Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1019-912820140001&lang=en vol. 85 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo <i>(Bubalus bubalis)</i> heifers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. <![CDATA[<b>Internal parasites and health management of pigs in Burayu District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The study determined the prevalence and major types of gastrointestinal parasites in pigs and assessed the health management practices on farms in Burayu District in West Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The study was performed from November 2007 to April 2008 using standard coprological examination and a well-organised questionnaire survey. Of the 272 pigs examined for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites, 36 (13.2%) were infected with one or more types of parasite. Neither age nor management system proved to be a statistically significant factor in the prevalence of parasites. The highest prevalence of parasites was recorded in December, January and April, whereas the lowest was observed in February. Significant variation in the prevalence of parasites was noticed amongst study months. The majority of farmers did not use acaricides to treat and control external parasites. Anthelmintics were not used by any of the farmers. Some 76.1% of the farmers never used any type of treatment for sick pigs; 21.7% of the farmers used modern treatment and 2.2% of the farmers used traditional medicines. More than 95.0% of pigs were kept on soil floors and only 10.9% of the housing systems had good ventilation. Dung was removed at least every three days, with the majority of farmers (91.2%) removing it every morning. This study provided evidence for the occurrence of internal parasites in pigs kept in Burayu District in Oromia. Further epidemiological studies are needed to determine the zoonotic and economic importance of pig parasites in other parts of Ethiopia. <![CDATA[<b>Mastitogenic bacteria isolated from dairy cows in Kenya and their antimicrobial sensitivity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en There is limited epidemiological knowledge on udder health in Kenyan dairy cattle that would aid in a pro-active approach towards mastitis prevention. The study objectives were: (1) to investigate the prevalence and distribution of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Mukurwe-ini and Nakuru Districts, Kenya, and (2) to determine the antibacterial sensitivity of the organisms causing bovine mastitis in these districts. The study involved field-screening of milk samples from 241 dairy cows on 128 farms by use of the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and, if CMT-positive, followed by bacteriological culture of the major causative agents and their respective antibiotic sensitivity to eight commonly used antibiotics. All participating farms were visited twice during the study period. The results obtained during the first and second visits showed the prevalence of clinical mastitis to be very low: 0.9% and 0.5%, respectively; 56.0% and 65.0% of cows were CMT-positive on at least one quarter and 49.6% and 58.7% of cows were culture-positive, respectively. There was no significant difference in mastitis prevalence between Nakuru and Mukurwe-ini districts (p > 0.10). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 68.0% and 77.0% of samples during the first and second visits, respectively. Other frequently isolated agents included Streptococcus agalactiae, and other Streptococcus spp., S. aureus and S. agalactiae were most sensitive to gentamycin and norfloxacin, and least sensitive to cotrimazole and ampicillin. Knowing the prevalence of mastitogenic organisms and their antibiotic sensitivities could improve treatment efficacy and cow longevity. <![CDATA[<b>Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels <i>(Camelus dromedarius)</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12-18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg) and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as P < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone. <![CDATA[<b>Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in slaughtered sheep: A pathological and polymerase chain reaction study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious tumour in sheep caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). This tumour originates from the pneumocyte type II and Clara cells and grossly appears as hard, prominent nodules in different lobes. The clinical signs of the disease are similar to those of other chronic respiratory diseases and are not pathogonomic. Therefore, post mortem examinations and histopathological studies are the most reliable ways to diagnose OPA, particularly subclinical cases of this neoplasm. In this study, out of 1000 sheep lungs grossly inspected, 50 animals were suspected of OPA. The suspected lungs as well as 25 apparently normal lungs were examined by histopathological and PCR methods. The proviral DNA was detected in 1/25 apparently normal lungs and 8/50 of the suspected lungs and subsequently confirmed by histopathological studies. The PCR-positive lung samples from five sheep revealed lesions of 'atypical' OPA and those from three sheep showed the 'classic' form of the disease. The tumours were multifocal and the masses were distributed throughout the cranioventral and diaphragmatic lung lobes. The stroma of the tumours in the atypical cases was more severely affected with inflammatory cell infiltration and connective tissue proliferation. The histopathological characteristics of maedi including hyperplasia of the perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphoid cells, interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and smooth muscle hyperplasia were also associated with OPA, especially the atypical form of this adenocarcinoma. Atypical OPA was more prevalent than the classic form. Geographic and climatic conditions, duration of exposure to the virus and the immune status of individual animals might be responsible for the differences between the two pathological entities of OPA. <![CDATA[<b>Changes in motility, morphology, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity during stages of cryopreservation of buck sperm</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Changes in sperm structure and function occur during the processing of semen. The present study was designed to investigate the effect on buck sperm during different stages of semen preparation including dilution, cooling, equilibration and freeze-thawing. Semen ejaculates from three mature bucks (replicates = 5) were diluted with tris-citric acid egg yolk glycerol extender at 37 °C, cooled to 4 °C over 90 min, equilibrated at 4 °C for 2 h, transferred to 0.5 mL straws, placed in nitrogen vapour, frozen and thawed and then analysed. Sperm samples were assessed for percentage motility, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, live sperm, and morphology after dilution, cooling, equilibration and thawing. Mean percentage motility after dilution (86.0 ± 