Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Old Testament Essays]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1010-991920160003&lang=es vol. 29 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Greatness versus Smallness: A Postcolonial Analysis of the Healing of Naaman (2 Kings 5)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article analyses the dichotomy of greatness versus smallness in 2 Kgs 5. It argues that Naaman's real disease was an unhealthy attitude towards greatness, and Elisha primarily cured it. From the discourse of the story, Aram 's and Naaman 's looting and oppression of the weaker nation and individuals is borne from this disease. The investigation of this article is also postcolonial, drawing parallels between attitudes and power imbalances in the narrative and those of colonial relationships. The above-named concepts are merged with the method of literary narrative criticism to trace the text's reproof of imperialist ideology. <![CDATA[<b>Heroes and Villains in 2 Maccabees 8:1-36 - A Rhetorical Analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In recent years, scholarly contributions to the study of 2 Maccabees have shifted towards a focus on larger themes and rhetorical elements. This, in turn, allowed for a deeper understanding of the narrative aim and the persuasive nature of the text. This article builds on traditional rhetorical analysis and adds to the discussion by investigating a neglected aspect namely the communicative strategy. It further explores an otherwise unnoted concept: a contract of trust between the implicit reader and a group or individual within the text. The vindication and legitimisation of the group of heroes within the text is shown to be a fundamental element in a strategy which presents the heroes as fully authoritative and their actions as unquestionable. Such a communicative strategy proves to be ideal for moving the reader to adopt the main proposition: the fate of the Jews is intimately connected to the scale of God's wrath and mercy. <![CDATA[<b>Loyalty and Liberation: <em>Skopos</em> Theory's Ethic in Dialogue with Contextual Bible Study's Commitments</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper explores how Christiane Nord's ethic of translator loyalty could be invigorated in African Bible translation by engaging the social commitments of Contextual Bible Study, a practice of Bible reading and action developed in South Africa. After describing Nord's concept of loyalty and its prevalence in African Bible translation, the paper notes the challenge of practicing loyalty amidst complex power dynamics in the post-colonial context of Ghana. The paper then imagines how Christiane Nord's four poles of translator loyalty could be reconfigured if they included the social commitments and interpretative practices of Contextual Bible Study. The goal is to situate translators so they can produce a translation that offers details from critical scholarship and from actual Contextual Bible Study experiences which marginalised groups in their audience may find liberating. An experimental English translation of Job 3 is included for reference. <![CDATA[<b>"Hey, you!</b> <b>Job! Listen up." Elihu's Use of Job's Name and its Implications for Translation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the context of the book of Job and in light of patterns of biblical Hebrew usage, Elihu's uses of Job's name in direct address are strongly marked and reveal him as sharply disrespectful to Job. This should influence interpretation of the Elihu chapters and be reflected in Bible translations, taking into account cultural patterns for using names. Examples from northern Mozambique provide contrast to English, French, and Portuguese patterns. <![CDATA[<b>Les raisons de la violence de l'attaque des Asaphites contre les Coréites en Jr 9,1-7, ou l'exclusion des chantres Coréites comme contrepartie de l'intégration des Ezrahites par les Asaphites</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Le livre de Jérémie de tendance asaphite, s'en prend violement en Jr 8,18-9,7, aux psaumes coréites et plus particulièrement Ps 84,8, et ά travers eux aux pèlerinages coréites qui leurs apparaissent insupportables comme alternative ά la démarche de pèlerinage des Ps 120-134 dans les pas de David lors du transfert de l'arche. La démarche coréite est-elle conçue en l'absence de messie davidique.<hr/>The book of Jeremiah with respect to the Asaphite line in Jr 8,18-9,7 appears to be quite aggressive against the Korahite psalms, especially when one takes Ps 84,8 into consideration. It is an attack against the Korahite pilgrimages, unsupportable as alternative to the pilgrimage of Pss 120-134 according to the manner in which David transferred the ark. The approach of the Korahites is without a Davidic messiah. <![CDATA[<b>Social Disorder and the Trauma of the Earth Community: Reading Hosea 4:1-3 in Light of Today's Crises</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The world currently faces terrible issues of corruption, conflicts, political instabilities, violence and injustices causing traumatic experiences for humans and nature. Likewise, Hos 4:1-3 offers a link between the corruption of the Israelite society and the wounds of the Earth community. These three verses are generally read as a genre, in which Yahweh brings a lawsuit against the people of Israel. However, scholars mostly focus on the crimes and fate of humans, and ignore or silence the expression of trauma of the Earth as mourning and its non-human members as languishing. Using the framework of trauma studies, the insights of "Cosmic Covenant" from the book of Murray (1992) and the Earth Bible principles of interconnectedness and voice, this article aims to explore a unique aspect of Hosea's rhetoric of trauma establishing the relationship between people's misdeeds and the wounds of the natural world. <![CDATA[<b>Did H Influence D on an Early or a Late Stage of the Redaction of D?