Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Old Testament Essays]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=1010-991920200001&lang=es vol. 33 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Reading Trauma Narratives: Insidious Trauma in the Story of Rachel, Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah (Genesis 29-30) and Margaret Atwood's <i>The Handmaid's Tale</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article investigates the notion of insidious trauma as a helpful means of interpreting the story of Rachel, Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah as told in Genesis 29-30 that has found its way into the haunting trauma narrative of Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale. In the first instance, this article outlines the category of insidious trauma as it is situated in terms of the broader field of trauma hermeneutics, as well as the way in which it relates to the related disciplines of feminist and womanist biblical interpretation. This article will then continue to show how insidious trauma features in two very different, though intrinsically connected trauma narratives, i.e., the world imagined by Atwood in The Handmaid's Tale, and the biblical narrative regarding the four women through whose reproductive efforts the house of Israel had been built that served as the inspiration for Atwood's novel. This article argues that these trauma narratives, on the one hand, reflect the ongoing effects of systemic violation in terms of gender, race and class, but also how, embedded in these narratives there are signs of resistance that serve as the basis ofsurvival of the self and also of others. <![CDATA[<b>Trauma and Post-Trauma in the Book of Ezekiel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Reading the Book of Ezekiel in the light of modern sociological and psychological research dealing with emigration, exile and refugees, leads to a better and brighter understanding of the human experience in the Babylonian exile. In Ezekiel's oracles, prophecies and speeches (especially texts such as Ezekiel 3:22-27, 4:4-8 and chapters 16; 23) there are signs of post-traumatic symptoms, not necessarily individual, rather communal. The present article examines the texts in question in the light of clinical, sociological and philosophical literature dealing with forced-migration related trauma. <![CDATA[<b>Featuring of Islam in the writings, particularly Old Testament commentaries, of Adrianus Van Selms (1906-1984)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Adrianus van Selms is well known for especially two studies related to Islam, viz. a Muslim Catechism (1951) and a publication entitled 'Abu Bakr's Exposition of the Religion' (1979). Both feature Afrikaans texts, dating from the second half of the 19th century, written in Arabic letters for the benefit of the local population. Van Selms, furthermore, contributed to an Afrikaans publication with the title In Gesprek met Islam oor die Moslem Belydenis [In Conversation with Islam as regards the Muslim Confession of Faith] (1974), providing an elaborate discussion with respect to Islam against the background of the Old and New Testaments and Church History. Van Selms, inter alia, opined, "For reasons concealed from us, it pleased God to chastise his church with Muslims' words and conduct." Similar statements are found in 8th and 9th century Christian polemical texts (cf. Griffiths 2008). In his books focusing on Jerusalem and Northern Israel, Van Selms (1967) expresses his appreciation for the Muslim material culture, and customs related to those practised in Old and New Testament times. For the purpose of the present paper, however, attention will specifically be given to the contextualisation of references to Islam in Van Selms' biblical commentaries, for example the mentioning of a tradition recounted by al-Tabari (839-923 CE) during the exposition of Gen 3:1; a comparison of Muslim and biblical rules of marital conduct (Ex 21:21) that come to the fore in Gen 30:14-6; and finally the parallels drawn between the religious exclusivity evident in Ezra 10:11 and the Muslim concept of ummah. <![CDATA[<b></b><b>Die Bedeutung des Ausdrucks </b><b>„</b><b>am </b><b>Tag</b><b> ..." in Genesis 2,4 im Rahmen des Pentateuch</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The interpretation of bdjam in Gen 2:4 as "when" in the sense of an unspecific period of time has often been used as an argument to defend an allegorical or figurative interpretation of the days of creation. A comparison with parallel grammatical constructions throughout the Pentateuch casts severe doubts on that idea, which are confirmed by a closer exegetical analysis of bdjôm in Gen 2:4b in its individual literary contexts (Gen 2:4a, 1:1, 2:5-3:24, especially the parallel narrative sequence following 5:1-2). Without "Systemzwang," all arguments point to the natural understanding of bdjöm in Gen 2:4 as "in the day," referring to a specific day, the first day of creation. <![CDATA[<b>"The Future in the Land belongs to us": Conflicting Perceptions on the Land in Jeremiah 32:1-44 (LXX 