Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1017-049920190001&lang=es vol. 45 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>A remarkable woman in African Independent Churches: Examining Christina Nku's leadership in St John's Apostolic Faith Mission</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The name African Independent Churches (AICs) refers to churches that have been independently started in Africa by Africans and not by missionaries from another continent. There has been extensive research on (AICs) from different subjects in the past. There is, however, a research gap on the subject of leadership in the AICs, especially with reference to women leaders. To address this gap, this article discusses leadership in the AICs with special reference to the leadership of Christina Nku in St John's Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM). A historical examination of Christina Nku's leadership is studied by looking at her roles as a family woman, prophet, church founder, faith healer and educator in St John's AFM. The aim of this article is twofold. First it is to reflect on gender in the leadership of the AICs. Second it is to apply the framework of leadership in the AICs to Christina Nku's leadership in St John's AFM. Consequently, the article is an interface between gender and leadership in an African context. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that Christina Nku was a remarkable woman in the leadership of the AICs. <![CDATA[<b>Theological impediments to inculturation of the Eucharistic symbols in the Anglican Church of Kenya</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Inculturation of the Eucharistic symbols has been highly advocated in the mission-based churches located in the global South. In spite of this discourse being so fundamental for the expansion of Christian faith in any ecclesiastical context, there are emerging issues silencing this clamour. It is against this background that this article is set in order to explore the theological impediments to inculturation of the Eucharistic symbols in the Anglican Church of Kenya (ACK), with special reference to the diocese of Thika. <![CDATA[<b>Sankofa—the need to turn back to move forward: Addressing reconstruction challenges that face Africa and South Africa today</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Sankofa, a mythical African bird that moves forward while its head is turned backward toward a golden egg on its back, inspires the considerations of this article. The egg here represents a treasure in the form of historical wisdom. This article suggests that Africans have to rediscover and reclaim historical wisdom to address contemporary problems and challenges. It addresses the tension between universalism and particularism that continues to move Africanism to Westernism: a process that is regarded as undermining the soul of the continent. Knowledge of the past provides the potential to repossess what it means to be human in Africa. Since re-memory captures the emotional memory, it serves as a dynamic source for spiritual recovery, healing and reconciliation. To build a collective historical memory of historical wisdom; therein lies the necessary illumination. This article realises that the wisdom of history and tradition possesses the ability to redefine and reconstruct social and religious problems from within the frame of memory. It endeavours to show that a Sankofa connection with the African past provides sustenance for understanding and embodying the present and the future. <![CDATA[<b>The Dutch Reformed Church, mission enthusiasts and push and pull of empire</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The various ways in which the British Empire acted as both a beacon and a repellent for Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) mission enthusiasts in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, are considered here. Focusing especially on Andrew Murray Jr, D.F. Malan and J.G. Strydom, but also with references to Johannes du Plessis and G.B.A. Gerdener, among others, the article illustrates the evolution of Afrikaner attitudes to Empire in this period. The Empire in question is primarily the British Empire, but this paper will make the case that the developing Afrikaner nationalism, in which some of these mission enthusiasts played leading roles, in some ways appropriated imperial aspirations, while simultaneously disavowing Empire in public discourse. The wider and more general relevance of this paper is that it sheds light on the allure of power, and how a minority in opposition to power might become contaminated, even captured, by that very power it seeks to oppose. <![CDATA[<b>The relevance of singing the <i>Te Deum Laudamus </i>in the postmodern era</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper investigates the relevance of singing and performing the Te Deum Laudamus in the postmodern Christian era, especially in view of changing enactments and perceptions of the purpose of the hymn. The Te Deum has been used in various ways in church history, sung as a confession of praise and regularly used since the time of St Benedict during Matins (morning service). While the Reformers were critical of the late medieval worship, they did not query incorporating the Te