Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Sports Medicine]]> vol. 30 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The transition of the South African Journal of Sports Medicine</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Concussion knowledge and attitudes amongst Stellenbosch University hostel rugby players</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Concussion occurs more frequently in contact sports, such as rugby, and is furthermore not fully recognised during play. It is also underreported in the literature, to medical personnel, or to coaches. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge about and attitudes towards concussion by Stellenbosch University hostel rugby players. METHODS: The study focussed on gathering quantitative information through implementing a cross-sectional study design. One hundred and eighty Stellenbosch University hostel rugby players completed the modified Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey - Student Version (RoCKAS-ST). The RoCKAS-ST questionnaire is divided into three parts, namely, the evaluation of the Concussion Knowledge Index (CKI) and Concussion Attitudes Index (CAI), and a 16-symptom checklist. RESULTS: The participants scored on average 75% in the CKI and 81% in the CAI. The correlation between CKI and CAI was r=0.14 which is considered a weak positive correlation. DISCUSSION: The participants demonstrated sufficient knowledge of concussion and thus a safer attitude towards concussion. There were some concerning factors from the knowledge of the concussion questions and the symptoms that may have an effect on attitudes towards concussion. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that Stellenbosch University hostel rugby players have sufficient knowledge of what constitutes concussion, as well as the necessity of having safe attitude towards it. However, a small number of participants showed that they still may lack knowledge in certain areas concerning concussion. <![CDATA[<b>Injury and illness profiles during the 2014 South African Ironman triathlon</b>]]> BACKGROUND: There is a need for ongoing scrutiny of injury and illness profiles of ultra-distance athletes. This study aimed to record the medical history, illness and injuries of athletes receiving medical attention during the 2014 Ironman South Africa (IMSA) triathlon, and to investigate the temporal presentation of medical encounters. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. All athletes who required medical attention at the main medical tent and all of the medical posts or mobile units along the route were included in this study A total of 2 331 athletes started the race. Data included age, gender, time and stage of the race when medical attention was required, pre-race medical history and medication use, illness and injuries treated, special investigations performed, and weather conditions. RESULTS: Overall, 179 athletes (7.7%) required medical attention. The incidence of medical encounters was 7.8%. A significantly higher percentage of younger participants encountered medical problems (P = 0.04). Most patient encounters (80.1%) occurred after the race. The median duration of treatment was 26 minutes. Medication was used by 35.1% of patients during the race. The most common medical encounters were exertion-related (71.2%), gastrointestinal (16.4%), dermatological (11.9%), musculoskeletal (9.6%) and cardiorespiratory conditions (2.4%). CONCLUSION: Medical encounters occurred more frequently in later stages of the race. Most medical conditions were exertion-related. Potential higher risk may be associated with medication use, recent illness, and in younger participants. Temporal stacking of medical personnel, planning of resources according to expected conditions, preventative measures for high-risk behaviour, and on-going data collection with comparable methodology are recommended. <![CDATA[<b>A cross-sectional study of 2550 amateur cyclists shows lack of knowledge regarding relevant sports nutrition guidelines</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Amateur cyclists use a wide variety of supplements and nutritional substances to increase performance in addition to their training. OBJECTIVES: The intended nutritional supplement use, carbohydrate (CHO) use and hydration practices of amateur cyclists before, during and after endurance cycling were analysed. Evidence of ignorance regarding the use of sports supplements and CHO, as well as the disregard of hydration strategy was hypothesised. METHODS: Amateur cyclists, of all age and sex groups, were requested to complete an online survey anonymously on the 2013 Momentum 94.7 Cycle Challenge website, a few days before the event. RESULTS: Responses were received from 2 550 out of 30 640 race entrants (8%); representing a distribution of 75% males, 25% females, with the majority between 25 to 45 years old. Nutritional supplements were used by 59% of respondents, with 77% dose adherence, and 29% with supplement ingredient knowledge. Half of the respondents (48%) planned to carbo-load two-three days before the event, while only five percent used professional advice to scientifically calculate their carbo-loading requirements. CHO were consumed by 81% during the event. Hydration preferences during the race were sports drinks (59%) and water (22%); and after the race 45% preferred a sports drink and 40% water. Ingredients, taste, colour, and temperature were criteria used to choose a sports drink. Only 18% of respondents knew to use both colour of urine and thirstiness to determine post-race fluid requirements. CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that amateur cyclists had insufficient knowledge regarding nutritional supplement ingredients and usage, CHO requirements and carbo-loading practices, and hydration strategies before, during and