Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Animal Science]]> vol. 48 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Influence of dietary supplementation of ginger powder at different levels on growth performance, haematological profiles, slaughter traits and gut morphometry of broiler chickens</b>]]> The present investigation was performed to determine the impact of the dietary inclusion of ginger powder (Zingiber officinale) on the growth performance, immune response, slaughter traits, blood biochemistry and gut morphology of broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty unsexed broiler chicks (Avian 48) were randomly allocated to four equal groups (45 birds each) (G1, G2, G3 and G4), and each treatment had three replicates (15 birds/replicate). The G1 group was fed with basal diet, G2, G3 and G4 were received the basal diet plus 2 g/kg, 4 g/kg and 6 g/kg ginger powder, respectively. The trial lasted for six weeks. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in the final bodyweight of G4 compared with those of G2 and G3. However, total feed intake improved in G2 and G3 and decreased in G4. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in chicks of G3, followed by that of G2. At 42 days old, the ginger-supplemented groups showed significant increases in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titre against Newcastle Disease virus. Significant increases in the leucocyte count (WBCs) and serum total protein were noticed only in G4, and cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels decreased significantly in G4. In addition, the serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride levels decreased significantly in the ginger-supplemented groups compared with G1, and the abdominal fat percentage significantly decreased in the G3 and G4 groups. Additionally, the ginger-supplemented groups showed higher villus lengths and greater crypt depths than the control group. Supplementation with ginger powder at a moderate level up to 4 g/kg diet has beneficial effects on growth performance, and up to level 6 g/kg diet improves histological gut parameters and hypolipidemic properties of broilers. <![CDATA[<b>pH measured 24 hours post mortem should not be regarded as ultimate pH in pork meat quality evaluation</b>]]> The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of two methods in pork meat quality evaluation, that is, Method I: pH1 and pH24 and Method II: electrical conductivity (EC2) and pH24, which included pH24, and their modifications, that is, Method III: pH1 and pH48 and Method IV: EC2 and pH48, which included pH48 measurement. Five meat quality classes, namely reddish-pink, firm and non-exudative (RFN), high quality (HQ), pale, soft and exudative (PSE), dark, firm and dry (DFD) and acid meat (AM) were assessed in four even-numbered genetic groups of 40 fatteners each, namely (LxY)xD-A, (LxY)xD-EB, (LxY)xH and (LxY)x(DxP). The change of diagnostic method and therefore pH time measurement from 24 hours to 48 hours post mortem caused a major increase in the percentage of acid meat (AM) that was diagnosed. Most differences were observed in (LxY)xH fatteners, namely 77.5% between Methods I and III and 75% between Methods II and IV. This increase in AM frequency indicates that as a result of significant changes in the post-mortem metabolism that occur in the meat ageing process pH48 should be regarded as ultimate pH (pHu). <![CDATA[<b>Effect of zinc and probiotics supplementation on performance and immune organs morphology in heat stressed broilers</b>]]> The dietary supplementation of trace minerals and probiotics has long been practiced to reduce the harmful effects of high environmental temperature in poultry. The study aimed to assess the effect of single or combined supplementation of ZnSO4●H2O and probiotic (Protexin®) on the growth performance, gut biometry and immune organs histomorphology in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. For this purpose, 280 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into seven groups designated as control (basal diet), HS (heat stress + basal diet), HS-Zn30 (HS + 30 mg ZnSO4●H2O/kg feed), HS-Zn60 (HS + 60 mg ZnSO4●H2O/kg feed), HS-Pro (HS + 0.1 g Protexin®/kg feed), HS-Zn30-Pro (HS + 30 mg ZnSO4●H2O/kg feed + 0.1 g Protexin®/kg feed), and HS-Zn60-Pro (HS + 60 mg ZnSO4●H2O/kg feed + 0.1 g Protexin®/kg feed). Each group consisted of five replicates (8 birds per replicate). The birds were fed on starter (0 - 21days) and grower (22 - 42 days) diets. From day 22 onwards, the birds were exposed to cyclic heat stress (temperature and relative humidity at 35 ± 1 °C and 75 ± 5% respectively) for 8 hours. The results revealed that birds exposed to heat stress showed significant decrease in body weight (BW) and increase in feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group. The dietary supplementation of ZnSO4●H2O and probiotic either singly or in combination improved BW and FCR throughout the experimental period in heat-stressed broilers. Area of lymphatic nodule and lymphoid follicle in caecal tonsils and bursa of Fabricius increased in HS-Pro, HS-Zn30-Pro and HS-Zn60-Pro groups compared to HS group. In conclusion, zinc and probiotics combination partially improved performance and immune organs histomorphology in heat-stressed broilers. <![CDATA[<b>The comparison of three media on the <i>in vitro </i>maturation rate of pig oocytes</b>]]> In vitro embryo production in pigs remains a challenging obstacle, given the high rate of polyspermy following in vitro fertilization. Improving the efficiency of successful in vitro maturation, which leads to sequential in vitro fertilization and culture, augments the need for modern biotechnologies in pig farming systems, and subsequently conserves germplasm, that is, embryos to be used in future breeding programs. Thus, in this study the effects were compared of North Carolina State University-23 (NCSU-23), North Carolina State University-37 (NCSU-37), and epidermal growth factor (EGF/TCM-199) media on pig oocyte maturation rate and subsequent polar body formations in vitro. Ovaries were collected from a local abattoir in a controlled temperature of 39 °C. The oocytes were aspirated with an 