Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1017-049920140002&lang=pt vol. 40 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b><i>Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae</i></b><b> <i>is 40 years old!</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b><i>A time of transition: Theological trends in the issues of Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae from 1997-2004</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article evaluates the theological and church historical trends in the issues of Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae (SHE) in the period 1997-2004. The central theoretical argument of this investigation is that this period in the history of SHE is telling of a growing interest in ecumenical research. This is evident from different investigations into African Christian traditions that had not received any attention before. There are inquiries into African spirituality and the interaction between church history and social history. Added to this there are important contributions from individuals. Moreover, the issues of SHE during this period bear witness to a transition from a traditional modernist approach to history writing to a description of church history "from below". There was a broadening in historiography so that the role of human experience, narratives, oral transmissions and spiritualities came under discussion alongside traditional sources. This development enriched the study of Christianity in Africa. The transition can be positively appraised if the established methods, sources for church historical research and fields of investigation are not set aside completely. <![CDATA[<b><i>Celebrating 40 years of the</i></b><b> <i>Church History Society of Southern Africa</i> <i>in 2010, and 40 years of the journal</i> <i>Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae</i> <i>in 2014</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article, in celebrating the 40-year existence of the Church History Society of Southern Africa (CHSSA) in 2010 and its journal Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae (SHE) in 2014, the focus is on the question whether both of them have developed positively during this time, and especially since 1991. After an introduction, attention is given to some of the major developments in the society between 1992 and 2010, such as the reorganisation of the society into a more inclusive and representative organisation, its conferences, and some of the major tendencies in the history of the CHSSA in the period since 1992. Then the society's journal, Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae (SHE), is examined and its academic acceptability is ascertained. Next some perspectives on the road ahead are provided. It is finally concluded from an involved insider perspective, and therefore not providing an official audit of the society, that both the society and its journal SHEhave grown towards some level of maturity and that the prospects for the future are relatively positive. <![CDATA[<b><i>Gabriel Molehe Setiloane: His intellectual legacy</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Gabriel Molehe Setiloane remains a pillar in terms of challenging and engaging with the Western theological discourse on the structure and function of divinity. Most of his dialogues in his publications pushed for the importance of African theological discourse. Some of the sensitive, but also critical expressions Setiloane made, include statements such as, Motho ke Modimo (a human being is God/divine). The author has been fortunate to engage with Setiloane on ideas of African theology as a contribution to the current African religion scholarship. According to Setiloane, there is a need to have a comprehensive understanding of divinity in African theology that encompasses all - all the living and the dead. This article aims to discuss some theological briefs and developments of his ideas on African theology in celebrating his outstanding intellectual legacy. Setiloane's voice has been side-lined by the past and current (South) African theological systems and structures. <![CDATA[<b><i>The life and times of Professor Mary-Anne Plaatjies van Huffel: A transformative church leader in sub-Saharan Africa</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article is an overview of the life and times of Professor Mary-Anne Plaatjies Van Huffel, an ordained minister in the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa. She is currently professor in Systematic Theology and Church Polity at the University of Stellenbosch, and co-minister of URCSA in Scottsdene, Kraaifontein in the Western Cape. She is the current moderator of the General Synod of URCSA, and the vice-president of the World Council of Churches. This article is an appraisal of a remarkable church leader and theologian in recent times. This appraisal focuses on her pioneering work in URCSA, the Faculty of Theology at Stellenbosch University, and her work as a feminist theologian in South Africa, the African continent and the ecumenical world at large. The significance of Professor Plaatjies Van Huffel is not only rooted in her leadership positions, the many theological publications, or her lecturing status, but can be found in her active participation in processes to transform society. The information in this article is based on interviews, published articles, books and media sources. <![CDATA[<b><i>The remarkable career of Christina Landman, pioneer feminist theologian rooted in the reformed tradition</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article celebrates the contribution of Christina Landman as a noted scholar and church leader. Landman's exemplary career and contributions as an acclaimed church historian, theologian, writer, lecture specialising in the area of gender and church leader will serve as a continuous source of inspiration for generations to come. Her contributions have had a substantial impact on both the church and society in South Africa. Firstly, an overview of her academic history will be given. Then, attention will be given to Landman's service on numerous boards and committees. Finally, the projects spearheaded by Landman at the Research Institute for Theology and Religion will be highlighted. In an attempt to find a unified theme around which to organise her contribution, the following was chosen: gender, healing, oral history, and