1.4%) was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) due to cooling and equilibration (77.6 ± 1.3% and 74.6 ± 1.4% respectively); furthermore, it decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after freezing and thawing (42.3 ± 2.5%). Mean percentage of live sperm was higher (p < 0.05) after dilution (89.3 ± 1.4%) compared with cooling (84.8 ± 1.8%) and equilibration (80.2 ± 2.5%) and further reduced (p < 0.05) after freezing and thawing (56.0 ± 3.4%). Sperm morphology dropped significantly (p < 0.05) from 96.4 ± 0.3% after dilution to 88.8 ± 1.3% at cooling and further decreased (p < 0.05) after freezing and thawing (81 ± 1.9%). Mean percentage of sperm with normal plasma membrane after dilution (82.2 ± 1.1%) was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) at cooling or equilibration (73.8 ± 1.8) and further decreased (p < 0.05) after freezing and thawing (50.1 ± 2.9%). The percentage of sperm with normal acrosomes did not differ significantly due to dilution, cooling or equilibration (85.8 ± 1.7%, 83.2 ± 1.6%, 81.7 ± 1.8%) but was significantly reduced after freezing and thawing (45.2 ± 2.8%). In conclusion, frozen thawed sperm showed maximum damage to motility, morphology, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity following cooling. <![CDATA[<b>Cutaneous Adenocarcinoma of sebaceous gland in a captive male jaguar <i>(Panthera onca):</i> A case report</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca) has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation. <![CDATA[<b>Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia vaccines</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT). Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL). These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required. <![CDATA[<b>Serological survey of <i>Brucella canis</i> in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis) in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5-21.7) were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% - 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0-26.4) compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9-18.5) but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis) other than B. canis is also recommended. <![CDATA[<b>The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile <i>(Crocodylus niloticus):</i> Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions. <![CDATA[<b>Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances in land ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational study was conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistribution project in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For the purposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than 500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and design appropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the second phase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. These were: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residues with minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a total mixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank from the cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoption was monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulated rations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded that veterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option for such complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extension services appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditional model of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labour intensive. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African <i>Culicoides</i> species</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions. <![CDATA[<b>The role of the state in stock farming in rural areas: A case study of Hertzog, Eastern Cape, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study examined the role of the state in providing veterinary services to resource-poor stock farmers. Communal stock farmers in most rural areas have low incomes and generally poor access to commercial veterinary healthcare. The state veterinary services thus offer a means for stock farmers to maintain the health of their livestock and receive information on animal healthcare. Interviews and participant observation were used to collect data about animal healthcare practices in Hertzog, a village in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The findings were that the state played an important role in animal healthcare and in the education of farmers. However, the lack of a skilled workforce was a constraint to effective service delivery, whilst veterinary educational institutions that disseminate information to the stock farmers were not utilised. It is thus important to fully utilise training centres to educate stock farmers and for more incentives to be given to state employees, so as to attract the necessary skilled personnel to improve service delivery. <![CDATA[<b>The effects of midazolam and butorphanol, administered alone or combined, on the dose and quality of anaesthetic induction with alfaxalone in goats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Goats are rarely anaesthetised; consequently, scant information is available on the efficacy of anaesthetic drugs in this species. Alfaxalone is a relatively new anaesthetic agent, of which the efficacy in goats has not yet been studied. In this study, the sedative and alfaxalone-sparing effects of midazolam and butorphanol, administered alone or concomitantly, in goats were assessed. Eight clinically healthy goats, four does and four wethers, were enlisted in a randomised crossover manner to receive intramuscular sedative treatments consisting of saline 0.05 mL/kg, or midazolam 0.30 mg/kg, or butorphanol 0.10 mg/kg, or a combination of midazolam 0.30 mg/kg with butorphanol 0.10 mg/kg before intravenous induction of general anaesthesia with alfaxalone. Following induction, the goats were immediately intubated and the quality of anaesthesia and basic physiological cardiorespiratory and blood-gas parameters were assessed until the goats had recovered from anaesthesia. The degree of sedation, quality of induction and recovery were scored. When compared with saline (3.00 mg/kg), midazolam, administered alone or with butorphanol, caused a statistically significant increased level of sedation and a reduction in the amount of alfaxalone required for induction (2.00 mg/kg and 1.70 mg/kg, respectively). Butorphanol alone (2.30 mg/kg) did not cause significant changes in level of sedation or alfaxalone-induction dose. During induction and recovery, the goats were calm following all treatments, including the control group. Cardiorespiratory and blood-gas parameters were maintained within clinically acceptable limits. The present study showed that midazolam, administered alone or combined with butorphanol, produces a degree of sedation that significantly reduces the dose of alfaxalone required for induction of general anaesthesia in goats, without causing any major adverse