Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal for the Study of Religion]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1011-760120190001&lang=es vol. 32 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1011-76012019000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Christian <i>gacaca </i>and official <i>gacaca </i>in post-genocide Rwanda</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1011-76012019000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In October 1998, a think tank of the Rwandan state proposed the establishment of gacaca jurisdictions - popular courts charged with judging the people involved in the genocide against the Tutsi. Lesser known is the Christian gacaca, a conflict resolution mechanism, also inspired by the traditional gacaca, which was established during the same period by the Catholic Church of Rwanda as part of the synodal process leading to the celebration of the 2000 Year Jubilee. This essay describes, on the basis of archival documents and oral testimonies, the genesis of the Christian gacaca and examines how it related to the official gacaca. This pastoral initiative contributed to a relaxation of the tension between church and state that had marked the immediate aftermath of the genocide. The aim of the Christian gacaca was to bring about reconciliation in communities divided by the genocide, by bringing together victims and perpetrators. The task of the official gacaca was to judge and, if the guilt was established, to punish the authors of the genocide crimes. It was also, like in the Christian gacaca, to restore social harmony, but only through a judicial process. <![CDATA[<b>Religious freedom and the law: a reality or pipe dream for prisoners in South Africa?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1011-76012019000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Freedom of religion, like other human rights, must be respected, protected, and promoted by relevant and entrusted authorities to comply with legitimate laws, applicable to a particular environment. In South Africa, the Correctional Services Act 111 of 1998 as amended, the White Paper on Corrections in South Africa of 2005, and internal policies are intended to make provision for prisoners' freedom of religion in the correctional services environment. These essentially give effect to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa of 1996, emanating from pertinent international and African continental instruments. Through an analytic design of change over time, this essay seeks to conduct an analysis of prisoners' freedom of religion in South Africa. This analysis is based on the Department of Correctional Services' annual reports published between 1997 and 2016 and the general conditions of prisons in South Africa. The finding of this study reveals a violation of the right of prisoners to freedom of religion by the South African correctional authority. <![CDATA[<b>A mall intercept survey on religion and worldview in the Cape Flats of Cape Town, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1011-76012019000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This study analyzes worldviews and religious beliefs and practices in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town, South Africa, using a mall intercept survey of n=513 visitors to five shopping centers. Variables considered included demographic characteristics, measures of religiosity and religious pluralism, participation in religious activities, and supernaturalism (both related and unrelated to a traditional Christian-Abrahamic worldview). The majority (69.4%) of respondents identifies as Christian, though denominational affiliation is very diverse. The other two prevalent religious affiliations are the African Traditional Religion (16.4%) and Islam (11.7%). Only 1.6% of the respondents self-identified as non-religious, a smaller percentage than has been found in research on Cape Town as a whole or South Africa nationally. The degree of self-reported religiosity, participation in religious activities, and belief in supernatural phenomena are all high. Associations between demographic characteristics and religion and worldview variables are analyzed in detail. <![CDATA[<b>Cast as Written: Protestant Missionaries and their Translation of Molimo<a href="#back_fn1"></a> as the Christian God in 19<sup>th</sup>-century Southern Africa<a href="#back_fn1"></a></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1011-76012019000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This essay reads the 19th-century Protestant Christian missionary archive in order to explore how it deals with translating the term 'molimo' as (the Christian) God. It shows that this work of translation rests upon a binary division that Protestant Christian missionaries make between the inside and the outside with priority given to the former over the latter. This binary division that informs the translation of molimo as God, has the consequence of dissolving the material religion of the 19th-century Sotho speaking people and inaugurating in its place a notion of religion whose foundation is personal interiority. The result of this departure of molimo from the material to personal interiority is the reorganization of the relationship between space and time. The essay argues that molimo's departure from the material to personal interiority privileges space over time because, reconstituted as the Christian God, molimo gets cast in the language of writing. Writing has the consequence of