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Although D is generally regarded as older than H, it has often been observed that H also seems to have affected D. While this impact of H on D usually has been explained as a late redaction of D, it is argued in this paper by a few examples based on my dissertation that the impact of H on D rather should be seen as an impact on an early stage of the redaction of D. This short paper, which was first presented at the IOSOT Conference in Stellenbosch, is expanded by a postscript with a brief response to some points of the discussion <![CDATA[<b>From the Mountain of Yhwh to Israel's </b><strong>מנוחה</strong><b>: The Desert Itinerary of Numbers 10:11-36</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This essay argues that the post-Sinai itinerary narratives depicted in Numbers are organized into two clusters (Num 10:11-36 and 20:2222:1), both of which depict the first generation of Israelites of the exodus, and that the first of these functions as the conclusion to Num 1:1-10:10. The first narrative depicts a generation fully instructed and compliant with divine instruction (Num 1:1-10:10) that resumes the march that began on Passover night, upon the Lord's command given through Moses (10:13). The goal of the first itinerary cluster is the ark finding rest for the people (––•••, Num 10:33). Furthermore, this essay argues that the syntactical function of the itinerary verbs in Num 11:35 and 12:16 subordinate them to the theme of complaint and rebellion against authority, which begins in 11:1, and that therefore they do not depict the continuation of the journey that began in Num 10:12. It is within this narrative of complaint that the second itinerary cluster emerges, beginning in Num 20:22 and ending in 22:1, to depict the same generation as non-compliant and rebellious. <![CDATA[<b><em>Angelo o Angela?</em> Issues of degenderization in the depictions of angelic beings in the Bible</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Most studies of angelic beings in the Bible do not attempt to interrogate their gender presumably because of Jesus' statement in Matt 22:30 that angels do not marry neither are they given in marriage. Therefore, this article offers a textual review of biblical women's encounter with angelic beings and of instances in Scriptures in which angelic beings appear in what appear to be gendered forms which call into question the assumption that angels are sexless or genderless. It is argued that some form of degenderization is discernible in the depiction of these celestial beings in the Bible which could have significant implications for feminist biblical discourse of the ancient texts. <![CDATA[<b>A Proposal for the Restoration of Job 34:26-30 in Elihu's Second Speech</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Commentators found the unit Job 34:26-30, in Elihu's second speech, difficult to interpret and translate because of its thematic incoherence, abrupt style, and use of ambiguous terms. It has been generally assumed that the unit underwent some corruption in the historical transmission process. This paper attempts to restore a sound thematic flow to vv. 26-30 using standard text-critical methods. It is being shown that relatively few minor text-critical emendations allow to obtain a simple and coherent text, having a typical (for the Book of Job) 3:3 meter. The resolution of the difficulties in the unit is premised on the notion that the unit is focused on potentates that have lost their moral compass and God's reaction to their deeds. From this perspective, vv. 26-30 fit contextually the larger unit in which it is embedded (vv. 16-30), which deals with God's righteous management of nations and people. Job's personal problem is addressed only indirectly. Job can deduce from Elihu's words that: his punishments indicate that he sinned; he is ignorant of God's ways and abandoned moral behavior; he has caused anguish to the destitute, which reached heaven; he cannot compel God to confront him; and, God works in mysterious ways. Elihu's message to Job is hard hitting, but it is not devoid of hope. <![CDATA[<b>An Overview of the Study of Imprecatory Psalms: Reformed and Evangelical Approaches to the Interpretation of Imprecatory Psalms</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article looks at some interpretive issues regarding the so-called imprecatory psalms, focusing on the debate within reformed and evangelical circles. Introductory issues regarding these psalms abound, such as their definition and scope and the question whether they constitute a specific genre or subgenre within the Psalter. More important are hermeneutical issues regarding the rationale or motivation behind these psalms, namely the reasons why they were written in the first place. These issues also inform the relevance for the present day