Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1017-049920160002&lang=en vol. 42 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Historicising Pentecostal Christianity in Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper is a first attempt to systematically present a history of Pentecostal Christianity in Zimbabwe. The paper first discusses the introduction of the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM) in Zimbabwe before moving on to discuss some of the Pentecostal churches born out of the AFM. This is followed by a discussion of the 1980s and 1990s explosion of American type Pentecostal churches and the current Pentecostal charismatic churches that seem to be sweeping the Christian landscape in the country. The paper acknowledges the difficulty of writing a history of Pentecostalism in the country due to a lack of sources. It identifies AFM as the mother church of Pentecostal movements in Zimbabwe, but also acknowledges the existence and influence of other earlier movements. It has shown that the current picture of Zimbabwean Christianity is heavily influenced by Pentecostalism in mainline churches, African Initiated Churches (AICs) and the various Pentecostal movements. <![CDATA[<b>The covenantal relationship between the Methodist Church of Southern Africa and her Presbyters: an ethical appraisal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The term 'covenantal relationship' is used by the Methodist Church of Southern Africa1 to describe the nature of the vocational agreement between this denomination and her ministers (Presbyters). This relationship differs substantially from what we understand to be a secular contractual agreement between an employer and an employee. In recent times the covenantal relationship has become a source of contention, especially when a dispute arises between a Presbyter and the MCSA, or vice versa. This article describes this covenantal relationship, and seeks to measure the ethical implications of it. The authors employ Kretzschmar's DECA method2 (see Ally, Bentley, Cloete and Kretzschmar 2010, 64-77) in the appraisal thereof. <![CDATA[<b>The unification process in the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) family and Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA): The confessional basis of the Belhar Confession</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article consists of Ave mains parts. Firstly the author gives a brief overview of the history and origin of the Belhar Confession as a corner stone for URCSA's arguments for church unity. Secondly, the discussion focuses on church unity in general in relation to the Trinity, Eucharist and the Word of God. Church unity is a given, as a fruit of the cross of Christ. Thirdly, the article discusses the unification process within the DRC and URCSA. Fourthly, the author explores the Belhar Confession as the corner stone of church unity from URCSA's perspective, and the challenges around accepting this confession by the DRC. Fifthly, the author deliberates URCSA's position on the Belhar Confession as fundamental to URCSA's identity and life. <![CDATA[<b>Religious pluralism and disability in Zambia: approaches and healing in selected Pentecostal churches</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Zambia has recently witnessed the growth of Pentecostal churches that publicly make the claim of being able to heal disabilities. This paper explores how some Pentecostal churches in Zambia's pluralist society claim to be healing disability. Interviews, documents and video recordings from three different Pentecostal ministries depicting healing and disability, were analysed. The paper observes that some Pentecostal ministries exemplify disability as that which could be healed through the work of the Holy Spirit; and disability is attributed to the work of the devil. The paper argues that these disability healing messages and miracles indirectly victimise people with disabilities, despite their potential to offer social capital. This has created a need for deconstructing views on disability. Disability issues in the church also have to go beyond healing and miracles, to appreciating the contributions that people with disabilities can make to the body of Christ. <![CDATA[<b>Walter Magaya's Prophetic Healing and Deliverance (PHD) Ministries and Pentecostalism in Zimbabwe: a preliminary study with particular reference to ecumenism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en At the time of writing, Zimbabwe was in the midst of an intriguing expansion of the Pentecostal prophetic sector. There had been a notable increase in the number of predominantly young men exercising the gift of prophecy, healing and deliverance since 2009. After Prophets Emmanuel Makandiwa and Uebert Angel had captured the national imagination, Prophet Walter Magaya entered the scene with gusto. His Prophetic Healing and Deliverance (PHD) Ministries threatened to overshadow his "fellow workers in God's vineyard". In this article, we locate Magaya's PHD Ministries within the broader context of the post-2008 Pentecostal prophetic movement. We describe PHD Ministries, paying attention to the religious, socio-economic and political context in Zimbabwe. We draw attention to the ecumenism that is emerging within the prophetic and healing sectors of Zimbabwean Pentecostalism. Overall, we argue that this is a phenomenon that demands serious scholarly attention. The focus on Walter Magaya's PHD Ministries is motivated by the fact that it has attracted thousands of people at its weekly Sunday services in Waterfalls, Harare, Zimbabwe. Further, in 2015, Magaya took his brand of Pentecostalism to Botswana and South Africa. This article addresses the theme of ecumenism to question the dominant narrative that places emphasis on tension, rivalry and competition within Zimbabwean Pentecostalism. It analyses how Magaya deploys it to deflect attention from himself and to project a more progressive view of himself. <![CDATA[<b>Joseph Devasayagem Royeppen (1871-1960): the Anglican, colonial born political activist</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article documents the contributions of Joseph Royeppen, a colonial born Christian activist in South Africa at the turn of the century. Royeppen was a barrister, passive resister and a devout Christian. He was the first colonial born Indian to study law at Cambridge and played an important role in