18-gauge needle. Oocytes surrounded by a uniform complex-cumulus mass were selected. A total of 284 oocytes were allocated to the study, and were incubated with 5% CO2 at 39 °C for 48 hours. In vitro maturation rate was observed by checking the presence of expanded cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and polar body formations under a light microscope. The maturation rate and polar body formations were significantly higher in NCSU-37 with 85.9% and 81.9%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in EGF and NCSU-23 media as 77.1%; 72.5% and 77.1%; 72.7% were obtained for maturation rate and polar body formations, respectively. In conclusion, EGF and NCSU-23 had lower rates of maturation and meiotic development owing to their dissimilarities in composition. However, NSCU-37 rendered the highest results because the composition of the media contained beneficial constituents, that is, gonadotropins. New assisted reproductive programs may be important for commercial pig farming systems, as this may facilitate innovative ways of production. <![CDATA[<b>Pig diet with bioactive compounds influences quality of meat and smoked ham</b>]]> The application of novel meat sources to the production of traditional smoked premium ham was evaluated. Various feeding strategies were designed for 90 Duroc x (Duroc x Landrace) pigs. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects on the quality of meat and smoked ham when supplementing the diet of slaughter pigs with linseed oil and rapeseed oil and with the addition of vitamin E. Proximate composition, pH, texture and colour parameters of the quadriceps femoris muscles (raw pork and pork ham) were determined. The multivariate analysis of these traits demonstrated that the 3% addition of linseed oil to pigs' diet caused a decrease in the fat content in meat, and in higher meat tenderness and protein content. Diet supplementation with 3% linseed oil caused a significant increase in the technological yield of ham production (20.3%), but only in products with high fat content (8.30%). Data allowed the authors to conclude that diet supplementation with 3% linseed oil, coupled with 100 mg vitamin E, is the best form of supplementing a diet for fatteners that are reared in compliance with the rigorous principles of the pork quality system. <![CDATA[<b>Determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in livestock feeds</b>]]> The objective of this study was to examine the levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in livestock feeds (calf starter, dairy cattle, fattening cattle, calf growth, lamb starter, lamb growth, dairy sheep, fattening sheep, chick, broiler and layer hen feeds) and feed raw materials (wheat, cottonseed pulp, wheat bran, maize, barley, lentil, wheat straw, bean straw, pea straw and meadow grass). PFOA and PFOS concentrations of 30 livestock feeds, 24 raw feed materials, 9 poultry feeds and 10 water samples were determined by LC-MS/MS. The findings indicated that all the evaluated livestock feeds and feed materials contain perfluorinated compounds. Poultry, cattle, feed raw materials and sheep feed samples were examined for PFOA concentrations and for PFOS concentrations, cattle, poultry, sheep and feed raw materials samples were examined. The highest PFOA concentrations were found in layer hen feed (7.55 μg/kg), dairy cattle feed (6.75 μg/kg) and fattening cattle feed (6.53 μg/kg) respectively. The highest PFOS levels were found in layer hen feed (0.882 μg/kg), calf feed (0.833 μg/kg) and dairy sheep feed (0.830 μg/kg). <![CDATA[<b>Rumen characteristics and feed utilization in goats fed with biologically treated oil palm fronds as roughage in a total mixed ration</b>]]> Six male crossbred (Thai Native x Anglo Nubian) goats, 33.5 ± 1.7 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to a 3 x 3 replicated Latin square design to investigate the effects of fungal-treated oil palm fronds (FTOPF) on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen utilization. The treatments were untreated oil palm frond (UOPF; T1), fungal treated oil palm frond (FTOPF; T2) and fungal treated oil palm frond with urea 1% (FTOPFU; T3). The results revealed that voluntary feed intake was not significantly different among treatments, while digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF) increased significantly with FTOPF. However, the mean ruminal temperature, pH, NH3-N, blood urea-nitrogen and amount of N absorbed and retained were similar among treatments. In conclusion, FTOPF could be included in total mixed rations without any adverse effect on feed intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation efficiency, suggesting that FTOPF could be used potential as an alternative roughage source for ruminants. <![CDATA[<b>Prediction of foal individual primal cuts yield using video image analysis</b>]]> The aim of this work was to use video image analysis (VIA) technology to predict the individual primal cuts of the equine carcass. For this study, a total of 42 foal carcasses were dissected into eight primal cuts (shoulder, top blade, chuck tender, chuck, neck, blade, fore shank and brisket) from the forequarter (FQ) and eleven primal cuts (full plate, loin, tenderloin, topside, eye of round, hind shank, knuckle, flank steak, tri-tip, silverside and heel of round) from the hindquarter (HQ). The proportion of primal cuts in the total carcass ranged from 0.27% to 4.84% for the blade and shoulder in the FQ, and from 0.97% to 8.60% for the heel of round and full plate in the HQ, respectively. The neck and fore shank were the cuts for which the estimation models were most accurate in the models. These included cold carcass weight (CCW) and VIA measurements obtained in both views and had a prediction to deviation (RPD) values of 1.85 and 1.90, respectively. On the other hand, the prediction of the topside cut was the one that presented high accuracy (k-fold-R² = 0.829) and precision (RMSEcv = 0.23%) with a RPD of 2.85, which suggests a very good predictive ability of the model. Finally, it can be concluded that it is possible to explain the variation of the primal cuts yield in foals with CCW and VIA measurements, and to use this technique as a prediction tool.