Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ]]> vol. 42 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Creating youth employment through modern beekeeping: Case study of selected youth trained in Moro Local Government Kwara State, Nigeria</b>]]> The study evaluated the impact of training offered on beekeeping by Fayolam Farms in 2007 to selected youth in the Moro Local Government of Kwara State, Nigeria. The training was offered as part of a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program. Structured interview schedules were used to collect data from 116 respondents who participated in the training and who were still active in beekeeping. The results showed high levels (93%) of adoption among the males relative to their female counterparts. The mean age of participants was 28.6 years, mostly (89. 65%) were married, 44.82% had junior secondary education and were predominantly (79.31%) farmers. Hive acquisition increased progressively after the training from 5 to 30 hives on average while the total revenue generated on individual aggregate was ₦ 119, 275.00 with the share of male participants as high as 63.16%. Production challenges faced by the trainees include destruction of hives by fire, pest and diseases, pilfering and absconding of bees. It is recommended that community policing should be encouraged to address pilfering. Further training should focus on areas of challenges and also research on less aggressive bee species should be carried out for introduction. <![CDATA[<b>The roles and activities of women in the six selected agricultural projects in Thulamela Local Municipality of Vhembe District Municipality in the Limpopo Province</b>]]> Understanding the roles of women in agriculture and planning programs relevant to their roles and needs is a prerequisite for the success of agricultural development programs. This study is about the roles and activities of women in the agricultural economy in the six selected agricultural projects relating to their responsibilities in food production, food processing and distribution and secondly, the study looks at the extent of their involvement or participation in farming and decision-making. The problem investigated was the insufficient focus on women 's roles and their activities in agricultural production by the Department of Agriculture of Limpopo Province. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from a randomly selected sample of 100 women. Other primary data was obtained from another randomly selected sample of 137 farmers, that is, male (71) and female (66) farmers who formed different focus group discussions. This resulted in a random sample of 237 respondents for the study. Key informants interviews and transact walks were used to collect other primary data. Secondary data was obtained from literature. Data was compiled by using D Base Program and analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Science Program. The study results showed that women are major contributors to agriculture and play a primary role in ensuring the food security and nutritional status of their household members. Their level of participation and involvement both in terms of time and number of days they spend doing farm work exceed that of men. They have absolute freedom indecision-making. The battle for food security in the study areas can be won only if the invaluable contribution made by women is recognized, their potential as farmers can be developed and they be involved in decision-making processes. <![CDATA[<b>Understanding the dynamics of multi-stakeholder innovation systems and the opportunities for joint learning by small scale farmers</b>]]> Through a European Union funded project called JOLISAA (Joint Learning in Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), the nature of smallholder oriented innovation systems have been explored in terms of partnerships, triggers that have given rise to them and the nature of the innovations themselves. The main objective was to analyse a broad diversity of multi-stakeholder agricultural innovation processes involving smallholders. The analysis of 11 cases documented comprises innovation bundles composed of technical, organisational and institutional innovations. The eleven cases documented showed that six exhibited nontechnical innovation processes frequently related to market access as well as to inputs and services. Triggers that drive smallholders and other stakeholders to initiate innovation processes include environment stress, introduction of new technologies, identification of market change as well as policy or regulatory changes. The cases that have been documented show a variation of stakeholders responsible for initiating the process. In some cases it was smallholders approaching other stakeholders for assistance with addressing a challenge, while in other cases it was researchers or extensionists who undertook to develop an innovation to address a challenge that they had encountered through their interaction with smallholders. All documented cases have involved the contribution of ideas, knowledge and skills by at least three different types of stakeholders and the role of local knowledge has been acknowledge through the study. Out of the eleven cases three cases have been selected for a collaborative case assessment which strives to assess further key issues such as actual roles and contributions of various role-players, the dynamics of the innovation process and outcome. Several opportunities arise for joint learning with small scale farmers. <![CDATA[<b>Factors cost effectively improved using computer simulations of maize yields in semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa</b>]]> Achieving food security is a challenge for the developed and developing world. These challenges are greater for developing nations such as in Africa because of the severity of the problems. An important aspect of this is poor agricultural productivity. Worldwide, technology is being developed to increase agricultural production. One aspect of this is the development of predictive computer models that enable farmers to optimise crops using management decision based on simulation scenarios. Most