mobilising support for Indian grievances whilst in England. He participated in the first satyagraha campaign in South Africa and endured imprisonment. yet in the vast corpus of historical literature on South Africans of Indian descent he is given minimal recognition. This paper seeks to rectify this omission by documenting his contributions to the first satyagraha campaign that occurred in the Transvaal between 1907-1911. Royeppen, in his fight against oppression and inequality, embraced multiple roles: an eloquent student, barrister, devout Christian, hawker, passive resister and labourer. He mediated among these varying roles and in the process highlighted not only strength in character but dignity in protest action. A colonial born Indian, he was highly critical of the colonial and British governments and challenged their attempts to deny citizenship rights to South Africans of Indian descent. Joseph Royeppen's narrative is significant because it highlights the role and contributions of colonial born Indians, in particular the educated elite, to the early political struggles in South Africa. In many ways, they were an important, influential and active constituency in South Africa's road to democracy. <![CDATA[<b>Catholic counter-reformation: a history of the Jesuits' mission to Ethiopia 1557-1635</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Jesuits or 'The Society of Jesus' holds a significant place in the wide area of church history. In histories of Europe to the reformation of the sixteenth century, the Jesuits appear with notable frequency. Jesuits were the finest expression of the Catholic Reformation shortly after the Protestant reform began. The Society is attributed to its founder, Ignatius of Loyola. As a layman, Ignatius viewed Christendom in his context as a society under siege. It was Christian duty to therefore defend it. The Society was formed at a time that nationalism was growing and papal prestige was falling. The Jesuits, as a missionary movement at a critical period in the Roman Catholic Church, used creative strategies that later symbolised the strength of what would become the traditional Roman Catholic Church for a long time in history. The strategies involved included, but were not limited to: reviving and nurturing faith among Catholics, winning back those who had become Protestants, converting those who had not been baptised, training of the members for social service and missionary work, and establishing educational institutions. Their mission expansion to other parts of the world, Africa included, was an attempt to compensate the lost grounds in Europe in view of this paper's thesis. <![CDATA[<b>The early formation of charismatic churches in Malawi and their significance for the making of Malawian society</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article, we look at the history of charismatic churches in Malawi with a particular focus on some of the early charismatic churches. We first define what charismatic churches are. Secondly, we explore and explain the tremendous charismatic revival, tracing it from the time of its penetration in Malawi, its spread and also its survival on Malawian soil. The article also briefly focuses on the decisive role of women in the establishment of some of the early charismatic churches in Malawi. These include the Living Waters Church, Calvary Family Church, Glad Tidings Church and the Agape Church, among others, before some conclusions for the making of Malawian society are drawn. <![CDATA[<b>The Reformed Churches in South Africa and "women in office" 1973-1988</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The matter of the ordination of women in the offices of pastor and elder has become a burning issue in the Reformed Churches in South Africa (Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika). From 1973 to 2016 various Synods of this denomination struggled with the topic by way of several intensive study reports, which resulted in various decisions on hermeneutical and exegetical grounds. This article is the first in a series of two that investigates the history of the case as it developed from 19731988. A second article will deal with the period 1994-2016. the intention of this research is to analyse the reasons for the consistent position not to include women in the particular offices of this denomination. The central theoretical argument of this study is that the hermeneutical approaches of the various Synods are deficient. The role of systematic biblical-theological testimony, as well as a well-developed biblical anthropology as important hermeneutical tools, were not applied efficiently and were obscured by the one-sided grammatical-historical angle of approach. <![CDATA[<b>Implications of the ordination of women for the Methodist Church of Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The year 2016 marks the fortieth anniversary of the ordination of women in the Methodist Church of Southern Africa (MCSA). This, being a milestone worth celebrating and commemorating, highlights not only the gains but also the challenges that women face in the ministry of the Methodist Church. The implications of the ordination of women for the denomination (and its organisations) have yet to be fully grappled with, interpreted within the changing context of our present society, and understood in light of the patriarchal society within which the Methodist Church operates. The present article highlights the implications of the ordination of women for the Young Men's Guild - a missional organisation of men in the MCSA. The article calls for inclusive and radical transformational activity within the Young Men's Guild. It advocates for intentional implementation of the Gender Action Plan that was approved by the Methodist Conference ten years ago (2006). It agitates for a Young Men's Guild movement whose discomfort with its privilege propels it to live out the principles contained in the Methodist rule of life. Young Men's Guild members ought to actively pursue an agenda of inclusion in order for their organisation to reflect truly the vision and mission of the MCSA. <![CDATA[<b>From Constance Oosthuizen to Purity Malinga: the struggle for equality in ordination in the Methodist Church of Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The researcher believes that while in the Methodist Church of Southern Africa (MCSA) women have been ordained to the ministry of Word and Sacrament