Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Chemistry]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0379-435020220001&lang=en vol. 76 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Evaluating the influence of interactive simulations on learners' academic performance in stoichiometry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0379-43502022000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Traditional teaching strategies dominate science classrooms in Lesotho, resulting in poor academic performance at each level. Information and Communication Technology tools such as simulations offer potential benefits for improving science teaching. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the effect of simulations on learners' performance and retention of stoichiometry concepts using Solomon's four-group design. Purposive sampling of two existing Form E (Grade 12) classes, with 81 learners, led to the creation of four groups. The study responds to the research question: How does using simulations as part of an intervention affect learners' academic performance in stoichiometry? Data were collected as learners' scores for pre-tests and post-tests, designed to assess their understanding of stoichiometry, and analysed through ANOVA and t-tests. After the intervention, the experimental group's mean score (M = 44.2, a = 18) was higher than that of control group (M = 32.6, a = 15.8), and the difference between the two mean scores was statistically significant, namely t(81) = 3.14, p = 0.002. The experimental group had a higher mean score for retention in post-test (M = 47.4, a =16.1) than the control group (M = 37.2, a = 13.7) which was statistically significant, namely t(81) = 3.10, p = 0.003. Therefore, it was concluded that simulations enhanced learners' performance and could improve the retention of stoichiometry concepts. This study recommends that simulations be used to supplement the teaching and learning of science, in particular chemistry. <![CDATA[<b>Synthesis and characterization of amine-functionalized supported phosphine catalysts and their application in ethylene oligomerization</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0379-43502022000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A series of phosphorus and nitrogen-based ethylene oligomerization ligands of the type Ph2PN(X)PPh2 where X = i-propyl, n-butyl, ethylbenzene and cyclohexyl substituents are reported. These ligands were functionalized to enable tethering on amino-silica. The free ligands, amino-silica and the tethered ligands were characterized by BET, XRD, IR, TGA and NMR. The catalysts were tested for ethylene oligomerization using Cr(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) as the precursor and MMAO (modified methylaluminoxane) as the activator. The activity and selectivity of these catalysts to 1-octene was monitored at 45 bar ethylene in the temperature range of45-100 °C. The activity of the supported catalysts was comparable to their homogeneous counterparts, surpassing them in some cases and selectivities to 1-octene in the C8 products were as high as 99 wt%. The steric effect of the substituent on the ligand as well as that of the support was found to influence the activity and product distribution. <![CDATA[<b>The analysis of alcohol content in hand sanitisers (in the Durban region) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry during the COVID-19 pandemic</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0379-43502022000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented surge in the demand for alcohol-based hand sanitisers (ABHS). The Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and World Health Organisation (WHO) recommend alcohol, i.e., isopropanol or ethanol, at a 60-95% concentration in ABHS for sufficient antiviral protection. Consumers need to be vigilant of substandard hand sanitisers being marketed to the public. The frequent exposure of microorganisms to alcohol concentrations below the recommended range for infection prevention may lead to resistant mutations, and above the range may be ineffective. Therefore, this study aimed to verify the stated alcohol content in hand sanitisers from their respective labels. We analysed 50 hand sanitiser samples available to our region in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, using a Shimadzu GC-MS-QP2010 Ultra equipped with a Zebron ZB-wax capillary column. The hand sanitisers analysed had a range of 44-93% alcohol content. The data from our study also revealed that 32% (16) of hand sanitisers did not adhere to the stated alcohol indicated on their labels. 16% (8) contained &gt;80% and 12% (6) contained <60%, while 6% (3) of the ABHS contained 1-propanol and ethyl acetate as contaminants, respectively. This study clearly emphasises manufacturers' exploitation of the pandemic and the need for stricter guidelines and regulations for consistency amongst ABHS manufacturers. The public should also be more alert to the % alcohol stated (ideal range 60-80%) on the sanitizer bottle and note one needs to rub their hands together until it feels dry. <![CDATA[<b>The simultaneous synthesis of carbon dots and carbon spheres with tunable sizes using a vertical chemical vapour deposition method</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0379-43502022000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Herein we report on the direct synthesis of solid hydrophobic carbon dots (CDs) and simultaneously carbon spheres (CSs), using a vertical chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor. The HRTEM data indicated that the CDs and CSs originated from different carbon building blocks indicated that the CDs and CSs originated from different carbon building blocks. The CDs were obtained by reacting acetylene (C2H2) and Ar mixtures at high flow rates (>500 sccm) and high temperatures (800-1000 °C). TEM studies indicated that the CDs produced were graphene-like quantum dots that increased in size from c. 3 nm to 8 nm as the Ar flow rate (constant C2H2 flow rate) was decreased, while small solid CSs (c. 100 nm) were also synthesised in the process. The CSs had a typical spherical layered structure with no graphitic core. A mechanism to rationalise the observation that the CDs and CSs grew simultaneously by different pathways with no formation of intermediate-sized particles is given. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of laser nephelometric and HPLC techniques for efficient determination of solubility of ibuprofen and its 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0379-43502022000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Poor drug solubility is a major problem that hinders the discovery and development of new drugs. There is a need for rapid and inexpensive techniques for acquiring reliable drug solubility data. In this study, the suitability of laser nephelometry for the determination of solubility was investigated using ibuprofen, as a model drug of low solubility, and its 2-hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (ic). This investigation involved the preparation of ibuprofen-ic-cyclodextrin (1:1) using coprecipitation and characterisation. Thermal analysis and assessment of molecular vibrations confirmed the existence of the inclusion complex. The shake flask testing method was employed and carried out in acidic and alkaline media, and solubility data were verified against high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results obtained via nephelometry showed relative enhanced solubility of ibuprofen in both acidic (0.565 mg ml-1) and basic (7.5 mg ml-1) media, respectively, which was enabled via inclusion complex formation. Relative to nephelometry data, HPLC results showed a similar trend with increased solubility values in acidic (0.454 mg ml-1) and basic (201.73 mg ml-1) media, respectively. The application of laser nephelometry proved to be a quick and relatively cost-effective technique for solubility measurements of the parent drug and its carrier system.