Deum into their liturgies, because it brought meaning to the glorification of a benevolent God. This explains its use also by most Christian churches in their liturgies in the postmodern era. However, the pertinent question remains: Is the Te Deum still applicable to the postmodern church, which is characterised by secularism, charismatic sermons, and commercialised worship. The question is instigated by events and conceptions of the universe from the era of Gregorianism to Darwinism. In answering this question, the paper highlights the history of the Te Deum and its application within the church, and seeks to find out whether the hymn addresses the present needs of Christians, which have been affected by postmodernism. The paper contends that the Te Deum is still relevant and contributes to the glorification of God's mission (missio Dei). <![CDATA[<b><i>Ja, vir God, Nee vir die Kerk? </i>Kobus Kok</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper investigates the relevance of singing and performing the Te Deum Laudamus in the postmodern Christian era, especially in view of changing enactments and perceptions of the purpose of the hymn. The Te Deum has been used in various ways in church history, sung as a confession of praise and regularly used since the time of St Benedict during Matins (morning service). While the Reformers were critical of the late medieval worship, they did not query incorporating the Te Deum into their liturgies, because it brought meaning to the glorification of a benevolent God. This explains its use also by most Christian churches in their liturgies in the postmodern era. However, the pertinent question remains: Is the Te Deum still applicable to the postmodern church, which is characterised by secularism, charismatic sermons, and commercialised worship. The question is instigated by events and conceptions of the universe from the era of Gregorianism to Darwinism. In answering this question, the paper highlights the history of the Te Deum and its application within the church, and seeks to find out whether the hymn addresses the present needs of Christians, which have been affected by postmodernism. The paper contends that the Te Deum is still relevant and contributes to the glorification of God's mission (missio Dei). <![CDATA[<b><i>Die Opkoms en Ondergang van die NG Kerk, </i>deur Jean Oosthuizen</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper investigates the relevance of singing and performing the Te Deum Laudamus in the postmodern Christian era, especially in view of changing enactments and perceptions of the purpose of the hymn. The Te Deum has been used in various ways in church history, sung as a confession of praise and regularly used since the time of St Benedict during Matins (morning service). While the Reformers were critical of the late medieval worship, they did not query incorporating the Te Deum into their liturgies, because it brought meaning to the glorification of a benevolent God. This explains its use also by most Christian churches in their liturgies in the postmodern era. However, the pertinent question remains: Is the Te Deum still applicable to the postmodern church, which is characterised by secularism, charismatic sermons, and commercialised worship. The question is instigated by events and conceptions of the universe from the era of Gregorianism to Darwinism. In answering this question, the paper highlights the history of the Te Deum and its application within the church, and seeks to find out whether the hymn addresses the present needs of Christians, which have been affected by postmodernism. The paper contends that the Te Deum is still relevant and contributes to the glorification of God's mission (missio Dei). <![CDATA[<b><i>A History of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in South Africa, 1875-2015,</i> by Halala P, Khosa MW, Makaana J, Masangu HD, Nwamilorho J, and Tshwane J</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper investigates the relevance of singing and performing the Te Deum Laudamus in the postmodern Christian era, especially in view of changing enactments and perceptions of the purpose of the hymn. The Te Deum has been used in various ways in church history, sung as a confession of praise and regularly used since the time of St Benedict during Matins (morning service). While the Reformers were critical of the late medieval worship, they did not query incorporating the Te Deum into their liturgies, because it brought meaning to the glorification of a benevolent God. This explains its use also by most Christian churches in their liturgies in the postmodern era. However, the pertinent question remains: Is the Te Deum still applicable to the postmodern church, which is characterised by secularism, charismatic sermons, and commercialised worship. The question is instigated by events and conceptions of the universe from the era of Gregorianism to Darwinism. In answering this question, the paper highlights the history of the Te Deum and its application within the church, and seeks to find out whether the hymn addresses the present needs of Christians, which have been affected by postmodernism. The paper contends that the Te Deum is still relevant and contributes to the glorification of God's mission (missio Dei). <![CDATA[<b>Between worlds: German missionaries and the transition from mission to Bantu education in South Africa<i>, </i>by L Chisolm</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper investigates the relevance of singing and performing the Te Deum Laudamus in the postmodern Christian era, especially in view of changing enactments and perceptions of the purpose of the hymn. The Te Deum has been used in various ways in church history, sung as a confession of praise and regularly used since the time of St Benedict during Matins (morning service). While the Reformers were critical of the late medieval worship, they did not query incorporating the Te Deum into their liturgies, because it brought meaning to the glorification of a benevolent God. This explains its use also by most Christian churches in their liturgies in the postmodern era. However, the pertinent question remains: Is the Te Deum still applicable to the postmodern church, which is characterised by secularism, charismatic sermons, and commercialised worship. The question is instigated by events and conceptions of the universe from the era of Gregorianism to Darwinism. In answering this question, the paper highlights the history of the Te Deum and its application within the church, and seeks to find out whether the hymn addresses the present needs of Christians, which have been affected by postmodernism. The paper contends that the Te Deum is still relevant and contributes to the glorification of God's mission (missio Dei). <![CDATA[<b>Memories of Gukurahundi massacre and the challenge of reconciliation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es When Zimbabwe attained her independence from colonial powers in 1980, prospects of a peaceful nation were high, especially following the pledge made by the Prime Minister Elect in his victory speech. Isaiah 2:4b was quoted as a metaphor of peace, but things did not turn out as expected in the following years. The vicious cycle of violence that was inherited from the colonial legacy continued and the worse phase of that cycle was the Midlands and Matabeleland crisis, commonly known as Gukurahundi. Approximately 20 000 people died in the state-sanctioned violence (genocide). Using Cue-Dependent Forgetting Theory, this paper critically appraises possible reasons why the promised bliss through reconciliation did not materialise. Among the reasons cited in this paper are the lack of a serious Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and also the phenomenon of amnesia as the major contributory factors to this cycle of violence. <![CDATA[<b>Violence begets violence: Anticolonial mobilisation of ressentiment in 19th Century Borneo</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The sudden and violent uprising marking the start of the "Banjarmasin War" in south-central Borneo in 1859 caught the German Rhenish Mission Society (RMS) by surprise. A well-coordinated attack by indigenous Dayaks and prominent Muslim figures led to the brutal massacre of nine people associated with the RMS. In a matter of days, the mission work of 23 years was destroyed. In all, violence was directed at Dutch colonial forces, German missionaries, and Christian Dayaks alike. The coastal city of Banjarmasin, seat of Dutch imperialism, became the last refuge for survivors. Some blamed the RMS for the uprising, arguing that the conversion zeal of the missionaries had provoked an anti-Christian jihad. The RMS retorted that Muslims, conspiring to overthrow the Dutch, had incited indigenous Dayaks to what amounted to an anti-imperialist uprising. Recently, scholars have argued that the interference of Dutch imperialism in local politics was to blame for the uprising, and that the Dayaks were unable to distinguish between Dutch and German foreigners. This paper examines the contribution of Dutch colonial policy to the uprising, particularly its restriction of Islamic religious practices, as well as forms of cooperation between the Dutch and the RMS. Primary sources provide evidence of prolonged and severe RMS brutality against Dayaks in the decade before the war. This leads to the conclusion that the initial violence of the Banjarmasin War directed at RMS persons was no coincidence. Sufficient warrant exists to argue that this was not a matter of mistaken identity, but of reasoned calculation. <![CDATA[<b>The ecumenical struggle in South Africa: The role of ecumenical movements and liberation organisations from 1966</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In contemporary South Africa, it would be true to say that there is no longer any urgency with regard to organic union as an aim of ecumenism. This marks a significant reversal of the pre-1994 situation where political and other motives stimulated the impulse. This is not only a local situation, for ecumenism has taken on a different character globally. Former alignments have weakened, and emerging alignments challenge former assumptions regarding ecumenism-and are no less political than formerly within the Pentecostal bloc, which has ousted the SACC from its former place of privilege in the government's affections. This is not to say that nothing has been happening on the ecumenical scene. There has been significant activity which is ongoing and offers hope for the future of cooperation. This article includes