African farmers do not have the computer resources or expertise to implement these types of technology. Even extension offices in Africa, who provide much needed advice, can be under resourced in this way. We suggest here that simpler computer models that are cheaper and easier to use need to be developed. As a first step in this process we investigate here which factors are most cost effectively managed using computer simulations in semi-arid conditions pertinent to much of sub-Saharan Africa. Factors known to be important in crop farming are planting date, sowing density, variety, weeding, soils and fertiliser. We use qualitative arguments with simulations and conclude that interactions between rainfall, soil condition and fertiliser can benefitfrom simulations and thus should help in their management. <![CDATA[<b>Modelling effective and simultaneous promotion of food security and biodiversity conservation through agricultural extension activities</b>]]> There is no doubt that public agricultural extension has contributed to the success of South Africa's current large-scale farmers, the fruit of which the nation still enjoys. Nonetheless, the ineffectiveness of the extension service to meet the current challenges - particularly among resource-challenged, small-holder farmers - is widely acknowledged. This ineffectiveness extends to promoting household food security within the context of encouraging biodiversity conservation on farm lands. To examine this, this paper draws on recently conducted research to sketch the current model within which extension pursues these seemingly dichotomous objectives and identifies some gaps which, if addressed, can enable extension to simultaneously meet these two objectives. The paper presents a refurbished extension model which builds on the current South African model by introducing three elements: collaboration among all the stakeholders involved in promoting food security, biodiversity conservation and agricultural extension objectives; adopting a capacity-building approach (replacing the current top-down, technology transfer approach) to support farmers who are significant actors in food security and biodiversity agendas; and re-invigorating extension institutions through introducing specific presently lacking capacities. The refurbished model postulates that extension, alongside farmers, would be better placed to foster new farming ideologies to address the food security and biodiversity conservation concerns. Better positioning of farmers, who in themselves are thinkers and problems-solvers, and simultaneous promotion of effective working relationships among related governmental departments will strengthen complementary, rather than competition and contradiction, which currently hamper methodical and systematic pursuit of the necessarily conjoined objectives of and processes for achieving food security and conserving biodiversity. <![CDATA[<b>Livestock extension programmes participation and impact on smallholder cattle productivity in KwaZulu-Natal: A propensity score matching approach</b>]]> In rural South Africa, the sustainability of cattle-based livelihoods is threatened by the competition for natural resources such as land and water. The central and provincial governments continue to invest funds in agricultural extension in order to uplift the productivity and safeguard the multifunctionality of cattle farming. However, the design of effective and efficient livestock extension models remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the drivers and first-order impacts of participation in livestock extension programmes in the KwaZulu-Natal province. To that end, the study adopted the propensity score matching (PSM) method. Based on data from a survey of 230 smallholder farmers in 13 communities of the Okhahlamba Local Municipality, the results of the Probit model showed that the likelihood of participation in extension programmes decreases with education, and increases with group membership, distance from the extension office, adoption of mixed breed, herd size and usage of forage and feed supplements, suggesting a largely supply-driven extension approach. Based on the nearest neighbour and kernel matching algorithms, the results further showed that benefits accrued from participating in livestock extension programmes in terms of cattle production and input use were scant. The study concludes with some policy implications. <![CDATA[<b>A comparative analysis of two land reform models: The Mashishimale Farm Management Model and the Nkumbuleni Strategic Partnership Model, South Africa</b>]]> The Sustainable Restitution Support - South Africa (SRS-SA) program aimed at the development of a post-settlement support model that could be used to support beneficiaries of land reform in South Africa, especially those who received the land through restitution. The two land restitution claims were identified namely Mashishimale in the Limpopo Province and Nkumbuleni in KwaZulu Natal Province in South Africa. The main objective of the study is to determine the essential elements of two post-settlement support models to successfully implement and manage land reform projects in a sustainable manner namely: Mashishimale Farm Management Model (FMM) and Nkumbuleni Strategic Partnership Model (SPM). The data was collected through meetings and interviews with different stakeholders or role players. The study reveals that the following actions are essential for the successful post-settlement to restitution farms: The execution of baseline study (survey) to determine the socio-economic situation in a community (beneficiaries). The appointment of an independent project facilitator/coordinator to ensure effective and efficient communication. A well-defined management structure and the appointment of a knowledgeable, skilful and experienced farm manager(s) or strategic partner. The development of a business plan for the farm with the support of professional agriculturist. The identification of qualified professional extension advisor to provide advice and guidance to the manager(s) or strategic partner. Appointment of a mentor to guide advice and train the manager(s) or strategic partner. Financial