after the event. <![CDATA[<b>Preventing the seemingly unpreventable - challenging the return-to-play criteria for recurrent hamstring strain prevention</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Hamstring strains are one of the most common injuries in sport. Previous injury has been found to be one of the greatest risk factors associated with recurrent hamstring strains. Although rehabilitation programmes have been developed and implemented to aid safe and efficient return-to-play, the incidence of hamstring injuries has not decreased. DISCUSSION: As hamstring strains most commonly occur during the eccentric phase of muscle action, rehabilitation should focus on eccentric muscle strengthening. The L-protocol and the Nordic Hamstring Exercise protocol strengthen the hamstring muscles eccentrically. They have been found to be effective in decreasing the incidence of new hamstring strains as well as the rate of recurrence. This commentary therefore aims to suggest changes to the return-to-play criteria following hamstring strains to prevent the seemingly unpreventable. <![CDATA[<b>Sacroiliac tuberculosis masquerading as mechanical lower back pain in a collegiate basketball athlete: A case presentation</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Sacroiliac tuberculosis is a rare condition for which early diagnosis and effective management frequently proves challenging. This report describes a case that was initially overlooked due to its presentation and unreported constitutional symptoms. AIM: To alert clinicians about skeletal tuberculosis, an often neglected diagnostic differential, which requires a high index of clinical suspicion, especially for patients from endemic areas. FINDINGS: This patient's presentation (sports injury) and unreported constitutional symptoms resulted in a delay in the diagnosis and initial institution of treatment. IMPLICATIONS: This report illustrates the importance of specifically asking about constitutional symptoms, even in sports injury settings and being mindful of infectious diseases or other chronic medical conditions, which may masquerade as common sports injuries <![CDATA[<b>Stress fracture of the thoracic spine in a male rugby player: a case report</b>]]> This case report discusses a stress fracture of the thoracic spine in a professional South African rugby union player. This is a rare anatomical location for this type of injury in this population and has not previously been described. Physicians should be aware that performance of rugby specific movements may lead to rare stress fractures in certain anatomic locations. <![CDATA[<b>The association between being overweight/obese and blood pressure in rural South African women living in the Tshino Nesengani (Mukondeleli) village</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether bio-behavioural factors are associated with blood pressure and body composition in rural black South African women. METHODS: Data were collected on 200 African women living in the Tshino Nesengani (Mukondeleli) village, Limpopo Province, using simple anthropometry, blood pressure, and self-reported questionnaires for sleep, physical activity, and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. RESULTS: Six patterns of SSB consumption were determined by principal component analysis. Regression analysis showed that longer sleep duration patterns (>nine hours/night) was associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure; whilst the principal components (beer, wine, and sweetened tea) were associated with a higher body mass index. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight novel bio-behavioural contributors of blood pressure and body anthropometry in rural African women. <![CDATA[<b>Building a robust athlete in the South African high school sports system</b>]]> BACKGROUND: School sport in South Africa has become more competitive, and competition schedules are often found to be more congested. As a consequence young athletes are in an environment where they are exposed to high training and match demands. However, the school system generally fails to prepare these athletes physically to withstand the training and competition demands placed on them. DISCUSSION: It is important that schools implement a system that will allow their athletes to develop physically through age-appropriate strength and conditioning. It is especially important for schools to develop a plan to manage the multi-sport athlete in order reduce the risk of injury and burnout. By adopting a five year accumulative development model that fits the athlete's environment, schools will contribute to the development of future professional athletes. <![CDATA[<b>Neurologist at ringside - to be or not to be?</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Ringside physicians are entrusted with the task of protecting the health and safety of combat sports (boxing and mixed martial arts (MMA)) athletes. Ringside physicians come from various disciplines of medicine such as, primary care, internal medicine, orthopaedics, sports medicine, and otolaryngology. However, there are few neurologists who work as ringside physicians. DISCUSSION: Boxing and MMA are highly controversial sports for a neurologist' involvement because every punch and kick to the head is thrown with the intention of winning by knocking the opponent out, or resulting in a concussion. Thus many neurologists feel it is unethical to support boxing as a ringside physician. CONCLUSION: Boxing and MMA are universally thought to be harmful to the brain, and nearly all medical associations have made calls to ban boxing and MMA. While medical associations and physicians, including neurologists, may not support boxing or MMA, their presence at the ringside or cageside helps to make these sports safer through protecting the health and safety of a combat sports athlete.