cardiorespiratory effects. <![CDATA[<b>Reverse saphenous conduit flap in small animals: Clinical applications and outcomes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Due to the lack of skin elasticity defects of the distal hind limb can be a challenge to close. This article assesses a well-described, but completely under-used technique for closure of wounds on the distal tarsus. The technique was used with good success in six cases presenting to the Bryanston Veterinary Hospital with a wide range of underlying pathology ranging from trauma to neoplastic disease of the tarsus. All six cases were treated with a reverse saphenous conduit flap and two of them underwent radiation therapy with no adverse side effects. All cases showed excellent results with a very low degree of flap necrosis that never exceeded 15% of the total flap area. This skin flap provides an excellent treatment method that is reliable in closure of defects of the distal tarsus with few adverse effects. To the author's knowledge there has been only one previously published report on the clinical use of this type of skin flap, even though the flap is well described in most texts. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles <i>(Crocodylus niloticus)</i> experimentally infected with <i>Trichinella zimbabwensis</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI) Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely. <![CDATA[<b>The haematological profile of female bronze turkeys <i>(Meleagris gallopavo)</i> vaccinated with various commercial strains of Newcastle disease</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The effects of vaccination on avian blood parameters are poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether different strains (Ulster 2C, B1, live LaSota and inactivated LaSota) of Newcastle disease vaccines had an effect on the haematological profile of female turkeys. Seventy-five female turkeys were allocated to treatment groups according to vaccination strain. All the birds, except those in the control group, were vaccinated at 32 weeks of age and revaccinated at 40 and 48 weeks of age. Blood samples were obtained for haematological analyses and serum samples for the haemagglutination inhibition test. Haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in vaccinated female turkeys than in the control birds 28 days after vaccination. Monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 44-week-old female turkeys vaccinated with inactivated LaSota strain compared with the other groups. Turkeys vaccinated with the B1 strain showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) total white blood cell counts compared with the other groups vaccinated with various commercial strains of the Newcastle disease virus. In conclusion, female turkeys showed significant differences in haemoglobin concentrations, monocytes and white blood cell counts when vaccinated against Newcastle disease. <![CDATA[<b>The creation of a measurable contusion injury in skeletal muscle</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The effect that compressed air massage (CAM) has on skeletal muscle has been ascertained by the morphological and morphometric evaluation of healthy vervet monkey and rabbit skeletal muscle. How CAM may influence the process of healing following a contusion injury is not known. To determine how CAM or other physiotherapeutic modalities may influence healing, it is necessary to create a minor injury that is both reproducible and quantifiable at the termination of a pre-determined healing period. An earlier study described changes in the morphology of skeletal muscle following a reproducible contusion injury. This study extended that work in that it attempted to quantify the 'severity' of such an injury. A 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped seven times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis muscle of four New Zealand white rabbits. Biopsies were obtained 6 days after injury from the left healing juxta-bone and sub-dermal muscle and uninjured (control) right vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and phosphotungstic haematoxylin. The muscle was examined by light microscopy and quantification of the severity of injury made using a modified, 'in-house' morphological index and by the comparative morphometric measurement of the cross-sectioned epimysium and myofibres in injured and control muscle. The results showed that a single contusion causes multiple, quantifiable degrees of injury from skin to bone - observations of particular importance to others wishing to investigate contusion injury in human or animal models. <![CDATA[<b>Idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in 33 dogs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis (LPR) is recognised frequently in dogs with clinical signs typical of other chronic nasal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical signs, survey radiographic, rhinoscopic and histologic abnormalities and the response to therapy in dogs with LPR. It was a retrospective study of 33 client-owned animals of various breeds and ages that had been diagnosed with LPR. During the study period, a total of 110 dogs were diagnosed with nasal disease, of which 33 (30%) were diagnosed with idiopathic LPR. The median age was 9 years (range 2.3-17 years) and there were 15 female and 18 male dogs. The majority of dogs showed a mucoid nasal discharge, bilateral stertor and no overt radiographic changes. The most common finding on rhinoscopy was hyperaemic nasal mucous membranes with mucoid material accumulation within the nasal cavity. In all 33 dogs bacterial culture yielded no pathogenic bacteria and fungal culture was negative. Histologically, all 33 dogs showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration within the nasal mucosa. All 33 dogs were treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids for varying lengths of time and dosing intervals. Eleven dogs were treated with concurrent cyclosporine and three dogs underwent allergy testing followed by desensitisation therapy. The best response was seen in the dogs that underwent desensitisation therapy, followed by those treated with corticosteroids and cyclosporine. <![CDATA[<b>Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of central nervous system (CNS) tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for African horse sickness (AHS), equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) and macrophage (MAC) 387 IHC. <![CDATA[<b>Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease in African buffalo (<i>Syncerus caffer</i>) in the Kruger National Park and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease are transboundary viral diseases endemic in Africa and some parts of the Middle East, but with increasing potential for global emergence. Wild ruminants, such as the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), are thought to play a role in the epidemiology of these diseases. This study sought to expand the understanding of the role of buffalo in the maintenance of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) by