since 1976, they remain a minority numerically and are still marginalised in leadership. As a result ordained women remain the most unrecognised and underutilised group in the MCSA. Few women ministers have held leadership positions during this period, particularly primary leadership positions. This article enquires into the experiences (or, 'acceptance') of these women, the reasons for the minority representation, and reflects on the future of representative ordained ministry. A theoretical framework of feminist ecclesiology is used as an approach. Primary research provides statistical data upon which the assessment of progress towards gender equality is based. The impact of culture upon institutional gender representation is discussed, together with equality of opportunity in principle and practice. Reference is made to gender equality in other institutions, both secular and religious. The article reflects upon the leadership of the MCSA towards gender equality in the ordained ministry, and some conclusions are drawn and recommendations suggested for the future. <![CDATA[<b>Development of theological training and hermeneutics in Pentecostalism: a historical perspective and analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The article hypothesises that the historical development of Pentecostal hermeneutics is closely related to and illustrated by Pentecostals' attitude towards theological training. A short survey is given of the development of theological training within the Pentecostal movement in order to demonstrate how it accompanied a change in the way the Bible was considered during the past century in terms of three phases. For the first three decades Pentecostals had no inclination towards any theological training; they considered that the Bible provided all they needed to know and what was important was not what people in biblical times experienced with or stated about God, but the way these narratives indicate contemporary believers to an encounter with God themselves, resulting in similar experiences. From the 1940s, Pentecostals for several reasons sought acceptance and approval and entered into partnerships with evangelicals, leading to their acceptance of evangelicals' way of reading the Bible in a fundamentalist-literalist way. From the 1970s they established theological colleges and seminaries where theologians consciously developed Pentecostal hermeneutics in affinity with early Pentecostal hermeneutics, although most Pentecostals still read the Bible in a fundamentalist-literalistic way - as do the evangelicals. Its hermeneutics determined its anti-intellectual stance and the way Pentecostals arranged the training of its pastors. The history of the Pentecostal movement cannot be understood properly without realising the close connection between its hermeneutics and its view of theological training. <![CDATA[<b><em>The Atlantic slave trade in world history</em></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The article hypothesises that the historical development of Pentecostal hermeneutics is closely related to and illustrated by Pentecostals' attitude towards theological training. A short survey is given of the development of theological training within the Pentecostal movement in order to demonstrate how it accompanied a change in the way the Bible was considered during the past century in terms of three phases. For the first three decades Pentecostals had no inclination towards any theological training; they considered that the Bible provided all they needed to know and what was important was not what people in biblical times experienced with or stated about God, but the way these narratives indicate contemporary believers to an encounter with God themselves, resulting in similar experiences. From the 1940s, Pentecostals for several reasons sought acceptance and approval and entered into partnerships with evangelicals, leading to their acceptance of evangelicals' way of reading the Bible in a fundamentalist-literalist way. From the 1970s they established theological colleges and seminaries where theologians consciously developed Pentecostal hermeneutics in affinity with early Pentecostal hermeneutics, although most Pentecostals still read the Bible in a fundamentalist-literalistic way - as do the evangelicals. Its hermeneutics determined its anti-intellectual stance and the way Pentecostals arranged the training of its pastors. The history of the Pentecostal movement cannot be understood properly without realising the close connection between its hermeneutics and its view of theological training. <![CDATA[<b><em>Nederlandse zendingsgeschiedenis: ontmoeting van Protestantse Christenen met andere godsdiensten en geloven (1601-1917), Mission (Missiologisch onderzoek in Nederland) 56</em></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The article hypothesises that the historical development of Pentecostal hermeneutics is closely related to and illustrated by Pentecostals' attitude towards theological training. A short survey is given of the development of theological training within the Pentecostal movement in order to demonstrate how it accompanied a change in the way the Bible was considered during the past century in terms of three phases. For the first three decades Pentecostals had no inclination towards any theological training; they considered that the Bible provided all they needed to know and what was important was not what people in biblical times experienced with or stated about God, but the way these narratives indicate contemporary believers to an encounter with God themselves, resulting in similar experiences. From the 1940s, Pentecostals for several reasons sought acceptance and approval and entered into partnerships with evangelicals, leading to their acceptance of evangelicals' way of reading the Bible in a fundamentalist-literalist way. From the 1970s they established theological colleges and seminaries where theologians consciously developed Pentecostal hermeneutics in affinity with early Pentecostal hermeneutics, although most Pentecostals still read the Bible in a fundamentalist-literalistic way - as do the evangelicals. Its hermeneutics determined its anti-intellectual stance and the way Pentecostals arranged the training of its pastors. The history of the Pentecostal movement cannot be understood properly without realising the close connection between its hermeneutics and its view of theological training.