support to manage the farm (Grants; Comprehensive Agricultural Support Program; financial institutions and specifically the Land Bank). <![CDATA[<b>Revitalization of education for self-reliance in education for enhancing youth involvement in agriculture in Tanzania</b>]]> Agriculture is the backbone of the Tanzania's economy regardless of its low productivity. Several efforts have been put in place to improve the situation including introduction of Education for Self-Reliance (ESR) policy to guide Tanzania education system to produce graduates who are competent in agricultural production and other hands on activities necessary for community development. Regardless of its contextual, theoretical and practical relevance, ESR policy overtime lost its position in the education circles. A Dialogue Conference was organised in Morogoro for exploring stakeholders' views on the need for revitalization of ESR in education for enhancing youth involvement in Agriculture. Data were collected by voice recording and note taking while thematic method was used for data analysis. Majority of the participants perceived the relevance of reconsidering ESR since it helps to inculcate positive attitude towards agriculture, equip students with hands-on skills, source of self-employment, self-reliance and improve classroom learning. Challenges of revitalization were also elicited, like teachers' lack of knowledge and skills on planning and utilizing experience developed through the ESR, shortage of teachers and inadequate resources for implementation. Voices of stakeholders favour rethinking of ESR and therefore appropriate strategies should be considered in the process of revitalising ESR taking into consideration the highlighted challenges. <![CDATA[<b>Promoting profitability and sustainability in the backgrounding of beef calves: The role of Agricultural Extension</b>]]> There are indications that the backgrounding of beef calves will become more important in future as heavier beef carcasses are required. To increase the profitability of beef systems, backgrounding prepare weaned calves for finishing on high energy rations to promote rapid weight gain in a feedlot. Backgrounding operations may be pasture or dry-lot based or some combination thereof. The primary objective of this study was to investigate factors leading to poor average daily gain (ADG), high morbidity and mortality rate and the increased costs of gain. The secondary objective was to study the management practices followed in the backgrounding of beef calves concerning purchasing, adaptation, processing, raising, health management and marketing strategies. Forty questionnaires were administered to farmers, small and large feedlots doing backgrounding of beef calves. Data was generated by using the SUM equation and the means, minimum and maximum were generated by using PROC MEANS in SAS (2004). On-farm observations were employed in collecting data and discussions with other farmers and experts doing backgrounding of beef calves. According to this study, the ADG for summer differed significantly (P<0.05) from that of winter as the ADG during summer was 22.2% higher than that of winter. However, the study also showed that the feed intake in summer differed significantly (P<0.05) from that of winter with summer feed intake being 13% higher than winter feed intake. The production costs per calf in this study were R300.50±158.60 for feeding costs, R138.10±90.80 for remedies, R56.40±22.10 for processing and R37.50±24.30 for transport costs. It was also evident that parainflueza 3 known as flu was the infectious disease that mostly led to morbidity and mortality. With protozoal diseases, gall-sickness and red-water was the major cause of mortality. Mortality as a result of nutritional disorder including bloat and acidosis was reported by 37.5% of the respondents. The paper stresses the role of agricultural extension in the optimization of backgrounding systems. <![CDATA[<b>Towards assessing managerial competencies and leadership styles required for successful game ranch management in the Eastern Cape, South Africa</b>]]> Given the importance of the agricultural sector in the South African economy and the emerging importance of game farming, long term sustainability is critical. One way of achieving long term sustainability of game ranches in South Africa is to ensure the effective and efficient management of these ranches. Effective and efficient management is largely determined by managerial competencies and leadership styles. The problem statement addressed in this research can be stated as follows:"Which management competencies and leadership styles are required to assist game ranch managers/owners in the effective and efficient management of their game ranches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa?" The purpose of this study is to development a framework to assess the management competencies and leadership styles needed by game ranch managers/owners in order to enhance the game ranch 's prospects of survival, continuity and success. To achieve this, the objectives are to identify whether there is a significant relationship between the: current and ideal (future required) managerial competencies; current managerial competencies, transactional and transformational leadership styles; and managerial competencies and selected biographical variables. Data was collected using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The data was analyzed using Statistica V.8. Sample T-testing, Cross Tabulations (Chi Square) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to assess the research objectives. The reliability and validity the research instrument were also tested by using Cronbach Reliability Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analyses. It was found that there was a significant difference between current and ideal managerial competencies and that teamwork, planning and administration as well as strategic action needed to be improved. Findings suggest that a strategic relationship exist between gender, current teamwork and self management competencies. Another strategic relationship was found between the number of employees and current strategic action.