reader, specifically the New Testament reader, or vice versa: the perceived relevance informs the interpreter's stance on the rationale of these psalms. The article argues that reformed and evangelical scholars' interpretations of imprecation Psalms are largely led by their presuppositions about the relation between the Old and New Testament. The article concludes by suggesting that the deadlock in approaches could be resolved by an in-depth exegesis of the specific psalms taking into account the divergent presuppositions of contemporary interpreters. <![CDATA[<b>Cain and Vulnerability: The Reception of Cain in <i>Genesis Rabbah </i>22 and <i>Targum Onkelos, Targum Neofiti </i>and <i>Targum Pseudo-Jonathan</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This essay enquires into the reception of the story of Cain and Abel (Gen 4) in late ancient Judaism (Genesis Rabbah, Targum Onkelos, Targum Neofiti, and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan) with regard to the way Cain is portrayed differently from how he is depicted in the Hebrew text. The perspective from which his portrayal in the Jewish literature of late antiquity will be viewed is that of vulnerability or fragility, asking the question whether the reception of Cain in Jewish antiquity allow for such vulnerability in the interpretation of the story, or does he remain a villainous character who refused to be redeemed. The question of the redemption of Cain is formulated within a her-meneutic of vulnerability as a framework to deal with the perpetration of apartheid. The following aspects of the story are discussed: the birth of Cain, his occupation, the sacrifice, Cain's reaction to the sacrifice, the deity's questioning of Cain, the conversation in the field, the murder, the blood of Abel, Cain's curse, his response, and his punishment. The study concludes that although the reception portrays Cain as a villain par excellence, there are aspects in the representations that provide glimpses of redemption for Cain, implying a particular vulnerability. <![CDATA[<i>Priestly Rule: Polemic and Biblical Interpretation in Ezekiel 44</i>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This essay enquires into the reception of the story of Cain and Abel (Gen 4) in late ancient Judaism (Genesis Rabbah, Targum Onkelos, Targum Neofiti, and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan) with regard to the way Cain is portrayed differently from how he is depicted in the Hebrew text. The perspective from which his portrayal in the Jewish literature of late antiquity will be viewed is that of vulnerability or fragility, asking the question whether the reception of Cain in Jewish antiquity allow for such vulnerability in the interpretation of the story, or does he remain a villainous character who refused to be redeemed. The question of the redemption of Cain is formulated within a her-meneutic of vulnerability as a framework to deal with the perpetration of apartheid. The following aspects of the story are discussed: the birth of Cain, his occupation, the sacrifice, Cain's reaction to the sacrifice, the deity's questioning of Cain, the conversation in the field, the murder, the blood of Abel, Cain's curse, his response, and his punishment. The study concludes that although the reception portrays Cain as a villain par excellence, there are aspects in the representations that provide glimpses of redemption for Cain, implying a particular vulnerability. <![CDATA[<i>At the Altar of Wall Street: The Rituals, Myths, Theologies, Sacraments, and Mission of the Religion Known as the Modern Global Economy</i>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This essay enquires into the reception of the story of Cain and Abel (Gen 4) in late ancient Judaism (Genesis Rabbah, Targum Onkelos, Targum Neofiti, and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan) with regard to the way Cain is portrayed differently from how he is depicted in the Hebrew text. The perspective from which his portrayal in the Jewish literature of late antiquity will be viewed is that of vulnerability or fragility, asking the question whether the reception of Cain in Jewish antiquity allow for such vulnerability in the interpretation of the story, or does he remain a villainous character who refused to be redeemed. The question of the redemption of Cain is formulated within a her-meneutic of vulnerability as a framework to deal with the perpetration of apartheid. The following aspects of the story are discussed: the birth of Cain, his occupation, the sacrifice, Cain's reaction to the sacrifice, the deity's questioning of Cain, the conversation in the field, the murder, the blood of Abel, Cain's curse, his response, and his punishment. The study concludes that although the reception portrays Cain as a villain par excellence, there are aspects in the representations that provide glimpses of redemption for Cain, implying a particular vulnerability. <![CDATA[<i>Handbuch der Geschichte der Sklaverei: Eine Globalgeschichte von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart</i>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This essay enquires into the reception of the story of Cain and Abel (Gen 4) in late ancient Judaism (Genesis Rabbah, Targum Onkelos, Targum Neofiti, and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan) with regard to the way Cain is portrayed differently from how he is depicted in the Hebrew