her engagement as a local pastor and in church polity (not because these represent the full spectrum of Landman's work, but because they represent some of the key insights of her approach to doing theology). <![CDATA[<b><i>Mandela and the Methodists: Faith, fallacy and fact</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The death of Nelson Mandela has once again focused the spotlight on his religious convictions and faith affiliation. Numerous academics, journalists, and interested members of faith communities have asked what Mr Mandela's faith perspective was. It is clear that faith played a part in his life and this was evidenced in the events surrounding his death and funeral. Faith leaders, and in particular Christian leaders (such as Bishop Ivan Abrahams, Bishop Zipho Siwa, Archbishop Thabo Makgoba and Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu), featured prominently in the public and private events surroundding Mr Mandela's death, memorial service and funeral. Numerous media sources reported that the Mandela family, and Nelson Mandela in particular, were members of the Methodist Church of Southern Africa. The Chaplain General of the African National Congress is an ordained minister of the Methodist Church of Southern Africa, which also played some part in the role accorded to the Methodist Church of Southern Africa in the public and private moments of ministry surrounding Mr Mandela's death. This article considers Nelson Mandela's faith biography in order to answer the following questions: Was Nelson Mandela a member of the Methodist Church of Southern Africa? What was his relationship to the church and the Christian faith? What lessons can we learn from this for the relationship between the church and the state in South Africa? <![CDATA[<b><i>The leadership of the Methodist Church of Southern Africa during the 1980s and 90s: The transition from apartheid to the democratic era in South Africa</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article will focus mainly on the history of black leadership of the Methodist Church of Southern Africa ('the Methodist Church') during the 1980s and 90s, a time when South Africa was experiencing a deep political crisis. The Methodist Church had become independent of its British parent institution in 1882, and the 100th anniversary of this event was due to be celebrated during the early 1980s. Opposition to the system of apartheid was growing during that period in the country's history, and the leadership of the Methodist Church found itself challenged to oppose apartheid. As a result, the church participated in an ecumenical movement that challenged the policies and, to some extent, the legitimacy of government of the time. Participation in the ecumenical movement forced many leaders of other institutions to take a stand either against or in favour of apartheid. As part of this discussion, this article reviews the involvement of five figures in the Methodist Church: Simon Gqubule, Khoza Mgojo, Ernest Baartman (known as "The Black Moses"), Stanley Mogoba and Mvume Dandala. It also reviews developments within the organisation that saw the election of its first presiding bishop. <![CDATA[<b><i>A historical survey of a failed medical venture? The attempts of the London Missionary Society (LMS) to establish a mission hospital in Sefhare 1934-1952</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Using primary sources from the Botswana National Archives (BNARS) as well as secondary material, this article argues that the efforts to establish mission hospitals in Africa in general and in Sefhare in the Batswapong district of Botswana in particular were designed to provide the much-needed medical services in mission areas of operation as exemplified by the Batswapong area. Secondly, the article argues that mission endeavours to achieve such noble goals were not without challenges and that, often, such good intentions failed to produce the intended results. Thirdly, the article argues that the establishment of the Sefhare Mission Hospital was a way of competing with other mission bodies in the country so that the London Missionary Society (LMS) should not be misconstrued as being passive in the provision of medical services. Lastly, the article argues that the LMS's failed venture to achieve its goal of a successful mission hospital was on account of unsound financial capabilities and that it was trying, as it were, to live beyond its means in order to stay in the competition with other mission bodies. <![CDATA[<b><i>The growth of Pentecostalism and Christian umbrella organisations in Botswana</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The article discusses the growth of Pentecostalism in Botswana and its role in the formation of inter- and intra-ecumenicat bodies. Its role in the promotion of unity, dialogue and cooperation in the development of society and in the Pentecostal churches, other churches and other religious faiths is also highlighted. The article shows that this development has taken place over time and continues to manifest itself at various stages and in various settings, and that it continues to respond to new challenges posed by globalisation and the technological advances of the 21st century. <![CDATA[<b><i>One legacy of Landtnarkism: Its impact on racial struggles in the Southern Baptist Convention</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The American Civil War precipitated by the slavery question did little to change the attitudes of many of the southerners defeated in that struggle. This fact became clear in the civil rights battles of the mid-twentieth century. One of the new denominations that arose because of irresolvable differences over the slavery question preceding the War was the Southern Baptist Convention. A critical factor in shaping the practice and beliefs of the Convention was Landmarkism, a highly sectarian, exclusivist view of the Baptist Church and its history. Landmark adherents played a critical role in promoting slavery and fostering demeaning views of the Negroes freed from bondage after the War. The impact of Landmarkism in shaping these views has not been widely documented and their vituperative rhetoric published for decades has been treated as of little consequence in shaping Southern Baptist practice or attitudes. Such, however, is not the case. <![CDATA[<b><i>The Black Church and family empowerment in South