Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> vol. 85 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo <i>(Bubalus bubalis)</i> heifers</b>]]> Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. <![CDATA[<b>Internal parasites and health management of pigs in Burayu District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia</b>]]> The study determined the prevalence and major types of gastrointestinal parasites in pigs and assessed the health management practices on farms in Burayu District in West Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The study was performed from November 2007 to April 2008 using standard coprological examination and a well-organised questionnaire survey. Of the 272 pigs examined for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites, 36 (13.2%) were infected with one or more types of parasite. Neither age nor management system proved to be a statistically significant factor in the prevalence of parasites. The highest prevalence of parasites was recorded in December, January and April, whereas the lowest was observed in February. Significant variation in the prevalence of parasites was noticed amongst study months. The majority of farmers did not use acaricides to treat and control external parasites. Anthelmintics were not used by any of the farmers. Some 76.1% of the farmers never used any type of treatment for sick pigs; 21.7% of the farmers used modern treatment and 2.2% of the farmers used traditional medicines. More than 95.0% of pigs were kept on soil floors and only 10.9% of the housing systems had good ventilation. Dung was removed at least every three days, with the majority of farmers (91.2%) removing it every morning. This study provided evidence for the occurrence of internal parasites in pigs kept in Burayu District in Oromia. Further epidemiological studies are needed to determine the zoonotic and economic importance of pig parasites in other parts of Ethiopia. <![CDATA[<b>Mastitogenic bacteria isolated from dairy cows in Kenya and their antimicrobial sensitivity</b>]]> There is limited epidemiological knowledge on udder health in Kenyan dairy cattle that would aid in a pro-active approach towards mastitis prevention. The study objectives were: (1) to investigate the prevalence and distribution of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Mukurwe-ini and Nakuru Districts, Kenya, and (2) to determine the antibacterial sensitivity of the organisms causing bovine mastitis in these districts. The study involved field-screening of milk samples from 241 dairy cows on 128 farms by use of the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and, if CMT-positive, followed by bacteriological culture of the major causative agents and their respective antibiotic sensitivity to eight commonly used antibiotics. All participating farms were visited twice during the study period. The results obtained during the first and second visits showed the prevalence of clinical mastitis to be very low: 0.9% and 0.5%, respectively; 56.0% and 65.0% of cows were CMT-positive on at least one quarter and 49.6% and 58.7% of cows were culture-positive, respectively. There was no significant difference in mastitis prevalence between Nakuru and Mukurwe-ini districts (p > 0.10). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 68.0% and 77.0% of samples during the first and second visits, respectively. Other frequently isolated agents included Streptococcus agalactiae, and other Streptococcus spp., S. aureus and S. agalactiae were most sensitive to gentamycin and norfloxacin, and least sensitive to cotrimazole and ampicillin. Knowing the prevalence of mastitogenic organisms and their antibiotic sensitivities could improve treatment efficacy and cow longevity. <![CDATA[<b>Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels <i>(Camelus dromedarius)</i></b>]]> This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12-18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg) and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg) administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as P < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone. <![CDATA[<b>Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in slaughtered sheep: A pathological and polymerase chain reaction study</b>]]> Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious tumour in sheep caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). This tumour originates from the pneumocyte type II and Clara cells and grossly appears as hard, prominent nodules in different lobes. The clinical signs of the disease are similar to those of other chronic respiratory diseases and are not pathogonomic. Therefore, post mortem examinations and histopathological studies are the most reliable ways to diagnose OPA, particularly subclinical cases of this neoplasm. In this study, out of 1000 sheep lungs grossly inspected, 50 animals were suspected of OPA. The suspected lungs as well as 25 apparently normal lungs were examined by histopathological and PCR methods. The proviral DNA was detected in 1/25 apparently normal lungs and 8/50 of the suspected lungs and subsequently confirmed by histopathological studies. The PCR-positive lung samples from five sheep revealed lesions of 'atypical' OPA and those from three sheep showed the 'classic' form of the disease. The tumours were multifocal and the masses were distributed throughout the cranioventral and diaphragmatic lung lobes. The stroma of the tumours in the atypical cases was more severely affected with inflammatory cell infiltration and connective tissue proliferation. The histopathological characteristics of maedi including hyperplasia of the perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphoid cells, interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and smooth muscle hyperplasia were also associated with OPA, especially the atypical form of this adenocarcinoma. Atypical OPA was more prevalent than the classic form. Geographic and climatic conditions, duration of exposure to the virus and the immune status of individual animals might be responsible for the differences between the two pathological entities of OPA. <![CDATA[<b>Changes in motility, morphology, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity during stages of cryopreservation of buck sperm</b>]]> Changes in sperm structure and function occur during the processing of semen. The present study was designed to investigate the effect on buck sperm during different stages of semen preparation including dilution, cooling, equilibration and freeze-thawing. Semen ejaculates from three mature bucks (replicates = 5) were diluted with tris-citric acid egg yolk glycerol extender at 37 °C, cooled to 4 °C over 90 min, equilibrated at 4 °C for 2 h, transferred to 0.5 mL straws, placed in nitrogen vapour, frozen and thawed and then analysed. Sperm samples were assessed for percentage motility, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, live sperm, and morphology after dilution, cooling, equilibration and thawing. Mean percentage motility after dilution (86.0 ± 1.4%) was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) due to cooling and equilibration (77.6 ± 1.3% and 74.6 ± 1.4% respectively); furthermore, it decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after freezing and thawing (42.3 ± 2.5%). Mean percentage of live sperm was higher (p < 0.05) after dilution (89.3 ± 1.4%) compared with cooling (84.8 ± 1.8%) and equilibration (80.2 ± 2.5%) and further reduced (p < 0.05) after freezing and thawing (56.0 ± 3.4%). Sperm morphology dropped significantly (p < 0.05) from 96.4 ± 0.3% after dilution to 88.8 ± 1.3% at cooling and further decreased (p < 0.05) after freezing and thawing (81 ± 1.9%). Mean percentage of sperm with normal plasma membrane after dilution (82.2 ± 1.1%) was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) at cooling or equilibration (73.8 ± 1.8) and further decreased (p < 0.05) after freezing and thawing (50.1 ± 2.9%). The percentage of sperm with normal acrosomes did not differ significantly due to dilution, cooling or equilibration (85.8 ± 1.7%, 83.2 ± 1.6%, 81.7 ± 1.8%) but was significantly reduced after freezing and thawing (45.2 ± 2.8%). In conclusion, frozen thawed sperm showed maximum damage to motility, morphology, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity following cooling. <![CDATA[<b>Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia vaccines</b>]]> Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT). Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL). These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required. <![CDATA[<b>Cutaneous Adenocarcinoma of sebaceous gland in a captive male jaguar <i>(Panthera onca):</i> A case report</b>]]> High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca) has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation.