Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1017-049920150001&lang=es vol. 41 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>SHE Online </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Glossolalia: Divine Speech or man-made language? A psychological analysis of the gift of speaking in tongues in the Pentecostal Churches in Botswana</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Glossolalia is a very important element in the life of Pentecostal Churches and is at the centre of their spirituality. This paper examines the gift of speaking in tongues from a psychological perspective in order to And out what psychologists say about this very important gift of the Holy Spirit. The paper begins by looking at the history of speaking in tongues in the Church from the day of Pentecost and how it has become the symbol of God's presence in the life of believers in Pentecostal Churches in Botswana today. The paper interrogates glossolalia on whether it is divine language or human language spoken by people who are emotionally charged. This research was undertaken in order to understand glossolalia better, since it is a contested area not only among Christians but also in other world religions where this phenomenon is widely manifested. The present work shows that while theologians are justified to consider glossolalia as divine language, there are indications that in some instances speaking in tongues can be a result of anxiety and human attempts to prove that the Holy Spirit is truly present in one's spiritual life. This conclusion has been reached especially in cases where it has been found that glossolalia is a learned language. <![CDATA[<b>Partners in crime: Pentecostalism and Botswana HIV/AIDS policy on cross-border migrants</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In this paper I seek to interrogate how the theology of some Pentecostal churches, especially the theology that God heals HIV and AIDS, interacts with the situation of cross-border migrants in Botswana. I also seek to discuss the Botswana HIV policy which denies HIV-positive cross-border migrants access to Anti-Retroviral treatment (henceforth ARVs) which has proven to prolong and improve the quality of life of people living with HIV. Conflict exists between Botswana HIV policy on strict adherence to ARVs and some Pentecostal churches' insistence that members of their churches living with HIV are healed by God, and therefore they should not take ARVs. While the Pentecostal Church is a 'home away from home' for migrants, their theology is in constant conflict and clashes with Botswana HIV health policy, even if the reality is that the same policy denies migrants access to HIV services. It is ironic that both the HIV policy and the Pentecostal theology are in pursuit of preserving life; yet, they both deny cross-border migrants that very life. <![CDATA[<b>Powerless partners: One beggar telling another where to find bread</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The relationship between the 'powerful' Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and the many churches that were planted by the mission work of the DRC has always been and still is a very sensitive matter. This paper will take a historical look at the relationship over the last decade (2004-2014) between the Dutch Reformed Church in Botswana (DRCB) and the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa, especially the Dutch Reformed Church in the Northern Cape (DRCNC). It was during this time that a paradigm shift started developing in the relationship. After some socio-economic changes and 'new' missiological reflection from the DRCNC on their own understanding of mission, the DRCNC took a definite decision to move away from a deed of agreement relation with the DRCB and work towards a partnership relation. After requests from the DRCB regarding theological education, the DRCNC decided to broaden its vision to the church in Botswana and not only the DRCB. This paper wants to look at the process of transformation of a power relation which involves learning, unlearning, relearning and new learning of the different contexts, as well as the understandings and realities of mission, ecclesiology, partnership, tradition, interdependence, theological education and leadership. <![CDATA[<b>Modern/charismatic Pentecostalism as a form of 'religious' secularisation in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper argues that although Pentecostalism seems to be reviving Christianity in Africa, judging by the number of people attracted to this brand of Christianity, there is an extent to which its practices and beliefs are secular. Perhaps it is this 'secularisation' that remains a pull factor of this kind of Christianity. To do so, the paper begins with a brief review of the secularisation theory, reaching a conclusion that secularisation involves people's concern with proximate (this worldly) issues rather than ultimate (post-mortem) issues. With this understanding of secularisation, the paper then discusses beliefs and practices of charismatic Pentecostal churches that this author believes make Pentecostalism a form of 'religious' secularisation. The focus will specifically be on Zimbabwean charismatic Pentecostal leaders' discourses of wealth and health. <![CDATA[<b>The theological dilemma vis-à-vis the moral options for relevant and practical ministry today: Lessons for the Zimbabwe Council of Churches</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es There are many misconceptions about the role of the church in society. This is because the church is neither a political institution nor a social organisation but a mystery of grace. The church can best be defined or understood in terms of its mission or its work. This article will explore the mission and work of the Christian church; specifically the church in Zimbabwe. One cannot talk about the Christian church without reflecting on Jesus Christ's mission. The church is the body of Christ, the true representative of the broken body of Jesus Christ. Paradoxically, while church leaders say that they are concerned about the poor, the downtrodden, the oppressed, they seem not to fight against harmful socioeconomic and political structures that dehumanise many of God's creation. The church, as God's compass to direct humanity for the total good of all creation, should always advocate in favour of peace and social justice. Christian leaders have a moral and social responsibility in their proclamation of the gospel of Jesus Christ in an environment which is characterised by despondency, uncertainty and fear. This paper identifies moments of prophetic resistance to social evil. It is to be noted that such a prophetic dimension is an enduring reality of the life of an authentic church, despite the complex (and at times compromising) relationship between church and state. This article proposes possibilities for a new paradigm shift in Christian ministry with a view toward a rebirth of a socially conscious church within the established platform of Christian ministry. <![CDATA[<b><i>Ecclesia </i></b><b>Ghana: Realising Afro-Catholicism in Ghana</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es What is the essence of the Gospel? Which aspects of the church's ministry are contingent? The story of the Anglican Church in Ghana offers an opportunity to reflect upon these questions. While the history of this colonial church is fraught with ethnocentrism, it also demonstrates a number of ways in which a rich theological tradition can be realised on Ghanaian soil. This essay explores these possibilities with the hope of identifying an authentic Afro-Catholicism. <![CDATA[<b>The role of the Christian Council of Mozambique in the colonial war (1964-1974) and in civil wars (1977-2014): Christians in colonial wars</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Founded in 1948, the Christian Council of Mozambique (Conselho Cristáo de Mozambique - CCM) is an institution which contributed to the Colonial War (1964-1974) and to ending the Civil Wars (1977-1992) (2012-2014). The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs informed the CCM ideals on 'sustainable development'.2 By the latter's evangelisation and teaching, leaders such as Eduardo C. Mondlane were produced for the independence of Mozambique.3 After independence the CCM embarked on facilitated dialogue, bringing peace to a nation torn apart by two belligerent parties, RENAMO4 and FRELIMO.5 In 1984 it created the Commission for Justice, Peace and Reconciliation which attended to the victims of war. This article explores the role of the CCM, its President Bishop Dinis Salomáo Sengulane, and other religious leaders in ending the Civil Wars and implementing peace,6 including within recent history. <![CDATA[<b>Of God's image, violence against women and feminist reflections</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article interrogates what appears to be an inconsistency - the enduring prevalence of Christianity and the surge of gender-based violence (henceforth GBV) in Botswana, particularly as evidenced by murder-suicides. It investigates the possibility of a connection between Christianity and GBV. To search for such a connection, I used a feminist analytical approach to analyse the text of Hosea, Christian/Biblical teachings relating to gender and traditional Setswana socialisation. The book of Hosea, some Biblical teachings and some aspects of Setswana culture separate men and women in dualistic terms, present women as inferior to men, perceive women's sexuality as devious, and prescribe violent control of women. Since this flawed outlook is evident in GBV in Botswana, I was led to investigate a hypothetical connection between GBV and Christian/ Biblical teaching. The article ends with recommendations for a response and for reconstructing a gender-empowering alternative. <![CDATA[<b>Revisiting Mary Daly: Her views on the Trinity, Mariology and the fall as post-Christian myths</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es According to Daly, the church doctrines on the Triune God, Christology, Mariology and the Fall are all myths, originated from, and as a result of, patriarchy. Daly deals with many topics from a woman's viewpoint such as deity, evil, Christology, morality and the church. Daly contends throughout her works that women's power has been stolen from them through the ingrained structures of patriarchy and that women have to reclaim what is theirs. Daly believes that this means the castration of patriarchal language and images that are part of the structures of a sexist world. She sees patriarchy as a world religion and believes that all religions are subjects of patriarchy - living off female energy. Without any doubt, historically women were marginalised: not only in society but also within the church. However with this said, this article will contend that Daly has succumbed to her anger and rage against the patriarchal structures that oppressed her - and other women - placing the blame squarely on God. Daly rejected God as divine omnipotent, divine immutable and divine providence and objected to the fact that God is viewed as being changeless. The wrong ideas of God's existence were a result of androcentric theological teachings and doctrines, and she turned away from the Christian faith altogether. <![CDATA[<b>Youth on the margins as agents of change?</b> <b>The call for the opening of mines in Dullstroom-Emnotweni based on the Freedom Charter (1955)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article is both a celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Freedom Charter (1955) and its problematisation as a sustainable document of liberation. The background to the article is the call by the Unemployed People's Organisation Committee (UPOC) in Dullstroom-Emnotweni to open (coal)mines in the vicinity to provide jobs for the unemployed. The call is supported by a reference in the (unpublished) documentation of UPOC to the Freedom Charter which states that the minerals of the country belong to all its people. The main focus of the article is an interview with Vusi Derrick Mnisi, the secretary of UPOC, who publicly drives the initiative to open (coal)mines around Dullstroom-Emnotweni and deals with the public outcry against the opening of (coal)mines on the grounds of the preservation of the environment, wildlife, tourism and retirement. This interview is juxtaposed by an interview with Dumisane Methula who, in support of Pan-Africanism, rejects the Freedom Charter as being too accommodating of whites in Africa. The interpretation of the interviews is done within the 'four turns' that characterise Narrative Inquiry and distinguish it from other, especially positivistic, forms of research. <![CDATA[<b>Remorse and repentance stripped of its validity. Amnesty granted by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es During the South African amnesty process perpetrators would get amnesty if they could prove that there was a political motive for committing their actions, their deeds were proportionate, that they happened during and between the years 1960 and 1994, and if they gave full disclosure. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the following: the fact that remorse and repentance were not required in order for perpetrators to get amnesty, left the reconciliation process in a vacuum. The inclusion of remorse and repentance as a requirement for amnesty, would have established a true (not a cheap) forgiveness and a 'thick' reconciliation process between perpetrators and victims. Remorse and repentance would have requested an admission and regret of wrongdoing, followed by an act of repentance underwritten by acts of contrition. <![CDATA[<b>The significance of Karl Barth's theology for the Belhar Confession: An analysis of theology of German origin in South Africa during the apartheid epoch</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Academic theology in South Africa was influenced extensively by theology of German origin. This article probes the relationship between theologies that originated in Europe. While there are many perspectives that could be cited to credit apartheid theology for having originated in Europe and in Germany in particular, this article confines itself to a theological influence which challenged apartheid as a sin and a heresy. It looks especially at the influence of the Swiss theologian Karl Barth, who at the time of his critical theological contribution was doing his theology in Germany. The article then refers to the influence of Barmen theology in the origin of the Belhar Confession. A few current challenges are also laid out to conclude. <![CDATA[<b>Hymnal record of a missionary structure at Thabantšho (Gerlachshoop) of the Bakopa of Kgošhi Boleu</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This research sets out to answer a problem involving whether or not the first church was established across the Vaal River in the 1860s at Gerlachshoop (Maleoskop). An incidental And of an unknown publication may corroborate an answer to the problem. Anecdotal notes in a hymnal songbook record the first inauguration of a bell of one of the earliest Berlin Missionaries north of the Vaal River. This may clarify the location within the landscape and whether the structure of a church at Gerlachshoop or Thabantsho was erected, as opposed to being a deception or a historical figment of imagination by a subsequent director of the Berlin Missionary Society. The national heritage value of such rare early documentation of European/African literature and the built environment is of great significance and serves as one of the earliest records of German translations into the Sekopa language almost 150 years ago, with several early hymns set to musical notation, that marked the occasion when the actual Sekopa hymns were sung at the event of the inauguration of an early church and its bell. <![CDATA[<b>Francis Akanu Ibiam (1906-1995): A leader who had a mission beyond ecclesia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Sir Francis Akanu Ibiam KCMG, KBE (1906-1995) was a distinguished medical missionary who was appointed Governor of Eastern Region, Nigeria from December 1960 until January 1966 during the Nigerian First Republic. From 1919 to 1951 he was known as Francis Ibiam, and from 1951 to 1967 as Sir Francis Ibiam. This article explores his profile; the profile of a man whose contribution as a medical doctor, a missionary doctor, an educationist, a statesman and a churchman is outstanding, hence inspiring to the new crop of leadership in Africa of the 21st century. Was he too emotional when conducting his political discourses? Did he make the right choices all along? Does his role in the Biafra War of 1967 with the government of Nigeria smack of his main weakness as a public servant? nevertheless, he comes out in this article as one of the early pre-colonial professionals in Africa who had received a quality education during the dark days of African history, who had worked hard to remain relevant in their days; and who are indeed relevant in the 21st century. In Francis Ibiam, the article shows a decisive leader who chose to work for the church rather than the colonial government, thereby making a strong statement that the church can be developed into an alternative forum of progress, a kind of alternative government where the deprived can still find justice, a job and other lifetime comforts. Despite the article being greatly indebted to Agwu Kalu's book, Dr Ibiam: The challenge of his life (1986), it has also derived materials from the internet and other published works. Certainly, it is geared towards celebrating a leader who had a mission beyond ecclesia. <![CDATA[<b>Book Reviews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992015000100016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Sir Francis Akanu Ibiam KCMG, KBE (1906-1995) was a distinguished medical missionary who was appointed Governor of Eastern Region, Nigeria from December 1960 until January 1966 during the Nigerian First Republic. From 1919 to 1951 he was known as Francis Ibiam, and from 1951 to 1967 as Sir Francis Ibiam. This article explores his profile; the profile of a man whose contribution as a medical doctor, a missionary doctor, an educationist, a statesman and a churchman is outstanding, hence inspiring to the new crop of leadership in Africa of the 21st century. Was he too emotional when conducting his political discourses? Did he make the right choices all along? Does his role in the Biafra War of 1967 with the government of Nigeria smack of his main weakness as a public servant? nevertheless, he comes out in this article as one of the early pre-colonial professionals in Africa who had received a quality education during the dark days of African history, who had worked hard to remain relevant in their days; and who are indeed relevant in the 21st century. In Francis Ibiam, the article shows a decisive leader who chose to work for the church rather than the colonial government, thereby making a strong statement that the church can be developed into an alternative forum of progress, a kind of alternative government where the deprived can still find justice, a job and other lifetime comforts. Despite the article being greatly indebted to Agwu Kalu's book, Dr Ibiam: The challenge of his life (1986), it has also derived materials from the internet and other published works. Certainly, it is geared towards celebrating a leader who had a mission beyond ecclesia.