Africa</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The theme of this article came out of curiosity to trace the continuity of purpose of the liberation struggle against apartheid after 1994. The Black Churches have played a supportive role in the liberation struggle, and it is time to find out what strategies are in place to guide them after liberation from apartheid in South Africa. The new agenda for the Black Church and the black families in South Africa should now be at the top of the programme to improve the Black peoples lives. The struggle in the post-apartheid era needs to be evaluated from the perspective of those who were directly involved in opposing apartheid. The black denominations and families had to play a crucial role in addressing poverty, joblessness and crime in the urban areas. As a result the role of the Black Churches in South Africa is to pledge support for peace and stability in the black townships. Are there any organised programmes to lead the members of the Black Churches into the post-apartheid era in South Africa? This article aims to find answers to this question. The observation method is ideal for this discussion and allows a review of the Black Churches and the role of their communities, especially from the family's perspective. <![CDATA[<b><i>Botho/Ubuntu:</i></b><b> <i>Perspectives of Black Consciousness and Black Theology</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Botho/ubuntu is a philosophy that is as old as humanity itself. In Africa and South Africa it was a philosophy and a way of life for many indigenous tribal groups. It is an African cultural belief that called on individuals to come together and to be more communal in their outlook and, thus, to look out for each other. Although the botho or ubuntu concept became popularised only after the dawn of democracy in South Africa, the concept itself has been lived out by Africans for over millennia. Colonialism, slavery and apartheid introduced materialism and individualism to local populations, which denigrated black identity and imposed on their dignity. The Black Consciousness movement and Black Theology have worked hand in hand since the middle of the 1960s to restore the human dignity of black people in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b><i>Re-imagining African Reformed Praxis in theological education: A Missiological dialogue with the Northern Theological Seminary (NTS)</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In 2008, in the aftermath of a devastating explosion of violence against "foreigners" in the "New South Africa", as missiologists, we started research on the responses of churches to this violence, in particular the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA). This research was embedded in the broader question of how our emerging missionary theologies from Africa colluded to entrench exclusivist social identities to contribute to this crisis. Some of our work was published in Theologia Viatorum (Journal of Theology and Religion in Africa) and Missionalia (Southern African Journal of Missiology) in 2009-2011. In this ongoing project, in a context of accelerated migration In a post-colonial Southern Africa, we reflect on how colonial identities from the metropolitan centres continue to shape the responses from church and theological education centres, specifically in Southern Africa. We tentatively and critically suggest signs of hope. In this contribution we revisit the notion of "African Reformed Praxis" by the Northern Theological Seminary of the URCSA as a key contribution towards re-imagining post-colonial social identities beyond that of the black African other as a basis for a Southern African missionary identity and theological education. Our perspectives are informed by an ongoing reflection on the legacy and continued relevance of a particular emerging missionary theology from Africa, ie the South African Black Theology in a post-colonial context. <![CDATA[<b><i>Servant leadership: A required leadership model for efficient and effective service delivery in a democratic South Africa</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article describes servant leadership and its value, especially in the quest to improve service delivery in our fledgling democracy. It argues that the country needs servant leaders who are guided by the following seven principles, which propose that a leader should (1) demonstrate agape love, (2) act with humility, (3) be altruistic, (4) be a visionary for their followers, (5) be trusting, (6) empower their followers and (7) serve, it further argues that Black Theology, with its demand for active participation in the liberation of the oppressed, and the ubuntu philosophy, with its central values of solidarity, interdependence and especially love, can inspire and facilitate the adoption and application of these principles by political leaders to provide efficient and effective service delivery. The article concludes by recommending collaboration between Black Theology and the ubuntu philosophy in order to inspire servant leadership to achieve efficient and effective service delivery that would ensure a better life for all. It also recommends collaboration between various stakeholders to ensure practical service delivery. <![CDATA[<b><i>The vhusadzi theology of ministry</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Culture and religion have both a healthy and an unhealthy effect on the leadership development of women in Africa, in particular, the Vhavenda women. The position of women in the church today is influenced by perceptions which people hold, either from a religious or cultural perspective. Male dominated leadership in the church continues to remain unchallenged because the Bible is used to support and entrench the system of patriarchy. The reasons that are given to subordinate women in the church are not very different from those given in societies and structures outside the church - and these reasons are invariably based on culture and/or religion. The article describes the tenets of the vhusadzi theology as the basis of women's leadership roles in ministry. The article focuses on the deconstruction of cultural and religious discourses that hold the church and women captive in subordinate and non-leadership roles and the shifting of these discourses to healthy church practices and policies under the guidance of the vhusadzi theology. <![CDATA[<b><i>The