determining seroprevalence to these viruses during an inter-epidemic period. Buffaloes from the Kruger National Park (n = 138) and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (n = 110) in South Africa were sampled and tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralising antibodies against LSDV and RVFV using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the serum neutralisation test (SNT). The I-ELISA for LSDV and RVFV detected IgG antibodies in 70 of 248 (28.2%) and 15 of 248 (6.1%) buffaloes, respectively. Using the SNT, LSDV and RVFV neutralising antibodies were found in 5 of 66 (7.6%) and 12 of 57 (21.1%), respectively, of samples tested. The RVFV I-ELISA and SNT results correlated well with previously reported results. Of the 12 SNT RVFV-positive sera, three (25.0%) had very high SNT titres of 1:640. Neutralising antibody titres of more than 1:80 were found in 80.0% of the positive sera tested. The LSDV SNT results did not correlate with results obtained by the I-ELISA and neutralising antibody titres detected were low, with the highest (1:20) recorded in only two buffaloes, whilst 11 buffaloes (4.4%) had evidence of co-infection with both viruses. Results obtained in this study complement other reports suggesting a role for buffaloes in the epidemiology of these diseases during inter-epidemic periods. <![CDATA[<b>Bovine trypanosome species prevalence and farmers' trypanosomiasis control methods in south-western Uganda</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mbarara district, south-western Uganda in May 2012 to determine the burden of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in the semi-intensive dairy production systems where pyrethroid acaricides are frequently used in the control of tick-borne diseases (TBDs). A total of 295 cattle blood samples were taken and analysed using a single pair of primers previously designed to amplify internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of trypanosome ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA). A structured questionnaire was administered to 55 participating livestock farmers to generate data on acaricide and trypanocidal drug usage. The overall prevalence of trypanosome species was 2.4% (95% CI; 1.0% - 4.8%); Trypanosoma vivax was the most predominant species (2.0%; 95% CI; 0.7% - 4.4%). A single mixed infection of T. vivax andTrypanosoma brucei s.l. was detected. All the participating farmers used acaricides for tsetse and TBD control; 89.1% of the acaricides used were pyrethroids. About half of the farmers used trypanocidal drugs, mainly diminazene formulations (Berenil®). Low prevalence of trypanosomes in examined samples is most likely related to the frequent use of pyrethroid insecticides, trypanocides and restricted grazing (paddocking and tethering). These rigorous management practices are geared towards optimising production of exotic dairy breeds kept in this region that are highly susceptible to TBDs and AAT. <![CDATA[<b>Molecular differentiation and pathogenicity of Aviadenoviruses isolated during an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) is a member of the genus Aviadenovirus and causes a number of economically important poultry diseases. One of these diseases, inclusion body hepatitis (IBH), has a worldwide distribution and is characterised by acute mortality (5% - 20%) in production chickens. The disease was first described in the United States of America in 1963 and has also been reported in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, France and Ireland, but until now, not in South Africa. Adenoviruses isolated from the first outbreak of IBH in South Africa were able to reproduce the disease in chicken embryo livers. The aim of the present study was to characterise the viruses and determine the pathogenicity of the FAdV strains responsible for the first reported case of IBH in South Africa. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the L1 loop region of the fowl adenovirus hexon gene using degenerate primer pair hexon A/B was used to identify the viruses that were isolated. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the amplification products was used for the differentiation of 14 isolates of fowl adenovirus. Sequencing of the PCR products followed by amino acid comparison and phylogenetic analysis using the L1 loop region of the hexon protein was done to determine the identity of the isolates. Amino acid sequences of the hexon genes of all the South African isolates were compared with those of reference strains representing FAdV species. Amino acid comparison of 12 South Africa field isolates to FAdV reference strains revealed a high sequence identity (> 93.33%) with reference strains T8-A and 764. Two of the isolates had high sequence identity (93.40%) with reference strains P7-A, C2B and SR48. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 loop region of the hexon protein of all 14 South African isolates was consistent with their RFLP clusters. The mortality rates of embryos challenged with 10(6) egg infective doses (EID50) FAdV 2 were 80% - 87% and mortality rates for embryos challenged with 10(5.95) (EID50) FAdV 8b were 65% - 80%. <![CDATA[<b>Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN)-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein-Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5% (0.587*148/16753), with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of 0.9% (148/16753). The presence of lesions were higher in cattle aged 2 years and older (1.6% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05) and higher in females than in males (1.4% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05). Of the 36 samples tested, 26 (72.2%) were positive by microscopic examination with Kinyoun staining while M. bovis was culture-confirmed in 21 (58.7%) cases. Bovine tuberculosis caused condemnation of 1683.5 kg of meat, resulting in an estimated loss of $4810. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of bTB in Rwanda is significant, and that bTB is a major cause of meat condemnation requiring continued implementation of surveillance and control measures. Furthermore, the results from this study also show important variations in sensitivity of the different tests that were used to determine the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Rwanda. <![CDATA[<b>Follow-up survey of the prevalence, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment of <i>Spirocerca lupi</i> in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Spirocercosis is an important disease in South Africa. The object of this study was to determine if there had been a change in the prevalence, clinical manifestations and treatment of Spirocerca lupiover a 14-year period. A questionnaire was sent to 577 veterinary practices throughout South Africa in 2012. Of responders, 76% indicated that S. lupi occurred in their area, whilst 24% indicated that it did not; 84% considered S. lupi not to be a new phenomenon, whereas 16% considered it to be new. Monthly or seasonal distribution of the disease was not reported, and 