.0018) and more pronounced myoclonus (p = 0.003), but had better quality of recovery (p = 0.000002) and shorter recovery times (p = 0.035) compared with Group D/K. Diazepam-ketamine and propofol are associated with acceptable induction and recovery from anaesthesia. Propofol had inferior anaesthetic induction characteristics, but superior and quicker recovery from anaesthesia compared with diazepam-ketamine. <![CDATA[<b>Controlled breeding and reproductive management in water buffaloes <i>(Bubalus bubalis) </i>using Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Buffalo reproduction is considerably affected by late maturity, poor oestrus symptoms and long postpartum periods. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR), an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device, in relation to oestrus and fertility. Five hundred true anoestrus buffalo cows, in the age group 4-6 years in 10 villages of Dharwad district in Karnataka state in India, were randomly selected and treated with CIDR for 9 days. Two mL of Cidirol (1 mg oestradiol benzoate) was administered intramuscularly to all animals on day 10. Forty-two buffaloes (8.4%) that failed to show oestrus signs (1.6%) or showed weak signs of oestrus (6.8%) after the first treatment were treated again 72 h after the Cidriol injection with a new device, and inseminated after the expression of oestrus. After the second treatment all the animals showed oestrus signs. The percentage of buffaloes showing intense oestrus was 67.40%, intermediate oestrus was shown by 25.80%, whilst 6.80% buffaloes showed weak oestrus even after the second treatment. The buffaloes showing oestrus signs were inseminated twice with an interval of 12 h, starting 12 h after the start of the oestrus signs. In 86 buffaloes showing prolonged oestrus signs a third insemination was done. The conception rates were 85.16%, 60.47% and 44.11% respectively in buffaloes showing intense, intermediate and weak oestrus. Transrectal palpation of the genital tract was performed 45-60 days post-insemination to diagnose pregnancy status, and in doubtful cases pregnancy was reconfirmed at 90 days after insemination. Out of 500 buffaloes treated in this way 380 animals became pregnant and the pregnancy rate was 76%. This study revealed the usefulness of Eazi Breed CIDR along with Cidirol treatment in buffaloes to improve their reproductive performance. <![CDATA[<b>Molecular characterisation of <i>Mycoplasma </i>species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Biochemical and molecular analysis were conducted on 34 strains of Mycoplasma species isolated between 2003 and 2009 from the genital tract of clinically healthy Dorper sheep and sheep with ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis. Earlier publications identified the causative agent as Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The aims of the study were to characterise Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep with polymerase chain reaction assay, cloning and gene sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) results revealed six predominant Mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Arcanobacterium laidlawii, MmmLC, Mycoplasma sp. ovine/caprine serogroup II and M. canadense. Sequencing of the 34 isolates were analysed using phylogenetic methods, and 18 (50%) were identified as M. arginini with 99% - 100% similarity to M. arginini from England and Sweden. Six isolates showed 99% similarity to M. bovigenitalium strains from Turkey and Germany. Two isolates had 99% similarity to an M. sp. ovine/caprine sero group II from the United Kingdom. BLAST for two isolates revealed 99% similarity to Acholeplasma laidlawii from India, another two were 99% similar to MmmLC strain from Sweden, two showed 98% similarity to Mycoplasma sp. Usp 120 from Brazil, and two isolates have a 97% - 99% similarity to M. mm. Jcvl strain from the United States of America. Finally, one isolate showed similarity of 99% to Mycoplasma canadense strain from Italy. The findings support the hypothesis that ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa (SA) is a multifactorial disease with involvement of different Mycoplasma species. <![CDATA[<b>Distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in Free State Province, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks' role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Erosive rhinitis resembling granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in an Anatolian shepherd dog</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) is one of the idiopathic immune-mediated small-vessel vasculitides described in humans which are characterised by the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. It most commonly involves capillaries, venules and arterioles of the ear, nose and throat, lungs and glomeruli. A case of destructive haemopurulent rhinitis associated with relapsing periods of pyrexia, lethargy and stiffness as well as generalised pulmonary infiltrates in a young Anatolian shepherd dog is presented that closely resembles granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) as reported in humans. Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) were detected in the dog's serum. Signs resolved promptly and completely once immunosuppressive doses of prednisone were administered, and have not recurred. This is the first report on the use of pANCA to investigate rhinitis in dogs. It is also, to the authors' knowledge, the first description of a relapsing haemopurulent lytic rhinitis in this species. The concurrent manifestations of erosive haemopurulent rhinitis, ground-glass opacities on pulmonary computed tomography, pyrexia and listlessness resemble GPA as described in humans. <![CDATA[<b>Avian poxvirus in a free-range juvenile speckled (rock) pigeon <i>(Columba guinea)</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A flightless wild juvenile rock pigeon (Columba guinea) with pox-like lesions was picked up on the premises of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort. The pigeon was housed overnight for possible treatment the following day but died before any other intervention could be instituted. At necropsy, coalescing masses of yellowish nodular cutaneous tumour-like lesions principally on the featherless areas were noticed on the dead pigeon's head as well as the beak. Histological examination of the sampled skin lesions revealed multifocal areas of hypertrophic and hyperplastic epidermal epithelial cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies). Extract from the lesion was processed and inoculated on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs and this produced pocks on one of the CAM at day 7 post-inoculation. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of poxvirus in the CAM with the pock lesions. <![CDATA[<b>Utility of forensic detection of rabies virus in decomposed exhumed dog carcasses</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This report describes four suspected rabies cases in domestic dogs that were involved in human exposures. In all these cases, the animals were buried for substantial times before rabies testing was performed. Animal rabies is endemic in South Africa and domestic dogs are the main vector for transmission to humans. Diagnosis of rabies in humans is complicated, and diagnosis in the animal vector can provide circumstantial evidence to support clinical diagnosis of rabies in humans. The gold standard diagnostic method, fluorescent antibody test (FAT), only delivers reliable results when performed on fresh brain material and therefore decomposed samples are rarely submitted for diagnostic testing. Severely decomposed brain material was tested for the presence of rabies virus genomic material using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-real-time RT-PCR) assay when conventional molecular methods were unsuccessful. This may be a useful tool in the investigation of cases where the opportunity to sample the suspected animals post mortem was forfeited and which would not be possible with conventional testing methodologies because of the decomposition of the material. <![CDATA[<b>Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants. <![CDATA[<b>Serodetection</b><b> of <i>Ehrlichia</i><i> canis </i>amongst dogs in central Namibia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories). The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres &gt; 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6%) compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6%) (P = 0.00). Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017), with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia. <![CDATA[<b>Lesions in canine stifle joints due to trochleoplasties as treatment for medial patellar luxation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Lesions in canine stifle joints after previous trochleoplasty surgery were documented. In four clinical cases arthrotomies were performed due to stifle pain after previous trochlear deepening procedures. A small area of hyaline cartilage remained in the groove of the stifles in cases where previous wedge trochleoplasties had been performed. All of the stifles had significant areas of eburnation on the axial aspect of the medial trochlear ridge. The stifle joints of a dog that was euthanased due to severe irreversible osteo-arthritis were photographed. The dog had undergone previous surgery for patellar luxation and cranial cruciate ligament ruptures. The trochlear grooves in this dog had almost no visible articular cartilage left. <![CDATA[<b>Beyond traditional dairy veterinary services: 'It's not just about the cows!'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282015000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt It remains a challenge for the role of the dairy veterinarian to move beyond that traditionally held. In larger herds with a high reproductive workload, we are at great risk of becoming specialist technicians. Instead we seek greater involvement, to deliver comprehensive services and to be recognised for them, personally and financially. Given the frequency of our visits, knowledge and analytical skills we are in a unique position to provide inputs that complement advice given by other consultants. Failure to do so has economic consequences for both veterinarian and dairyman. The opportunity for and value of inputs will differ for every client, and we need to remain cognizant of their motivation. This review article shares perspectives, opportunities and tools that might enable moving beyond the traditional role. It starts with a review of available research describing the dynamic between dairyman and veterinarian and how this might impact an animal health production management programme. A description of the experiences of others follows, interspersed by the personal experiences of the author, working with large total mixed ration-fed herds in the United States of America. The following attributes and roles can be associated with a significant economic impact: gatekeeper; conduit; executor; verifier; monitor; facilitator and mediator; trainer, motivator and coach; applied nutritionist; technologist; champion of animal welfare, food safety and judicious antibiotic use; and confidant. Each is elucidated and described in context, revealing a need for continuing education. The nature of the relationship between veterinarian and client will determine the opportunity for and value of each. The veterinarian is in a unique position to become an integral part of the management team and to be fairly compensated as such. The onus rests on the veterinarian to broaden his/her knowledge and skills and to demonstrate their value.