Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ]]> vol. 90 num. 1 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses on racetracks in Gauteng, South Africa</b>]]> The incidence and types of catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries in Thoroughbreds that resulted in euthanasia on selected racetracks in South Africa between 1998 and 2012 were investigated by an observational retrospective investigation. Data from the National Horseracing Authority of Southern Africa for these racetracks were used to calculate incidence rates in Thoroughbreds (n = 114) that sustained catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries during racing that required immediate euthanasia, based on the diagnosis made by the on-site veterinarian as well as on fetlock radiographs and dissections of 53 cadaver limbs of horses that sustained a catastrophic musculoskeletal injury. The proximal sesamoid bones and the distal suspensory ligament were involved in 55.26% of horses; 73.58% of the cadaver limb radiographs were of the left forelimb, 64.15% were closed fractures, and 74.47% had biaxial proximal sesamoid bone fractures. Catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries occurred almost exclusively unilaterally and involved mostly the left front leg. The average incidence rate for a catastrophic musculoskeletal injury occurring in a year at any of the tracks was 0.6 of 1000 starts. <![CDATA[<b>A bilateral sinus cyst treated via a bilateral frontonasal bone flap in a standing horse</b>]]> Bilateral paranasal sinus diseases are rarely reported in horses. Treatment using a bilateral frontonasal bone flap on a standing, regular-sized adult horse has not been described previously. A 13-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was evaluated for bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. Radiographic, endoscopic and computed tomographic examinations revealed bilateral sinus pathological changes consistent with an ethmoid haematoma involving the maxillary and frontal sinuses. A bilateral frontonasal bone flap was created under standing sedation and local anaesthesia. A tracheotomy was performed initially to ensure a patent airway during the procedure. Additional analgesia had to be given to transect the dorsal part of the nasal septum while elevating the flap. The sinus masses were removed and communications with the nasal cavities created uneventfully. Small sequestra were removed transendoscopically from the left caudal maxillary sinus 4 weeks after the initial procedure. The horse made a complete recovery with an excellent cosmetic outcome. Histopathology revealed the mass to be a sinus cyst. We concluded that a bilateral sinus bone flap can be used in adult regular-sized horses to access the left and right paranasal sinuses simultaneously. Regional nerve blocks should be performed in order to increase analgesia. A temporary tracheotomy prevents any airway obstruction during the procedure. The post-operative cosmesis is excellent. <![CDATA[<b>Erythrocytosis and fatigue fractures associated with hepatoblastoma in a 3-year-old gelding</b>]]> Hepatoblastoma was diagnosed in a 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding presented with forelimb lameness with bilateral fatigue fractures of the proximal third metacarpal bones. An abdominal mass was detected on ultrasound examination of the abdomen. Absolute erythrocytosis was diagnosed after clinical and haematological evaluation. The fractured metacarpal bones were surgically removed but complications after surgery were fatal. The liver mass was diagnosed as a hepatoblastoma based on histology and immunochemical staining. The combination of hepatoblastoma and fatigue fractures has not been described previously in horses. A potential link between the hepatic and orthopaedic pathologies is hypothesised. <![CDATA[<b>Canine parvovirus detected from a serval (<i>Leptailurus serval</i>) in South Africa</b>]]> Canine parvovirus first emerged in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), most likely as a variant of the feline panleucopaenia virus. Relatively recently, canine parvovirus-2a and canine parvovirus-2b infections have been identified in both symptomatic and asymptomatic domestic cats, while canine parvovirus infections have also been demonstrated in wild felids. This report documents the first known case of canine parvovirus-2b detected in unvaccinated serval (Leptailurus serval) from South Africa. The serval presented with clinical signs of vomiting, anorexia and diarrhoea that responded to symptomatic treatment. Two weeks later, severe leucopaenia, thrombocytopenia and death occurred. Typical enteric histological lesions of parvovirus infection were not observed on histopathological examination of the small intestine; however, histological lesions consistent with septicaemia were present. Canine parvovirus was detected in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded small intestine using polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of the canine parvovirus viral capsid protein gene showed similarities between the sample from the serval and canine parvovirus-2b isolates from domestic dogs in Argentina and South Africa. A case of canine parvovirus-2b in a domestic dog from South Africa in 2012 that fell within the same clade as the serval sample appears distantly related because of the long branch length. The significance of these findings is explored. More extensive surveys of canine parvovirus in domestic and wild felids and canids are needed to understand the epidemiology of canine parvovirus in non-domestic felids in South Africa.