76% of responders reported it to occur in no specific breed of dog, whereas 24% reported a breed risk, most considering large breeds to be at greater risk. No specific age or sex was identified as at higher risk. Common owner complaints were vomiting, weight loss, cough, or regurgitation. Reported clinical findings tended to mirror the clinical signs reported by owners. Most common diagnostic methods used were radiology, endoscopy, faecal flotation, and post mortem examination. Forty-four percent did not report seeing asymptomatic cases, 40% reported asymptomatic cases and 16% did not know. Associated complications were reported by 85% of responders, and included oesophageal neoplasia, hypertrophic osteopathy and acute haemothorax. Four different drugs were used as therapy: doramectin, ivermectin, milbemycin and Advocate®, with 9% of the responders using a combination of these four; 85% considered treatment to be effective and 15% ineffective. Treatment was considered more effective if the disease was diagnosed early and there were no complications. Two important conclusions were that more cases are being seen and that efficacy of therapy has increased, with a decrease in the mortality rate. <![CDATA[<b>Dynamic upper respiratory abnormalities in Thoroughbred racehorses in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Upper airway endoscopy at rest has been the diagnostic method of choice for equine upper respiratory tract (URT) conditions. Development of high-speed treadmill endoscopy improved the sensitivity of URT endoscopy by allowing observation of the horse's nasopharynx and larynx during exercise. However, treadmill exercise may not always accurately represent the horse's normal exercise as track surface, rider, tack and environmental variables are altered. Recently, the development of dynamic overground endoscopy (DOE) has addressed some of these shortcomings. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the URT abnormalities detected during DOE in racehorses presenting with poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Patient records of Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing DOE from November 2011 to August 2012 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, primary complaint, distance exercised, maximum speed and dynamic airway abnormalities detected. Fifty-two horses underwent DOE for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. The main abnormalities detected included axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds (40%), vocal cord collapse (35%), abnormal arytenoid function (33%) and dorsal displacement of the soft palate (25%). A total of 40 horses were diagnosed with one or more abnormalities of the URT (77%). Fifteen horses (29%) had a single abnormality and 25 horses (48%) had multiple abnormalities. This study showed that DOE is a useful technique for investigating dynamic disorders of the URT in racehorses in South Africa. The total number and type of dynamic pathological conditions were comparable with those identified in similar populations in other geographical locations. <![CDATA[<b>A model for determining baseline morphometrics of skeletal myofibres</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The minimum diameter method of morphometry (MDM) is used to measure and detect changes in myofibre diameters (FD). The MDM is used to identify pathology in skeletal muscle. In such studies, an assumption is made that the mean FD in a particular muscle in both limbs is essentially the same. This study explored this premise to determine the accuracy of MDM as a means of morphometric analysis. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the left (G1) and right (G2) tibialis anterior of four vervet monkeys and from the massaged left (G3) and untreated right (G4) tibialis anterior of four animals. Wax sections were prepared for MDM and FD was measured. Three specimens were re-measured on four occasions. The mean FD of each biopsy from G1 and G2 limbs were compared and the number of measurements necessary to produce a meaningful result determined. Repeated measurement showed a difference of < 3.0% in FD means between the first and three subsequent measurements. There was no significant difference of FD means between G1 and G2, whilst the difference between G3 and G4 was 11.2%. When &gt; 175 FD were measured, the difference from the final mean was less than 2.0%. These data show that, (1) FD data derived from a muscle in an untreated limb can be used as a control for experiment mediated changes of FD in the other, (2) MDM is a reliable means of measuring FD and (3) 150-175 FD are needed to provide a dependable result. <![CDATA[<b><i>Culicoides </i></b><b>species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV) is transmitted almost exclusively byCulicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June-August). Although the mean number of midges per night fell from &gt; 50 000 (March) to < 100 (July and August), no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level. <![CDATA[<b>L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria in a South African Staffordshire Bull Terrier</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria is an autosomal recessive error of metabolism that manifests as an encephalopathy. The most common presenting signs are seizures, tremors, ataxia and/ or dementia. Some affected dogs show only subtle behavioural changes. Amongst canines, the condition has been best described in Staffordshire Bull Terriers. Although this is the first reported case in South Africa, at least three other affected dogs have been indentified by polmerase chain reaction (PCR) in this country. Affected dogs have normal haematology, serum biochemistry and routine urine analysis. This report discusses the advantages and limitations of the three main diagnostic modalities, namely: magnetic resonance imaging, urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and genetic testing. The aim of this report is to increase awareness of the condition, assist diagnosis in encephalopathic dogs and improve detection of carriers amongst breeding stock. <![CDATA[<b>Incomplete reduction of branchial clefts in Mutton Merino lambs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Congenital malformations of the branchial arches, clefts and grooves have not been previously reported in sheep. These defects may be due to infectious agents (especially viruses), toxins or genetic abnormalities. Defects were reported in two of a set of quadruplet lambs born prematurely to an eight-tooth Mutton Merino ewe. The lambs weighed between 2.0 kg and 2.5 kg; this is below the normal expected birth weight of 3.5 kg for quadruplet lambs, below which viability is compromised. The firstborn lamb was severely affected by bilateral oro-auricular fistulae. The second lamb was unilaterally affected on the right, less severely than the first. The third lamb was normal and the fourth was mummified. The occurrence of another case in this small flock almost a decade earlier indicates that there could be genetic involvement. <![CDATA[<b>Haemangiosarcoma of the <i>os