culturally gendered pastoral care model of women caring for refugee girls in a context of HIV/AIDS</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The objective of this article is to investigate how women caregivers who look after Unaccompanied Refugee Minor (URM) girls in a context of HIV/AIDS, understand their pastoral care practice. Though women are traditionally understood as the caregivers in society, their views with regard to how they understand and give meaning to care-giving are not heard. When their views are sought, their views can oppose generally accepted ideas of what counts as "oppressive". For the purposes of this article, empirical research was undertaken at the Methodist Community Centre in Soweto with caregivers there who provide care for URM girls from Zimbabwe. This is a qualitative study, with a grounded theory approach. The purpose is to investigate the understanding members of these women caregivers have of the pastoral care they provide to the URM girls. The results of the empirical study are evaluated through the lenses of African women's theology and Margret Mead's Cultural Adolescent Development Theory. The study finds that the members of this group of women assume that the proper implementation of cultural-gendered practices can be effective in guiding and conducive to the well-being of the girls in their care. For these women, the extension of care is culturally gendered and feminised. Their notions of effective pastoral care can seem to perpetuate attitudes that feminist thought generally regards as oppressive to women. <![CDATA[<b><i>The liberation potential of the Shona culture and the Gospel: A post-feminist perspective</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The basic presupposition is that the original God-human-cosmos mutual interconnectedness or interrelationship is tarnished and distorted by evil in all its manifestations; that culture and the Gospel have seeds for restoring this intricate plexus of relationships impinging on humanity's creation and baptismal dignity of the imago Dei/Christi, the integrity of creation, and the baptismal vocation of sharing in the mission of Christ ad gentes (to the nations, cf. Mk 15:16). Challenges and contributions of liberation theology, in general, and feminist, eco-feminist and post-feminist perspectives, in particular, are critically examined in the backdrop of the Shona culture-Gospel creative dialogue. The spotlight is on the quest for a liberating, holistic, inclusive and responsible theanthropocosmic (theos/thea [God/ess - anthropos [humankind] - cosmos/world) theology sensitive to the signs of the times. Theological methodology highlights the mutual influencing of enculturation, evangelisation and incarnation. <![CDATA[<b><i>The ethical demise of the political policy of affirmative action as a motive for enhancing women and education in South Africa: A double setback of a reverse strategy</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article, the author questions whether the South African government is deceiving itself by parading an ultraliberal Constitution while failing to implement gender equality in education, society and the church. She explores the political policy of affirmative action as it pertains to rectifying the educational and gender inequalities of the past. Regrettably, since 1994, new discriminatory practices have emerged in the form of increasing gender violence, xenophobia, homophobia, corruption, fraudulent leadership, abuse of freedom and new expressions of exclusivity. This leads the author to question whether the provisions for affirmative action and gender equality in education and employment are nothing more than a political smoke screen, since instead of levelling the playing field, these provisions appear to have had the opposite effect. Consequently, the author examines whether the provision for gender equality in education actually poses a threat to the long-established cultural and social traditions that regard men as the dominant force in both public and private domains. <![CDATA[<b>Book reviews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article, the author questions whether the South African government is deceiving itself by parading an ultraliberal Constitution while failing to implement gender equality in education, society and the church. She explores the political policy of affirmative action as it pertains to rectifying the educational and gender inequalities of the past. Regrettably, since 1994, new discriminatory practices have emerged in the form of increasing gender violence, xenophobia, homophobia, corruption, fraudulent leadership, abuse of freedom and new expressions of exclusivity. This leads the author to question whether the provisions for affirmative action and gender equality in education and employment are nothing more than a political smoke screen, since instead of levelling the playing field, these provisions appear to have had the opposite effect. Consequently, the author examines whether the provision for gender equality in education actually poses a threat to the long-established cultural and social traditions that regard men as the dominant force in both public and private domains. <![CDATA[<b>Boeknotas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992014000200021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article, the author questions whether the South African government is deceiving itself by parading an ultraliberal Constitution while failing to implement gender equality in education, society and the church. She explores the political policy of affirmative action as it pertains to rectifying the educational and gender inequalities of the past. Regrettably, since 1994, new discriminatory practices have emerged in the form of increasing gender violence, xenophobia, homophobia, corruption, fraudulent leadership, abuse of freedom and new expressions of exclusivity. This leads the author to question whether the provisions for affirmative action and gender equality in education and employment are nothing more than a political smoke screen, since instead of levelling the playing field, these provisions appear to have had the opposite effect. Consequently, the author examines whether the provision for gender equality in education actually poses a threat to the long-established cultural and social traditions that regard men as the dominant force in both public and private domains.