text. The perspective from which his portrayal in the Jewish literature of late antiquity will be viewed is that of vulnerability or fragility, asking the question whether the reception of Cain in Jewish antiquity allow for such vulnerability in the interpretation of the story, or does he remain a villainous character who refused to be redeemed. The question of the redemption of Cain is formulated within a her-meneutic of vulnerability as a framework to deal with the perpetration of apartheid. The following aspects of the story are discussed: the birth of Cain, his occupation, the sacrifice, Cain's reaction to the sacrifice, the deity's questioning of Cain, the conversation in the field, the murder, the blood of Abel, Cain's curse, his response, and his punishment. The study concludes that although the reception portrays Cain as a villain par excellence, there are aspects in the representations that provide glimpses of redemption for Cain, implying a particular vulnerability. <![CDATA[Teófilo Correa, Lael Caesar & Joel Turpo (editors). <i>"The end from the beginning / El fin desde el principio": Festschrift honoring Merling Alomía / Festschrift en honor a Merling Alomía</i>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This essay enquires into the reception of the story of Cain and Abel (Gen 4) in late ancient Judaism (Genesis Rabbah, Targum Onkelos, Targum Neofiti, and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan) with regard to the way Cain is portrayed differently from how he is depicted in the Hebrew text. The perspective from which his portrayal in the Jewish literature of late antiquity will be viewed is that of vulnerability or fragility, asking the question whether the reception of Cain in Jewish antiquity allow for such vulnerability in the interpretation of the story, or does he remain a villainous character who refused to be redeemed. The question of the redemption of Cain is formulated within a her-meneutic of vulnerability as a framework to deal with the perpetration of apartheid. The following aspects of the story are discussed: the birth of Cain, his occupation, the sacrifice, Cain's reaction to the sacrifice, the deity's questioning of Cain, the conversation in the field, the murder, the blood of Abel, Cain's curse, his response, and his punishment. The study concludes that although the reception portrays Cain as a villain par excellence, there are aspects in the representations that provide glimpses of redemption for Cain, implying a particular vulnerability. <![CDATA[<i>I Turned Back my Feet to Your Decrees (Psalm 119,59): Torah in the Fifth Book of the Psalter </i>(Österreichische Biblische Studien 45)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This essay enquires into the reception of the story of Cain and Abel (Gen 4) in late ancient Judaism (Genesis Rabbah, Targum Onkelos, Targum Neofiti, and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan) with regard to the way Cain is portrayed differently from how he is depicted in the Hebrew text. The perspective from which his portrayal in the Jewish literature of late antiquity will be viewed is that of vulnerability or fragility, asking the question whether the reception of Cain in Jewish antiquity allow for such vulnerability in the interpretation of the story, or does he remain a villainous character who refused to be redeemed. The question of the redemption of Cain is formulated within a her-meneutic of vulnerability as a framework to deal with the perpetration of apartheid. The following aspects of the story are discussed: the birth of Cain, his occupation, the sacrifice, Cain's reaction to the sacrifice, the deity's questioning of Cain, the conversation in the field, the murder, the blood of Abel, Cain's curse, his response, and his punishment. The study concludes that although the reception portrays Cain as a villain par excellence, there are aspects in the representations that provide glimpses of redemption for Cain, implying a particular vulnerability. <![CDATA[<b>Retraction Notice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192016000300019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This essay enquires into the reception of the story of Cain and Abel (Gen 4) in late ancient Judaism (Genesis Rabbah, Targum Onkelos, Targum Neofiti, and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan) with regard to the way Cain is portrayed differently from how he is depicted in the Hebrew text. The perspective from which his portrayal in the Jewish literature of late antiquity will be viewed is that of vulnerability or fragility, asking the question whether the reception of Cain in Jewish antiquity allow for such vulnerability in the interpretation of the story, or does he remain a villainous character who refused to be redeemed. The question of the redemption of Cain is formulated within a her-meneutic of vulnerability as a framework to deal with the perpetration of apartheid. The following aspects of the story are discussed: the birth of Cain, his occupation, the sacrifice, Cain's reaction to the sacrifice, the deity's questioning of Cain, the conversation in the field, the murder, the blood of Abel, Cain's curse, his response, and his punishment. The study concludes that although the reception portrays Cain as a villain par excellence, there are aspects in the representations that provide glimpses of redemption for Cain, implying a particular vulnerability.