Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1017-049920160001&lang=en vol. 42 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>From justifying war to justifying peace: a historical overview of the discourse in ecumenical circles (1905-2014)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Justice and peace have been central concerns for the World Council of Churches (WCC) since its foundation in 1948. A notable transition from a just-war position to a just-peace position has taken place during the course of time. This paper will attend to statements regarding just war and just peace, justice, peace, armaments and disarmaments issued during the past decades, as well as the Historic Peace Churches' influence on the discourse. At the end of the paper I will attend to the changeover of the global culture of violence in the direction of a culture of just peace and the movement of peace to the centre of life and witness of the church. Earlier the WCC embraced the theory of just war - currently just peace is being underscored. The Historic Peace Churches played a pivotal role in this transformation. <![CDATA[<b>Easter celebrations with a difference: a critical study of the <i>Johane Masowe Chishanu yeNyenyedzi </i>approach to the event</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The celebration of Easter has become a universal event within the Christian liturgical calendar and aims to commemorate the passion, death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Messages on the passion, death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ are vigorously proclaimed throughout the holy week, which usually begins on a holy Thursday ending on a resurrection Sunday (Easter Sunday). Some Churches will even dramatise the events that led to the death of Jesus Christ and how He was crucified on the cross. Apparently, the purpose of these ritual re-enactments is to capture the minds of the congregants on how their Saviour suffered and eventually died on the cross to bring salvation to humanity. Invariably, on resurrection Sunday, the services will end with a ritual of Holy Communion. However, while other Christian denominations commemorate the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ at Easter, we have noted that the Johane Masowe Chishanu yeNyenyedzi Church celebrates 'Easter' with a difference. For them 'Easter' is the time to remember the 'Fathers of the Faith', i.e. the messianic leaders whom God raised to give leadership and guidance to the church. Every Easter, the Johane Masowe Chishanu yeNyenyedzi Religious Movement commemorates deliverance from evil spirits, which was made possible through the charismatic leadership of Shonhiwa Masedza (Johane), founder of the original 'Church'; Mudyiwa Dzangara (Emanuere), second from Johane; and Sanders Nhamoyebonde (Sanders/Nyenyedzi), third from Johane. In the view of the Church adherents, Jesus Christ was sent by God to deliver people of mhiri yegungwa (overseas), i.e., the whites and the Jews, whilst Masedza, Mudyiwa and Nhamoyebonde were sent by God to deliver Africans. It is against this background that this study seeks to delve deeper into this religious movement's unique ways of celebrating the memory of their spiritual leaders during Easter commemorations. Interviews and participant observation are the key tools used for data collection, since this movement under study has no written documents. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of religion on a secular state: the Nigerian experience</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Nigeria, in her 55 years of nationhood, is the most populated black nation in the world. She has to her credit a written Constitution being operated for the effective democratic governance of her population, comprising peoples of different religious freedom and cultural backgrounds. In Nigeria, Christianity, Islam and traditional religions are most widely practised. Religion is a faith-based process that is capable of impacting on governance and the behavioural attitudes of every believer. Nigeria is a secular state. Since interaction theory provides avenues for exchanges of nonmaterial goods and materials, we used this theory as the most appropriate in the conduct of this study. This article explores the impact of religion on Nigerians living within a secular state. <![CDATA[<b>Sociological and theological factors that caused schisms in the Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM) of South Africa has experienced schisms from the year 1910 to 1958. The schisms were caused by sociological and theological factors. These are schisms by the Zionist churches (Zion Apostolic Church, Christian Catholic Apostolic Holy Spirit Church in Zion, Zion Apostolic Faith Mission); Latter Rain; Saint John Apostolic Faith Mission and Protestant Pentecostal Church. The sociological factors that led to the schisms by the Zionist churches and the Protestant Pentecostal Church are identified as racial segregation and involvement in politics respectively. The theological factors that caused these schisms by Latter Rain and Saint John Apostolic Faith Mission are manifestations of the Holy Spirit and divine healing respectively. After comparison of the factors, it is concluded that racial segregation is the main factor that caused schisms in the AFM. <![CDATA[<b>Historicising Penteoostal Christianity in Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper is a first attempt to systematically present a history of Pentecostal Christianity in Zimbabwe. The paper first discusses the introduction of the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM) in Zimbabwe before moving on to discuss some of the Pentecostal churches born out of the AFM. This is followed by a discussion of the 1980s and 1990s explosion of American type Pentecostal churches and the current Pentecostal charismatic churches that seem to be sweeping the Christian landscape in the country. The paper acknowledges the difficulty of writing a history of Pentecostalism in the country due to a lack of sources. It identifies AFM as the mother church of Pentecostal movements in Zimbabwe, but also acknowledges the existence and influence of other earlier movements. It has shown that the current picture of Zimbabwean Christianity is heavily influenced by Pentecostalism in mainline churches, African Initiated Churches (AIOs) and the various Pentecostal movements. <![CDATA[<b>'John G. Lake as a fraud, con man and false prophet': critical assessment of a historical evaluation of Lake's ministry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article assesses the evaluation of John G. Lake, one of the founders of South African Pentecostalism, by some historians regarded as a fraud, con man and false prophet in terms of several elements of his life: his business concerns; his mission to Africa; ministry of Spirit baptism and divine healing; and some accusations made by Lake's co-workers. The conclusion is reached that there are valid points of criticism against Lake's ministry and concerns about his integrity, although it is also true that the specific historical evaluation is hampered by presuppositions that preclude any miracles and a seemingly preconceived notion of Lake as a fraud and scam, supported by an unbalanced utilisation and unfair treatment of resources. <![CDATA[<b>Manas Buthelezi: the church leader, liberation activist and scholar in the South African context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article celebrates and honours Manas Buthelezi's life by examining his active contribution in the spiritual, political, social and socio-economic spheres. An analysis of his contribution is offered by firstly examining his