Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Sports Medicine]]> vol. 31 num. 1 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The state of the South African Journal of Sports Medicine, 2019</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>A tale of two sit-bones: The cyclist's ischial hygroma (Perineal nodular induration)</b>]]> The ischial hygroma, also known as a perineal nodular induration, is a relatively rare and mostly cycling-specific injury that is often incorrectly diagnosed and managed. Here two cases with divergent managements are described to highlight the spectrum of treatment available to manage this condition. The presentation, assessment and management of two cases of perineal nodular induration are discussed. The management options, namely surgical excision vs conservative management, with saddle pressure mapping highlight that there is no single optimal method and that a multidisciplinary approach should be applied to treat these injuries successfully. Perineal nodular induration should be investigated appropriately to exclude less benign causes of perineal masses. Conservative management and surgical excision can both be successful. Clinicians should be familiar with the assessment and management of this relatively rare but debilitating condition in competitive cyclists. <![CDATA[<b>Negative self-appraisal mediates the relationship between mindfulness and confidence among adolescent female provincial hockey players in South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that mindfulness is positively related to athletic performance and athlete wellbeing. However, few attempts have been made to explore the psychological processes by which mindfulness might impact performance. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether negative self-appraisal mediates the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and the confidence component of mental toughness among provincial adolescent female hockey players in South Africa. METHODS: Provincial adolescent female hockey players (n=486) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, mental toughness-related confidence and negative self-appraisal. Correlation coefficients were calculated between all variables included in the study. An ordinary least-squares regression analysis was performed to test the indirect effect of negative self-appraisal on the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and confidence. RESULTS: Negative self-appraisal exhibited an indirect effect on the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and the confidence component of mental toughness (β = .06, SE = .0, CI95 = .04, .09). A subsequent Soble test confirmed that negative self-appraisal served as a statistically significant mediator (β= .06, SE = .01, Z = 5.76, p = .001) in the model. Furthermore, 78.3% of the variance in the effect of dispositional mindfulness on the confidence component of mental toughness was accounted for by negative self-appraisal. CONCLUSION: The effect of dispositional mindfulness on the confidence component of mental toughness among adolescent athletes is mediated by negative self-appraisal. Based on the current findings, dispositional mindfulness may foster confidence by lessening the impact of rigid negative appraisals of one's performance and worth as an athlete. <![CDATA[<b>The lateral batting backlift technique: is it a contributing factor to success for professional cricket players at the highest level?</b>]]> BACKGROUND: This study aimed primarily to investigate the lateral batting backlift technique (LBBT) among semi-professional, professional and current international cricket players. A key question was to investigate whether this technique is a factor that contributes to success for cricket players at the highest levels of the gameMETHODS: The participants in this study's sample (n = 130) were South African semi-professional players (SP) (n = 69), professional players (PP) (n = 49) and South African international professional players (SAI) (n = 12). Biomechanical and video analyses were performed on all the participating groups. Classifiers were utilised to identify the batting backlift technique type (BBTT) employed by all batsmen. All statistics and wagon wheels (scoring areas of the batsmen on a cricket field) were sourced online. A Pearson's Chi-squared test, Student T-test, one-way analysis of variance and T-test were performed in this study. All analyses were performed using R (R Core Team) at a significance level of á = 0.05RESULTS: This study found that a LBBT is more common at the highest levels of batsmanship with batsmen at the various levels of cricket having percentages of the LBBT as follows: SP = 37%; PP = 38%; SAI = 75%; p = 0.001. There was also a noticeably higher difference in the highest scores and career averages between all groups of players, as well as batsmen who either use a straight batting backlift technique (SBBT) or a LBBT. This study also found that SAI batsmen who used the LBBT were more proficient at scoring runs in various areas around the cricket field (according to the wagon wheel analysisCONCLUSION: This study found that a LBBT is a contributing factor for success regarding players wanting to play cricket at the highest levels. Cricket coaches should also pay attention to the direction of the backlift with players, especially when correlating it to various scoring areas on the cricket field. Further in-depth research is required to fully investigate the change in batting backlift techniques among cricket players over a long-term period <![CDATA[<b>The impact of a fast bowling spell on physiological, perceptual and performance responses in non-elite cricketers</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The demands placed on fast bowlers may elicit unique responses that contribute towards increased injury risk and comprised performance capabilities. Despite this, very few investigations have attempted to quantify these demands and their impact on performance in cricketersOBJECTIVE: This investigation attempted to quantify the effects of a fast bowling protocol on the musculoskeletal, physiological and perceptual responses of fast bowlers; as well as ball speed and accuracyMETHODS: Eight young adult bowlers (20 ± 2 years) participated in a 10-over bowling protocol that had been separated by intermittent fielding drills into three bowling spells respectively (4-, 3- and 3- overs). Selected responses were collected throughout the protocolRESULTS: Functional strength was measured and showed no change. Heart rate responses increased significantly (p<0.05) at the start of the bowling protocol. Local ratings of perceived exertion increased significantly (p<0.05) as a function of exercise duration, while low to moderate intensities of perceived discomfort were noted in the anterior and posterior shoulder areas, upper portion of the lower limb musculature, as well as in the middle and lower back regions. Performance responses experienced no significant changeCONCLUSION: There was no significant change in ball release speed and accuracy across the bowling protocol. Lower limb muscle power remained consistent and heart rates reached a steady state after the first over. In comparison, local ratings of perceived effort and body discomfort increased over time, which could mean that those unchanged measures do not accurately reflect fatigue or that perceptions are a more effective indicator of impending fatigue <![CDATA[<b>The effect of the contract-relax-agonist-contract (CRAC) stretch of hamstrings on range of motion, sprint and agility performance in moderately active males: A randomised control trial</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Although stretching is done routinely to prevent injury during explosive sport activities, there is some concern that effective stretching might negatively impact on performanceOBJECTIVE: This study's main objective was to investigate the impact of a specific stretch, the contract-relax-agonist-contract (CRAC) stretch, in which the muscle to be stretched, namely, the hamstrings, is actively contracted and then relaxed. This is followed by the antagonist muscle (the quadriceps) contracting. Secondly, the impact of the stretch on performance was examinedMETHODS: A randomised control trial was used. Forty healthy active males between 21 and 35 years old were assigned to either receive three repetitions of CRAC or rest. Hamstring flexibility and the Illinois Agility Test were the primary outcome measuresRESULTS: The intervention was effective in improving hamstring flexibility by 37% immediately post-application and was maintained for eight minutes thereafter. It had no significant effect on agility or sprint timesCONCLUSION: CRAC, when applied to stretch the hamstring muscles of active males, resulted in a large increase of active knee extension range of motion, without decreasing performance. Therefore, CRAC appears to be a safe and effective method of increasing the length of the hamstrings pre-sport activity and should be utilised by sports physiotherapists if deemed necessary. It was also shown to be beneficial following the initial assessment