dissolving an order of life based on the priority of speech (orality). <![CDATA[<b>'Sanctifying sex': exploring 'indecent' sexual imagery in Pentecostal liturgical practices</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1011-76012019000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Pentecostalism, like many other church traditions, is well known for its fixation with doctrinal dualisms which enforce a separation of body and spirit, and a Puritan sexual ethic. These conservative sexual norms have led to the policing of bodies and sexual practices. As a result, instead of encouraging safer sexual practices, the churches have been known to enforce abstinence outside of marriage, or sexual restrictions within it, thus marking sex in general as 'indecent'. Some of the consequences of this repression of sexuality are young people being forced into early marriages to avoid 'living in sin', teenage pregnancies as a consequence of not wanting to disobey the church's teaching on sex and contraceptives, as well as more serious consequences of unbridled sexual expressions resulting in sexually transmitted viruses. The consequences of a repressed sexuality are indeed serious. However, what if this 'repressive hypothesis' can be challenged within Pentecostal spaces? What if, like Foucault suggests, a deeper engagement with the subject matter would show, not sexual censorship, but rather a re-channeling of sexuality? Drawing on Foucault's challenge to the repressive hypothesis, where he suggests that so-called repressed sexuality finds 'appropriate' outlets in spaces such as psychiatry and prostitution, this essay suggests a third outlet, namely Pentecostalism. While particular sexual discourses may be constructed as indecent and contaminated as 'sin', liturgical and deliverance practices ironically signify erotic relationships between the divine and the believer. Proceeding with an 'indecent' theological lens, as proposed by Marcella Althaus-Reid, we argue that Pentecostalism's liturgical practices ironically and unconsciously open up possibilities for more embodied, real, and sexed experiences of the divine. This consideration not only expands the interpretive possibilities for how we mark relationships with the divine, but also how sexual relationships between humans are shaped and possibly destigmatized. In taking a sneak peek 'under God's skirt', in Althaus-Reid's words, we reimagine the indecent as sacred. Through an analysis of how bodies and rituals are marked by discursive practices within the songs and performances in these churches and an examination of a blasphemy case, this essay lays bare the critical spaces available for more embodied theologies - 'sexual healing' that perhaps even the worshipers themselves have unconsciously ignored. <![CDATA[<b><i>Taking offense: Religion, art and visual culture in plural configurations</i>, by Christiane Kruse, Birgit Meyer, and Anne-Marie Korte (eds.) 2018</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1011-76012019000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Pentecostalism, like many other church traditions, is well known for its fixation with doctrinal dualisms which enforce a separation of body and spirit, and a Puritan sexual ethic. These conservative sexual norms have led to the policing of bodies and sexual practices. As a result, instead of encouraging safer sexual practices, the churches have been known to enforce abstinence outside of marriage, or sexual restrictions within it, thus marking sex in general as 'indecent'. Some of the consequences of this repression of sexuality are young people being forced into early marriages to avoid 'living in sin', teenage pregnancies as a consequence of not wanting to disobey the church's teaching on sex and contraceptives, as well as more serious consequences of unbridled sexual expressions resulting in sexually transmitted viruses. The consequences of a repressed sexuality are indeed serious. However, what if this 'repressive hypothesis' can be challenged within Pentecostal spaces? What if, like Foucault suggests, a deeper engagement with the subject matter would show, not sexual censorship, but rather a re-channeling of sexuality? Drawing on Foucault's challenge to the repressive hypothesis, where he suggests that so-called repressed sexuality finds 'appropriate' outlets in spaces such as psychiatry and prostitution, this essay suggests a third outlet, namely Pentecostalism. While particular sexual discourses may be constructed as indecent and contaminated as 'sin', liturgical and deliverance practices ironically signify erotic relationships between the divine and the believer. Proceeding with an 'indecent' theological lens, as proposed by Marcella Althaus-Reid, we argue that Pentecostalism's liturgical practices ironically and unconsciously open up possibilities for more embodied, real, and sexed experiences of the divine. This consideration not only expands the interpretive possibilities for how we mark relationships with the divine, but also how sexual relationships between humans are shaped and possibly destigmatized. In taking a sneak peek 'under God's skirt', in Althaus-Reid's words, we reimagine the indecent as sacred. Through an analysis of how bodies and rituals are marked by discursive practices within the songs and performances in these churches and an examination of a blasphemy case, this essay lays bare the critical spaces available for more embodied theologies - 'sexual healing' that perhaps even the worshipers themselves have unconsciously ignored.