academic career, church work and his contribution to the recent history of Christianity. Secondly, I provide an overview of his involvement in political affairs and with the Lutheran community. Finally, I focus on Buthelezi's service in the South African Council of Churches (SACC). <![CDATA[<b>Case studies and the dissemination of knowledge</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article celebrates and honours Manas Buthelezi's life by examining his active contribution in the spiritual, political, social and socio-economic spheres. An analysis of his contribution is offered by firstly examining his academic career, church work and his contribution to the recent history of Christianity. Secondly, I provide an overview of his involvement in political affairs and with the Lutheran community. Finally, I focus on Buthelezi's service in the South African Council of Churches (SACC). <![CDATA[<b>Christian identity and the environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en a quick glance at the campus of many a theological college in Zimbabwe reveals the need to entrench environmental ethics which transcend personal and traditional convictions. This paper seeks to be a prophetic voice on this topic by exploring the essentials of Christian ethics and the way in which the entrenchment of such ethics may impede or enhance our stewardship of natural resources. We will explore the hopelessness of religious fatalism and the entrenched beliefs that prevent us from making optimal environmental decisions. The article specifically focuses on the impact of waste management in Zimbabwe. The errors of being short-sighted in our religiosity will be scrutinised, especially regarding the impact of our decisions on environmental management. <![CDATA[<b>Through the past into the future: Jean-François Bill - pastor, activist, theologian 8 July 1934 -12 March 2005</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jean- Francois Bill was a significant church leader of the second half of the twentieth century. He was born, raised and educated in South Africa, and he lived, worked and died in South Africa. He possessed a multi-cultural identity. He had a rare academic ability but was no academic recluse. His varied and intensive ministry was marked by committed, responsible, constructive engagement. He was a convinced yet reasonable ecumenist with a powerful social conscience who offered a great deal to the field of theological education. He had a vision of a responsible church which was responsible in a practical way by working through the live issues of the day. This would be a church which would strive for authentic unity and be the leaven in the lump of the world. <![CDATA[<b>Afro-Pentecostalism and contested holiness in Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The proliferation of charismatic and Pentecostal movements in southern Africa, and indeed the whole continent of Africa, as well as the recurrent competition for recognition and authenticity makes one astounded regarding the direction in which Christianity in Africa is developing. Is this connected to the historic Pentecost recorded in the second chapter of the book of Acts? If it is, why are there acrimony, strife and rivalry among the various members of the Christian body? This paper hypothesises the possibility of a parallel idea of holiness in African traditions which undergirds some of these religious movements and in turn challenges the idea of authenticity in African Christianity. If the various movements are somehow tapping into African traditions for miracle working power, does this suggest that the said traditions are alternative axils of holiness? would this, by implication suggest that Christianity in Africa can be anchored thereon? <![CDATA[<b>The making of a bishop: personal reflections by a companion along the way</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en With this text a German missionary, originating from the Lutheran Hermannsburg Mission, describes his way of service in southern Africa through which he is getting ever closer to Dr Manas Buthelezi. From the outset of Lüdemann's ministry in KwaZulu-Natal he got to know the young but already widely acclaimed theologian (Buthelezi) in the same diocese. The intensive involvement of Buthelezi in the Black Consciousness Movement gave Lüdemann a deeper insight into his own challenges in apartheid South Africa, and at the same time he understood the critical position in which he had to see himself as a foreigner from Europe. Buthelezi - through various positions in his own Lutheran Church (Bishop of ELCSA-Central Diocese, Lutheran World Federation) and in the ecumenical context (Christian Institute, South African Council of Churches) - deepened his theological expression in view of the endangered society, and at the same time formulated the specific prophetic message of a relevant Christian gospel. This meant that he was severely challenged in conflicts between various interest groups. More and more he realised that he could with his ministry only survive through a clear scripture-related spirituality as part of the work of the Holy Spirit. <![CDATA[<b>The experiences of thirteen women ministers of the Methodist Church of Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The year 2016 marks the 40th anniversary of the ordination of women into the ministry of word and Sacraments in the methodist Church of Southern Africa. what are their experiences during their ministry while being in a covenantal relationship with the church and their ordained colleagues? what are the particular concerns and issues raised by a sample of 13 women ministers who have served for a total of 90 years since their ordination in the church? This paper describes the unique relationship between the church and ministers and then presents the findings of the experiences of the sample, indicating that the women ministers in the methodist Church of Southern Africa are being discriminated against in various ways, and are struggling to And acceptance and appointments in financially viable circuits. <![CDATA[<b>The Imago Dei (Gen 1:26-27): a history of interpretation from Philo to the present</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this article is to present a history of interpretation of the image and likeness of God (gen 1:26-27) from Philo to the present. The article presents the various interpretations given, the reasons for their interpretations and changes in the major interpretation over time. <![CDATA[<b>Quakers and their allies in the abolitionist cause, 1754-1808</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this article is to present a history of interpretation of the image and likeness of God (gen 1:26-27) from Philo to the present. The article presents the various interpretations given, the reasons for their interpretations and changes in the major interpretation over time. <![CDATA[<b>Aspects of Pentecostal theology: recent developments in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this article is to present a history of interpretation of the image and likeness of God (gen 1:26-27) from Philo to the present. The article presents the various interpretations given, the reasons for their interpretations and changes in the major interpretation over time. <![CDATA[<b>A church of strangers: the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1017-04992016000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this article is to present a history of interpretation of the image and likeness of God (gen 1:26-27) from Philo to the present. The article presents the various interpretations given, the reasons for their interpretations and changes in the major interpretation over time.