material up to the present and explores these recent activities of the twenty-first century. <![CDATA[<b>John de Gruchy's understanding of the kingdom of God as articulated in "The Church Struggle in South Africa"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In 2019, John W. de Gruchy turns 80 and it will be 40 years after his influential The Church Struggle in South Africa was published. This contribution reflects on the last chapter of De Gruchy's book, titled The Kingdom of God in South Africa. In this chapter, De Gruchy engages with well-known theologians such as Niebuhr, Bonino, Barth, Bonhoeffer, Pannenberg and Moltmann. He enters into conversation with liberation theologians from South America and Africa. His interpretation of the kingdom of God within the context of South Africa, with all its socio-political challenges, became a seminal text in the theological critique of apartheid. De Gruchy concludes with a "theology of hope" with reference to Bonhoeffer's letters from prison in which he reflects on Christian hope. <![CDATA[<b>The evangelicalisation of black Pentecostalism in the AFM of SA (1940—1975): A turning point</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM) of South Africa, a Pentecostal denomination founded in 1908 by an American missionary, John G Lake, attracted a large following of blacks in South Africa from its inception. This denomination contributed a large body of Zionist churches to the African Independent Church movement. Among its black members before and during the 1940s, it was Zionist-like-only undergoing changes between 1943 and 1975 resulting in it becoming outright evangelical. This was a turning point in the history of the AFM and black Pentecostals specifically, as it brought this large body of followers culturally closer to the dominant evangelical expression of Pentecostalism in the denomination. This article looks into reasons behind the changes as well as how they were carried out. Primary sources, available at the AFM archives, and secondary sources such as theses, articles and books with a bearing on the topic have been consulted. The article contributes to the growing body of South African Pentecostal history. <![CDATA[<b>Rhijnvis Feith and Melancholic Hymnody in the Voortrekker Woman Susanna Smit's Spiritual Diaries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Dutch Evangelical hymnbook, introduced in the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederlandsch Hervormde Kerk) in 1807, contained 192 religious songs authored by poets from diverse religious backgrounds. The themes of these hymns covered a wide spectrum: meditations on the attributes of God, faith, trust in God's omnipotence, prayer, death, and the Christian's life with Christ. Hymn writers from a broad spectrum of religious persuasions-like Christian Gellert (1715-1769), Friedrich Klopstock (1724-1803), Georg Neumark (1621-1681), Jodocus van Lodenstein (1620-1677) and Isaac Watts (16741748)-contributed directly or indirectly towards the hymnbook. The hymnbook drew criticism from Reformed circles as deviating from the scriptural truths, subverting the Reformed faith, propagating salvation through human endeavour and reflecting Enlightenment values in opposition to the orthodox Reformed faith. Furthermore, it was criticised for being sentimentalist and promoting earthly love, peace and patience based on humanist principles. Throughout the nineteenth century, Reformed authors, the likes of Hendrik de Cock, Dirk Postma, Pierre Dammes Marie Huet and S.J. du Toit, objected to Feith's hymns as hymnody deviating from the Reformed conviction. In spite of such criticism, Feith's hymns remained popular in Reformed circles. In addition, the Voortrekker woman, Susanna Smit, found Feith's hymns inspiring under dire circumstances and trials on the South African frontier. In spite of her formal commitment to the Reformed faith, Susanna relied heavily on the spiritual strength she drew from Feith's hymns. Under the influence of German Romantic literature, Feith's hymns inspired and/or undergirded the same sentiments in her spiritual mentality profile. <![CDATA[<b>The Beginnings of St Joseph's Scholasticate</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992019000100016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In 2018, St Joseph's Scholasticate celebrated 75 years since its foundation in 1943. It is a House of Formation for those who are preparing for permanent commitment to the Congregation of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate (OMI), as well as those who are preparing for ordination to the Catholic priesthood. St Joseph's Scholasticate was founded in 1943 at Prestbury in Pietermaritzburg by the OMI Natal Province. This study examines how the Oblates of Mary Immaculate established a scholasticate in South Africa and how it developed during its first five years until 1947 while it was situated in Prestbury. It examines why a scholasticate is important in Oblate formation and examines the essential elements of initial Oblate formation in a scholasticate. It also studies the requirements to establish a house of formation in the OMI Congregation and addresses the characteristics of those who become formators of a scholasticate, as well as the criteria by which scholastics are assessed.