penis</i> in a dog: The most common neoplasm of the canine penis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A castrated 9-year-old intact male boerboel cross-breed dog was presented with a month-long history of stranguria. On physical examination, a mass was noted at the caudal extremity of the os penis. Haematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis were all unremarkable. Abdominal and urethral ultrasound demonstrated an enlarged bladder and a dilated urethra, which was followed to the caudal extremity of the os penis. A hyperechoic, roughly spherical, vascularised mass was noted at the caudal os penis, which resulted in obstruction of the penile urethra. Radiographs demonstrated a soft tissue mass with osteolysis of the os penis. Cytology suggested an osteosarcoma. Treatment included amputation of the penis and adjuvant doxorubicin with carboplatin. Histopathology of the penis confirmed a haemangiosarcoma. The patient survived for 20 months. This is only the second published case report describing a penile haemangiosarcoma, and the first published report demonstrating the treatment and outcome of a case of haemangiosarcoma of the os penis. Based on published and unpublished reports, haemangiosarcoma appears to be the most common neoplasm of the canine penis. <![CDATA[<b>Epineurial repair of an iatrogenic facial nerve neurotmesis after total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in a dog with concurrent cranio-mandibular osteopathy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 7-year-old male entire West Highland white terrier was referred to the Small Animal Hospital at the University of Glasgow for bilateral, chronic, medically unresponsive otitis media and externa. A history of cranio-mandibular osteopathy was also reported. Bilateral total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy was performed with the aid of a pneumatic burr. Extensive bone proliferation was present bilaterally originating from the caudal mandibular ramus and tympanic bulla which incorporated the horizontal canal on each side. The right facial nerve was identified leaving the stylomastoid foramen and running in a cranial direction through a 1.5 cm diameter cuff of bone surrounding the horizontal canal and external acoustic meatus. Despite careful dissection, a facial nerve neurotmesis ensued which required microsurgical epineurial repair. Neurologic examination performed 12 h post-operatively revealed abnormalities consistent with right facial nerve paralysis. At 3 months, the facial nerve function was found to have improved significantly and was assessed to be normal four months after surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this clinical communication described the first reported clinical case where unilateral facial nerve paralysis resulting from iatrogenic facial nerve neurotmesis was successfully treated by microsurgical epineurial repair. <![CDATA[<b>Oesophagogastric intussusception associated with spirocercosis in a dog</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An oesophagogastric intussusception was diagnosed in an intact Bull Terrier female aged 2 years and 7 months with a concurrent Spirocerca lupi infection. The dog was presented collapsed with a history of inappetance and lethargy of one day's duration. Anaemia and melaena were present on clinical examination. Thoracic radiographs did not reveal any significant findings. Abdominal ultrasound was suspicious for gastric pathology or a possible foreign body. The final diagnosis of an oesophagogastric intussusception with an S. lupi nodule at the cardia was made on post-mortem. Oesophageal intussusceptions are rare in dogs and often fatal. Gastro-oesophageal intussusceptions usually present with obvious radiographic signs in the caudal thorax, unlike an oesophagogastric intussusception, where the pathology lies within the abdomen and may not be readily diagnosed. Although spirocercosis often presents with a caudal oesophageal mass, this may not be seen radiographically. In this case, the two conditions were present together but the thoracic radiographs were normal. <![CDATA[<b>Enterococcal-related vertebral osteoarthritis in South African broiler breeders: A case report</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100034&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Infections in broilers and broiler breeders by Enterococcus cecorum, causing clinical disease, have increasingly been described in various countries in the Northern Hemisphere over the past decade. This case report describes an outbreak of enterococcal-associated vertebral osteoarthritis (EVOA) in male broiler breeders in several flocks in South Africa. Male birds aged 4 and 9 weeks displayed the common presentation of lameness, paresis or complete paralysis. Autopsies of culled birds revealed masses on caudal thoracic vertebrae T5-T7, with vertebral osteomyelitis and spondylitis. Microbiological assays identified E. cecorum cultured from spondylitic lesions. Affected flocks were treated with amoxycillin at 25 mg/kg in the drinking water for 5 days, resulting in decreased numbers of lame birds and culls. The origin and pathogenesis of EVOA are poorly understood, which limits prevention to environmental factors that may inhibit systemic access by the enteric bacteria. Skeletal growth trends of male birds are thought to increase their susceptibility to bacterial colonisation at sites of skeletal strain, resulting in abscesses and lesions. Evidence points to the emergence of E. cecorum strains with increased pathogenicity; this highlights the need for greater understanding of the origins, treatment and prevention of EVOA to minimise its economic impact on poultry operations. <![CDATA[<b>Congenital hypothyroidism and concurrent renal insufficiency in a kitten</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100035&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 3-month-old male domestic short-hair kitten was presented with chronic constipation and disproportionate dwarfism. Radiographs of the long bones and spine revealed delayed epiphyseal ossification and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Diagnosis of congenital primary hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum total thyroxine and high thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. Appropriate supplementation of levothyroxine was instituted. The kitten subsequently developed mild renal azotaemia and renal proteinuria, possibly as a consequence of treatment or an unmasked congenital renal developmental abnormality. Early recognition, diagnosis and treatment are vital as alleviation of clinical signs may depend on the cat's age at the time of diagnosis. <![CDATA[<b>Designing a risk communication strategy for health hazards posed by traditional slaughter of goats in Tshwane, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100036&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In African societies, traditional slaughter is linked to celebrations like weddings or births, as well as funerals and ancestor veneration. Participants in traditional