39:1-44)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article examines Jeremiah 32, a chapter closely linked to the purchase of a field in Anathoth by the prophet Jeremiah at a time when the fall of Jerusalem in 587B.C.E. was imminent. Jeremiah 32 is a multi-layered text presenting evidence of the adaptation of Jeremiah's sign-act by various groups. While it is likely that the oldest core, verses 6b-15, presents the perspective of the people remaining in Judah after 587 B.C.E., in its final form the chapter promotes the interests of the Babylonian exiles. Although the uncovering of conflicting perceptions with regard to the land demonstrates that the use of Jeremiah 32 in present-day reflections on the land question is risky, the chapter highlights the importance of land issues. It furthermore demonstrates that biblical texts, applied in contemporary land issues, should be subjected to exhaustive redactional analyses. The different redactional stages of the texts may reveal conflicting ideologies. <![CDATA[<b>The Law and Society in the Old Testament: Formulation and Implementation of the Law in Ancient Israel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Various laws were practised in ancient Israel. Although the present study will introduce briefly the concept of law as practised in Ancient Near East (ANE) in general, the project focuses particularly on ancient Israel as depicted by the Old Testament (OT) law traditions. The study seeks to investigate two main issues, namely: (1) formulation and implementation of the laws in ancient Israel, and (2) the application of the OT laws during the New Testament (NT) era and in Christendom. An attempt is made to respond to the following three research questions: (1) how were the OT laws formulated and implemented? (2) Were the OT laws the same as those practised by pagan nations or kings? (3) what is the NT/Christian view of the OT laws? In its entirety, the discourse will utilise two approaches, namely: (1) narrative inquiry, and (2) desk research. <![CDATA[<b>Returning to Yahweh and Yahweh's Return</b><b>: Aspects of שׁוּב</b><b>“•’” in the Book of Malachi</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article examines aspects of —“•’” in the book of Malachi against the background of an obvious complementary and inadequate pattern of Israel/Judah's repentance and incomplete restoration. As people whose history is characterised by covenant failure and refusal to repent, the book of Malachi present a robust conglomeration of persistent noncompliance and rebellion of the postexilic Yehudite community, thus making her guilty of unfaithfulness and unworthy of Yahweh's restoration. The article surveys aspects of —“•’” in three relative books of the Book of the Twelve and then examines three seemingly connected aspects; namely, Torah compliance, return to the right cult and Yahweh's return in the book of Malachi. What emerges at the end of this article is that Israel/Judah's hope of spiritual revitalisation, and complete restoration, is her faithful and wholehearted return to the right cult and to Yahweh's Torah. <![CDATA[<b>The Death of Samson</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article examines the story of Samson's death. From the time that he was captured by the Philistines until his death, the Bible describes at length the events that led to his downfall. This includes three major parts. The first Philistine event was jubilation at the temple of their god Dagon, which consists of two short rhymes which appear in poetic form. This was followed by Samson's plea for God's help and the destruction of the Philistine's temple. The last part mentions Samson's burial. Examination of the Philistine's rhymes reveals that they ascribe Samson's downfall to their god, which adds a religious dimension to the story. Samson was the only person whose death wish was granted. His death wish is similar to other death wishes from the ancient world. The mention of his burial and its location links the end of the story to its beginning, which is the story of his birth. <![CDATA[<b><i>Genesis 1-11, </i>Herders Theologischer Kommentar zum Alten Testament</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-99192020000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article examines the story of Samson's death. From the time that he was captured by the Philistines until his death, the Bible describes at length the events that led to his downfall. This includes three major parts. The first Philistine event was jubilation at the temple of their god Dagon, which consists of two short rhymes which appear in poetic form. This was followed by Samson's plea for God's help and the destruction of the Philistine's temple. The last part mentions Samson's burial. Examination of the Philistine's rhymes reveals that they ascribe Samson's downfall to their god, which adds a religious dimension to the story. Samson was the only person whose death wish was granted. His death wish is similar to other death wishes from the ancient world. The mention of his burial and its location links the end of the story to its beginning, which is the story of his birth.