Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> vol. 91 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Seal bites at sub-Antarctic Marion Island: Incidence, outcomes and treatment recommendations</b>]]> Seal biologists at Marion Island (Southern Ocean) are in frequent contact with seals. During research activities, biologists may be bitten by seals, yet no standardised protocol for treating such bites is in place. Information on 22 seal bite cases at Marion Island was collected. Treatment of these bites varied, reflecting a need for standardised protocols for the treatment of bites. Recommendations for the in-field treatment of bites are presented. Five of the 22 cases had some symptoms which resembled 'seal finger' - a zoonotic infection, usually of the hands, that is contracted after a person comes into contact with tissues of seals or is bitten by one. However, in four of these cases, symptoms subsided within 4 days without antibiotic treatment; in the fifth case antibiotics were administered and symptoms subsided in 4 days. There is little evidence of the occurrence of seal finger at Marion Island, but this deserves further investigation. <![CDATA[<b>A feather cyst causing vertebral bone lysis and spinal cord compression in a Lohmann Brown layer</b>]]> A feather cyst in the cervical region which, through complications of inward growth, resulted in compression of the cervical spinal cord of a Lohmann Brown layer is described. It is postulated that expansion of the cyst exerted pressure on the adjacent cervical vertebra and through bone lysis created an opening through which the cyst protruded, thereby exerting pressure on the spinal cord. The affected spinal cord segment was reduced to a fifth of its normal diameter. The bird most likely died of starvation because of limb and neck paralysis and disorientation. Although the cause of the feather cyst was not conclusively identified, moulting and trauma could have triggered its formation and subsequent growth. <![CDATA[<b>Socio-economic impacts of working horses in urban and peri-urban areas of the Cape Flats, South Africa</b>]]> In the Cape Flats townships, Cape Town, South Africa, there are more than 250 working cart horses. They serve the community with scrap metal and garden refuse removal, human transport and the selling of goods. A questionnaire was undertaken to understand the social and economic impacts of a horse and cart in the Cape Flats on individual owners and/or drivers, their households and the community. A mixture of classical quantitative questions combined with qualitative participatory technique questions were used. A total of 100 participants took part in the questionnaire, who cart with 163 horses between them. The majority (89%) identified the cart horse income as their primary income source. Apart from the participants, an additional 716 people were supported financially through this income, where the mean number of children supported was 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: ±0.42) per interviewed participant. Scrap metal transportation was the most common work and the season (winter) had a negative impact on their ability to work. The spatial extent to which a cart horses work was determined and related back to the impact on the horse and participant of the survey. It was demonstrated that the cart horse industry had an impact not only on those who worked in the industry, but also on the surrounding residents, either through their work or through supporting others with their income. This study revealed that the concepts of 'One Health' and 'Health in Social-Ecological Systems', in action as horse and human health within the Cape Flats are closely intertwined. <![CDATA[<b>Endoscopic recurrent laryngeal neuropathy grade prevalence in a sample of thoroughbred yearlings at public auction in South Africa (2013-2019)</b>]]> Endoscopy of thoroughbred (TB) yearlings at public auctions is common in South Africa. Laryngeal function (LF) is a common concern of buyers of young TBs. Cancellation of sale because of LF abnormalities is a concern for both the vendor and the buyer, with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) being a common cause of sale cancellation. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of RLN at South African premier TB yearling sales. This study was designed as a retrospective descriptive analysis of upper respiratory tract (URT) endoscopic examinations to determine RLN grade, performed at two premier TB yearling sales in South Africa. Results of buyer-requested endoscopic examination from 2013 to 2019 were included. Results from the yearling sales were analysed for prevalence of RLN grade (using Rakestraw's 4-point system) and compared to similar previously published studies. For analysis of effects of gender on RLN grading, horses were grouped and Fisher's exact test was used to determine if there was a relationship between gender and grade. For comparison of the effects of age on grade, and sales year on grade, a Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 858 horses were examined out of 4149 offered for sale; there were 57.58% colts and 42.42% fillies (mean age of 18.1 months). The annual percentage for grade 1 was 84.04% ± 9.98%, for grade 2: 14.49% ± 10.69%, for grade 3: 0.71% ± 0.57% and for grade 4: 0.76% ± 0.94%. There were no other significant findings. The exclusive nature of the sale and the increasing proclivity for pre-sale scoping may have skewed the results. This study shows that RLN grade incidences in TB yearlings at public auctions in South Africa are as follows: grade 1: 84.04%, grade 2: 14.49%, grade 3: 0.71% and grade 4: 0.76%. The results were similar to that of an adult population of horses examined in South Africa in a previous study. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of clinical findings in 293 dogs with suspect acute pancreatitis: Different clinical presentation with left lobe, right lobe or diffuse involvement of the pancreas</b>]]> Pancreatitis is a common clinical condition seen in companion animals. The correlation of the region of the pancreas affected to the presentation of clinical signs has not been previously described. A retrospective study on the clinical findings in 293 client-owned dogs diagnosed with suspect pancreatitis based on history, clinical signs, laboratory testing and abdominal ultrasonography was performed. Based on ultrasonography, dogs were divided into three groups: group 1: 41 dogs with ultrasonographic changes consistent with pancreatitis within the left lobe of the pancreas; group 2: 105 dogs with ultrasonographic changes compatible with pancreatitis within the right lobe of the pancreas; and group 3: 147 dogs with ultrasonographic evidence of diffuse pancreatitis. No significant differences regarding age, breed and sex were evident. Furthermore, statistical significance was demonstrated with the presence of pain in group 3; poor appetite in groups 2 and 3; and vomiting and diarrhoea in group 3. Pain is expected to occur with a higher frequency in diffuse pancreatitis, but it is not a common clinical sign. This may represent a more severe form of the disease when the pancreas is diffusely affected. Vomiting was more common than diarrhoea with both clinical signs more prevalent in dogs with diffuse pancreatitis, and this could be ascribed to gastric and intestinal tract involvement. Poor appetite occurred more frequently in dogs with diffuse and right lobe pancreatitis. A possible explanation can be attributed to the fact that the duodenum has many receptors and is referred to as the 'organ of nausea'. <![CDATA[<b>Demographics, distribution, ownership and naming patterns of pets presented to a mobile clinic for sterilisation in Namibia</b>]]> This study analysed the demographics, spatial distribution, ownership and naming patterns of dogs and cats presented to the University of Namibia's veterinary mobile clinic for sterilisation from small underserved towns around Namibia. The proportional distribution of pets was determined based on species, sex, age, owner gender, town of origin and naming categories. Overall, 84.4% (n = 2909) of the animals presented for sterilisation were dogs and the remainder were cats (15.6%, n = 539). Of the dogs presented for sterilisation, 51.9% (n = 1509) were male and 48.1% (n = 1400) were female. In cats, 51.4% (n = 277) were male, whilst 48.6% (n = 262) were female. Overall, the majority of pets (68.2%) were presented for sterilisation from urban areas than rural areas (31.8%). About 49.8% of men and 24.2% of women that presented pets for sterilisation came from urban areas, whilst 20.1% of the women and 11.7% of the men that presented pets for sterilisation were from rural areas. Of all the pets presented for sterilisation, the majority were male-owned (64%, n = 2206). Pets were mainly presented for sterilisation at < 2 years (41.1%), 2 to < 4 years (32.4%) and 4 to < 6 years (15.4%). The naming of pets was mainly after people (42.4%), circumstances (20.6%) and appearance (15.5%). This community engagement exercise yielded valuable demographic data indicating that pet origin, sex and species and owner gender were important factors in determining the voluntary presentation of pets for sterilisation in the study area. <![CDATA[<b>Testicular disorder of sexual development with cryptorchidism, penile hypoplasia and hypospadias in a giraffe (<i>Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa</i>)</b>]]> Disorders of sexual development (DSD) in wild mammals are rarely described. A male South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) was identified with bilateral cryptorchidism. The testes were intra-abdominal, smaller and less ovoid than in normal male giraffes. The right testis was situated more cranially than the left and connected to a longer deferent duct with normal ampullae. One distended vesicular gland filled with mucoid material was identified. A short penis, situated in the perineal area, was directed caudally and presented hypospadias. Histologically, testicular hypoplasia was present; the epididymis tubules contained no spermatozoa and the deferent duct and vesicular gland were inflamed. The blood testosterone concentration was 16.27 nmol/L and oestrone sulphate concentration was 0.03 ng/mL. The aetiology of the abnormalities is unknown.