slaughter of goats are at risk of exposure to hazards during slaughter, food preparation and consumption of goat meat. For risk mitigation strategies to be implemented, identification of the population at risk is required. This study is based on the premise that the demographic profile of people involved in traditional slaughter of goats is important for risk communication. Both structured and informal interviews were recorded and analysed using a thematic analysis. A total of 105 people were interviewed at taxi ranks in Tshwane, Gauteng. Of these, 48 were women and 57 men. The median age of women and men was 40.6 years and 44.3 years, respectively. The majority of respondents (61.9%, n = 65) interviewed were from the Gauteng Province. Sixty percent (n = 63) of respondents had a secondary education, whilst less than 4.81% (n = 5) of respondents had no formal education. This study demonstrated that interviewing commuters at taxi ranks gave access to a cross section of gender, age, language and origin. It was found that both genders were involved in traditional slaughter of goats. Risk communication strategies should thus target women as well as men. Communication strategies to mitigate the risks of traditional slaughter of goats should take into consideration the dynamic nature of demographic and cultural norms. In light of the wide demographic profile of the respondents, it was concluded that it should be possible to use taxi ranks for successful dissemination of food safety and occupational health risk mitigation messages. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of cross-protection of bluetongue virus serotype 4 with other serotypes in sheep</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100037&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious disease of sheep and other domestic and wild ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). Currently 26 serotypes of the virus have been identified. In South Africa, 22 serotypes have been identified and BT is controlled mainly by annual vaccinations using a freeze-dried live attenuated polyvalent BTV vaccine. The vaccine is constituted of 15 BTV serotypes divided into three separate bottles and the aim is to develop a vaccine using fewer serotypes without compromising the immunity against the disease. This study is based on previously reported cross-neutralisation of specific BTV serotypes in in vitro studies. Bluetongue virus serotype 4 was selected for this trial and was tested for cross-protection against serotype 4 (control), 1 (unrelated serotype), 9, 10 and 11 in sheep using the serum neutralisation test. The purpose of the study was to determine possible cross-protection of different serotypes in sheep. Of those vaccinated with BTV-4 and challenged with BTV-1, which is not directly related to BTV-4, 20% were completely protected and 80% showed clinical signs, but the reaction was not as severe as amongst the unvaccinated animals. In the group challenged with BTV-10, some showed good protection and some became very sick. Those challenged with BTV-9 and BTV-11 had good protection. The results showed that BTV-4 does not only elicit a specific immune response but can also protect against other serotypes. <![CDATA[<b>Canine multi-drug resistance-1 mutation prevalence: A South African perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100038&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The multi-drug resistance (mdr-1) gene mutation is a phenomenon well known to current veterinary practitioners. The mutation causes a predisposition for, amongst other phenomena, macrocyclic lactone-induced neurotoxicosis in affected canines, a condition that can be fatal. Various herding dog breeds can be heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, and prevalence differs only slightly in dog populations between geographical regions. This report provides prevalence data of the canine mdr-1 mutation in 306 South African dogs. <![CDATA[<b>A survey of feline leukaemia virus infection of domestic cats from selected areas in Harare, Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100039&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) p27 antigen and to determine risk factors and the haematological changes associated with infection in domestic cats in Zimbabwe. Sera were collected for detection of the p27 antigen, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, whilst whole blood was collected for haematology. FeLV p27 antigen was detected using a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Data on risk factors were analysed using a logistic regression model. Of the 100 cats tested, 41% (95% CI: 31.19% - 50.81%) (41/100) were positive for the FeLV p27 antigen. Sex and health status of cats were not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with infection. Intact cats (OR = 9.73), those living in multicat housing (OR = 5.23) and cats that had access to outdoor life (OR = 35.5) were found to have higher odds of infection compared with neutered cats, those living in single-cat housing, and without access to outdoor life, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology revealed no specific changes. The results showed that FeLV infection was high in sampled cats, providing evidence of active infection. Thus, it would be prudent to introduce specific control measures for FeLV infection in Zimbabwe. <![CDATA[<b>Tick-borne pathogens of potential zoonotic importance in the Southern African Region</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100040&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this communication is to provide preliminary information on the tick-borne pathogens of potential zoonotic importance present in southern Africa, mainly focusing on their geographical distribution and host range, and to identify research gaps. The following tick-borne zoonoses have been reported to occur in southern Africa based mainly on case reports: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus; ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum; babesiosis caused by Babesia microti; relapsing fever caused by Borrelia duttonii and rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii and Rickettsia conorii. The epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence are briefly reviewed. <![CDATA[<b>Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100041&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission. <![CDATA[<b>Theileriosis in six dogs in South Africa and its potential clinical significance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100042&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100043&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Ehrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsiaspp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs. <![CDATA[<b>The role of the South African Veterinary Council, with special reference to the period 1982-2011</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100044&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The current South African Veterinary Council (SAVC) has a long and laborious