Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Old Testament Essays]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1010-991920170001&lang=es vol. 30 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>On evidence and knowledge</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Younger-brother motif in Genesis as an object of love and hatred in the family: Tensions, conflicts and reflection for the contemporary African family</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The younger-brother motif in the book of Genesis reflects tension and conflict in a family. The younger brother in some cases becomes an object of hatred to his siblings but is loved by the parent and this has devastating consequences for the family. This paper analyses five younger brother-motif texts, highlighting the various types of family conflicts demonstrated in the narratives. It further explores the theological significance of the use of the motif in Genesis. The family problems raised in the narratives also persist in the African family. The paper recommends, among others, going back to the traditional moral training of the African child to build the conscience as a step to resolution of the conflicts in the contemporary African family. <![CDATA[<b>Brothers in conflict: Reading the Prophet Obadiah against the context of the political and religious hostility and violence in Nigeria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article discusses the resemblances between the text of the Prophet Obadiah and Nigeria within the political, economic, ethnic, and religious contexts of conflict and hostility of the latter. It puts forward the divine scandal, parental attitude of favouritism, and the careless disposition as well as the manipulative role of the Israelite and Edomites' progenitors as the foundational root factors for the expression of generational hostility presented in this prophetic book. In contrast, the article holds the British colonial legacy and the Muslim Hausa-Fulani political manipulative domination and its self-imposed superiority de facto status accountable as the propelling aggravating factors for the incessant political and religious conflicts and hostility in Nigeria. It concludes by proposing the application of divine moral laws by people in governance in order to achieve for the country a just, fair, equitable, and a cohesive Nigerian society of true brotherhood and nationhood. <![CDATA[<b>Employing language typology for teaching Biblical Hebrew: A test case in Cantonese-Chinese</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article follows upon Jacobus A. Naudé and Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé's "A New Biblical Teaching Grammar for African Bible Translators" (OTE 24/3 [2011]), which presented a paradigm shift for teaching Biblical Hebrew to non-native English speakers. They argued that grammars and lecturers can confuse students by presenting Biblical Hebrew through the viewpoint of English (and other Indo-European languages) in which elements of the English grammar may fundamentally differ from the grammars of the students' native languages. They proposed that such problems can be avoided or mitigated by employing language typology (how languages and components of language are classified according to their formal features). This article utilizes Cantonese-Chinese as a test case for demonstrating how language typology may be specifically applied in the instruction of Biblical Hebrew to students from one particular language. It illustrates how employing language typology addresses the wide range of grammatical concepts in Biblical Hebrew, specifically the points of (non)correspondence between Biblical Hebrew versus Cantonese and English. <![CDATA[<b>A literary-rhetorical analysis of Psalm 93 for translation and performance in isiZulu</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The proposition underlying this research is that interested isiZulu-speakers could use a systematic methodology to translate selected praise psalms in a poetically-beautiful and rhetorically-powerful way. The methodology has three elements: first the poetic features in the Hebrew text (and their functions) are analysed, using the literary-rhetorical approach of Wendland. Second, for an empirical study, isiZulu-speakers interested in poetry are invited to participate in a workshop to learn the basics of Bible-translation and typicalfeatures of Zulu poetry and music. They then compose their own translations of some praise psalms (using Zulu poetic features achieving a similar function to those in the source text) and perform their poems as songs or spoken-poetry items. Third, the success of the exercise is evaluated on the basis of functional translation, using the traditional criteria of accuracy, naturalness, and clarity, as well as the additional criteria of artistry, aurality, and acceptability. <![CDATA[<b>You shall not kill them: Reading 2 Kings 6:8-23 in the context of the conflict in the African Great Lakes Region</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The African Great Lakes Region is now renowned across the globe for its history of persistent conflicts. A pattern observable especially in the Burundi, in Rwanda and in the Democratic Republic of Congo, is a succession of political regimes where each time the new regime indicts its predecessor for failing to end the spiral of deadly ethnic conflicts. When the previously oppressed social group finally snatches power it resolves to neutralize the rival social group by becoming the new oppressor. The attitude of the leaders in this region finds echo in the OT where some Israelite kings adopted a similar strategy. This could be observed in the story narrated in 2 Kgs 6:8-23 about a kind of Israel in conflict with an Aramean king. Traumatised by the oppression that his people had suffered from the Arameans, and now in a position of strength, the king of Israel would not want to miss the opportunity to put off the threat for good by annihilating the enemy. But Elisha the good adviser to the king had a different solution, not to kill the now weak enemies but to show them an alternative way of relating. The present paper draws attention to this particular voice in the narrative that is opposed to violence; it focuses on Elisha's approach advocating for turning enemies into friends. Elisha's approach in the narrated conflict is found to be in tune with some teachings of Jesus in the gospels. The essay reads the narrative in the context of the African Great Lakes region with the aim of exploring the relevance of Elisha's pacifist approach to contemporary conflicts such as that experienced in this region of Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Leadership in a time of transition: An analogy between post-exilic Judah/Yehud and post-apartheid South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es There are certain analogies between the post-exilic community in Judah (or Persian Yehud and post-apartheid South Africa. According to the OT two prominent leaders took responsibility for the rebuilding of post-exilic Judah/Yehud: the governor Zerubbabel and the high priest Joshua (cf. Ezra, Nehemiah, Haggai and Zechariah). Two prominent leaders made a major contribution in post-apartheid South Africa: president Nelson Mandela as political leader and archbishop Desmond Tutu as religious leader. This article will make a comparison between these two different communities and their leaders. The article will briefly discuss the respective leaders and will focus on the following analogies: both communities had an influential political leader and a religious leader; the diarchic model of leadership lasted only a few years in Judah/Yehud and in South Africa; the concept of forgiveness played a significant role in both communities (cf. Zech 3 and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission); there was a temple building process in Judah/Yehud and a process of nation building in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Jeremiah 32:17-18a: The great and powerful God shows steadfast love to thousands, but punishes sin</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The author of Jeremiah's prayer (Jer 32:16-25) used fixed expressions from various texts. In 32:17-18a he applied material borrowed from Jer 27:5 and Deut 5:9-10; 7:10 to portray Yhwh as the great and powerful God, who shows steadfast love to thousands, but punishes sin. I will argue that this portrayal of Yhwh became the guiding theme in Jeremiah's prayer (32:16-25) and Yhwh reply to the prayer (32:26-44). In the prayer, set at a time when Judah was experiencing the power of the Babylonians, Yhwh's incomparable power and his disposition to intercede testify to the fact that the prophet expected him to intervene. From Yhwh's reply to the prayer (32:26-44) it is evident that it was his incomparable power that would enable the exiles to return and to start a new life in Benjamin and Judah. The motivation for restoring his people lies solely within the realm of the initiative of the God who shows steadfast love to thousands. <![CDATA[<b>The strong and the fat heart in the Old Testament: Does God hearten the heart?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article looks at the different Hebrew terms used in connection with the stubbornness of the heart. Is there a difference between "making the heart strong" and "making the heart fat"? And what other verbs are used in these contexts where God is active in the hearts of human beings? It also asks how these divine actions are related to the actions of the respective humans. To do this, we will first look at the anthropological meaning of the term "heart" in the OT and then relate this meaning to the different verbs used for God's actions. The article starts with the assumption of a syn-chronic reading of the OT and also tries to answer the question of whether or not there is also some change or development of the terms used for God's working in the hearts of human beings throughout the different books of the OT. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192017000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es