history associated with the legislation responsible for its establishment. The forerunner of the SAVC, the South African Veterinary Board, was established in terms of the Veterinary Act 1933 (Act No. 16 of 1933), which was launched through Parliament as a private motion by Dr Hjalmar Reitz M.P. After several amendments, the Act was replaced with the Veterinary and Para-veterinary Professions Act 1982 (Act No. 19 of 1982), superseding the existing Board with the SAVC. One of the reasons for replacing this Act was to comply with Government policy for professional statutory bodies to become self-funding, with fees paid by registered professionals, and to constitute councils that were more representative of the profession. Apart from providing some background information, this article was virtually entirely confined to some historic aspects of the SAVC, using, as its basis, the main developments that occurred during the terms of office of its various presidents, serving from 1982 to 2011. The presidents concerned are: Prof. B.C. Jansen (28 March 1983 - 28 March 1986), Dr G.E. Frost (14 April 1986 - 31 March 1992), Prof. R.I. Coubrough (07 April 1992 - 21 March 1994), Dr P.C. Ardington (21 March 1994 - 31 March 1998), Prof H.M. Terblanche (31 March 1998 - 31 March 2004), Prof. S.S. van den Berg (01 April 2004 - 30 July 2007) and Dr R. Moerane (06 August 2007 - 31 July 2013). <![CDATA[<b>A brief overview of the history of veterinary field services in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100045&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The historical evolution of veterinary services in South Africa is closely linked to the colonial history of the past and the eventual political formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, as well as the establishment of a fully democratic South Africa in 1994. The majority of the early pioneering veterinarians had close links to military activities and were originally mostly of British origin. The appointment of the first colonial chief veterinary officers occurred in the late 1800s. These appointments were dictated by the need to combat devastating animal diseases, such as rinderpest and African horse sickness, mainly because they affected draught oxen (used for travel) and horses (used in combat). Veterinary field services was established in 1962 as a separate functional entity within government services when M.C. Lambrechts became Director of Veterinary Services of South Africa. In the context of this article, veterinary field services refers to that sphere of veterinary service delivery conducted by government-appointed or seconded veterinarians applying disease control and prevention, as required by animal health legislation. Paging through the history of veterinary field services in South Africa confirms that the problems faced by the veterinary services of today were just as real during the times of our pioneers. The pioneers of veterinary services transformed unknown animal diseases into textbook descriptions still used today and also demonstrated the important link to, and use of, the observations made by farmers, as well as the need for continued basic and applied research on animal diseases. This article provided a brief overview of the evolution of veterinary field services and the important role played by pioneers over the last two centuries to make South Africa relatively free and safe from the most important trade-sensitive and economically important animal diseases. <![CDATA[<b>Medical management of myxomatous mitral valve disease: An evidence-based veterinary medicine approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100046&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease of dogs. The current management of MMVD in dogs is mostly pharmacological, and the recommendations for treatment are based on a number of veterinary studies. Notwithstanding the current consensus regarding the medical management of MMVD, there remains active debate as to which drugs are the most effective. In order to understand how recommendations are constructed in the pharmacological management of diseases, the veterinarian needs to understand the concept of evidence-based veterinary medicine, and how the findings of these studies can be applied in their own practices. This review summarises the current veterinary literature and explains how the consensus regarding the management of MMVD has been reached. This review highlights the limitations of veterinary studies in order to provide veterinary practitioners with a sense of the difficulty there is in establishing the benefit of one treatment over the other. Veterinarians should therefore apply treatment recommendations based on the best evidence, integrated with a pathomechanistic understanding of the disease process and clinical experience. <![CDATA[<b>Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100047&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats. <![CDATA[<b>Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis, progression and diagnosis of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100048&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A number of key questions remain unanswered in the pathogenesis of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). As MMVD typically afflicts small-breed dogs, a genetic basis has been implied. In addition, the fact that not all dogs within a risk group develop MMVD is still unexplained. Research into the pathogenesis of MMVD typically falls under three categorical divisions, namely genetic factors, mechanical factors of the valve and systemic factors. Genetic studies have implicated certain loci in the pathogenesis of MMVD. Of particular interest is the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 locus, as IGF-1 is also associated with growth. The mechanical structure and function of the mitral valve have also received much attention in recent years. What has emerged is the notion of a highly complex dynamic structure, which has an uneven distribution of stress and strain according to the flow of blood. Research efforts have also identified a number of systemic factors such as cytokines and signalling pathways that may contribute to the failure of the valve. Serotonin remains an area of interest in this field. Taken together, the amalgamation of research efforts in these three areas will go a long way towards resolving the understanding of this disease. Another area of focus in MMVD has been the development of clinical tests to diagnose the onset of congestive heart failure. To this end, echocardiographic indices and biochemical markers have been investigated. Echocardiographic indices such as left atrial to aortic ratio and the N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been identified as specific risk factors to predict progression. Advanced imaging studies such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have enabled investigators to determine the earliest remodelling changes that occur in MMVD. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100049&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en