Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ]]> vol. 45 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Profitability of <i>striga</i> tolerant maize variety (SAMMAZ 17) amongst smallholder farmers in Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria</b>]]> The study was conducted in Lapai, Niger State, North central Nigeria to determine the profitability of improved maize variety (SAMMAZ 17) in cooperative farmer's fields. Demonstration plots were cited in three cooperative farms where the improved variety and a local variety were planted. All agronomic practices were carried out uniformly and simultaneously on the plots. In addition, structured questionnaires were administered to 20 members of each of the cooperative farms. Participants were selected by means of simple random sampling techniques to solicit information on the performance of SAMMAZ 17 maize variety on their farms. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, while gross margin analysis was used to compare the profitability of maize varieties. The results revealed that maize farmers were mostly male and small-scale in operations. The local maize variety supported high Striga infestation with low yield of 1.7 t/ha, while SAMMAZ 17 yield was 4.4 t/ha under less Striga infestation. The gross margin production of SAMMAZ 17 maize variety was N 254,127.40, while the gross margin for the production of farmer's maize variety was N 102,517.90. Based on these findings, SAMMAZ 17 was found to be profitable and is therefore recommended for planting in Striga endemic fields in North Central Nigeria. <![CDATA[<b>Knowledge and attitude towards collaboration in agricultural innovation systems amongst stakeholders in the North West Province, South Africa</b>]]> The current study examined the extent of knowledge concerning agricultural innovation systems amongst researchers, extension agents, farmers, input dealers, and marketers, while determining their attitude towards collaborating with agricultural innovation systems. Through using a simple random sampling technique; researchers, extension agents, farmers, input dealers, and marketers were selected as the study population. Information was gathered by distributing a structured questionnaire amongst the various participants and analysing the data gained concerning their wealth of knowledge and their corresponding willingness to collaborate. The results show that researchers, extension agents, farmers, input dealers, and marketers are aware of, and have adequate knowledge of, these systems available to them, to be able to utilise them effectively. However, they expressed different attitudes towards collaboration with agricultural innovation systems. <![CDATA[<b>Linkage activities amongst researchers, extension agents, farmers, input dealers, and marketers towards agricultural innovation systems in the North West Province, South Africa</b>]]> This paper examined the research- extension- farmer- input dealer and marketer linkage activities in the North West Province of South Africa. A simple random sampling technique was used to select researchers, extension agents, farmers, agricultural input dealers and marketers. Their responses in linkage activities were elicited through a structured questionnaire. The F value for linkage = 41.817(p< 0.05) shows that there is a significant difference among stakeholders with extension agents having the highest mean of 51.63. In contrast, the marketers have the lowest mean of 37.16. This indicates that extension agents were involved in more linkage activities than other stakeholders in the agricultural innovation systems covered in this study. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of climate change on rural livestock farming: case study of Giyani Policing Area, Republic of South Africa</b>]]> The key sectors of the Greater Giyani Municipality (GGM) economy are driven by manufacturing, trade, catering, government, finance, transport, communications and agriculture. The goal of this study is to analyse the effect of climate change on rural-livestock farming activities in the Giyani Policing Area (GPA). The effects are described in terms of agricultural yield, livelihood and production. Apart from other general factors that impact agriculture negatively, the success of rural livestock farmers in the GPA is greatly influenced by turbulent climate change aspects. The current paper further identifies the effect of climate change (e.g. drought, temperature and rainfall) on farmers and key stakeholders while establishing how they handle challenges associated with climate change in the study district. Data were collected from 22 participants, including officials associated with Veterinary Services and Land and Infrastructure of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) in the GGM. Taking part in the Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were officials from the DAFF-2:1, and 20:10 rural livestock farmers from Makosha and Xikukwana villages, respectively, were used for the Focus Group Discussions (FGD's). The main findings show that the rural livestock farmers in the GGM are highly vulnerable to the consequences of climate change, shown by the overall decline in livestock farming practices in the area caused by associated health and nourishment problems brought forward by climate change. The links between climate change and rural livestock farming were examined in the process of describing that droughts, excessive temperatures and heavy rainfall has a detrimental effect on rural livestock farmers in the selected areas. This paper further investigates the strategies that rural producers utilise to maintain sustainable economic viability concerning animal health, safety and nutritional requirements while preparing for unforeseen risks. In conclusion, this paper enforces the statement that the identified climate change factors do have a significant effect on rural livestock farming, despite the infrequent and varied occurrence between regions. This paper recommends that the relevant stakeholders should be encouraged to be involved in proactive and reactive activities concerning the climate change, to avoid unnecessary negative effects implicating national food security. <![CDATA[<b>Processors' training needs on modern shea butter processing technologies in North Central Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria</b>]]> The need for continual production of high quality shea butter in Nigeria through the use of modern processing technologies necessitated this study. The study was carried out to ascertain training needs of shea butter processors on modern processing technologies in North Central Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 216 processors through a multi-stage sampling procedure. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that processors were mostly young, married females. Half of the processors had no formal education but had between six and 15 years of processing experience. Extension officers were not fully involved in the training of processors, especially in the areas of teaching and practical demonstrations. The study shows that age (χ² = 38.865, p = 0.000), educational level (χ² = 69.018, p = 0.000), and years of processing experience (χ= 40.118, p = 0.000) were significantly related to the training needs of shea butter processors. Furthermore, evidence suggests that kneading, milling, crushing, and roasting are areas of operations where processors require additional training. The training of processors by extension officers at least twice a year, especially in the identified areas of training need, is recommended. <![CDATA[<b>Agricultural extension, research, and development for increased food security: the need for public-private sector partnerships in South Africa</b>]]> The challenges of food security and agricultural development in South Africa cannot simply be solved by limiting extension and research development to the public sector. However, if shortcomings arise in the public sector while addressing extension, research and development, the potential involvement of the private sector is increased. The current lack of public and private partnerships (PPPs) in extension, research and development increase the difficulty of solving the food security challenges in South Africa. The current study investigated the role of extension and research as processes for the development for sustainable food security, and the need for developing PPP's in South Africa. The study is based on a comprehensive theoretical review of available literature and government policies. Analysis of the data collected revealed that the improvement of agricultural production, with the goal of sustainable food security, in South Africa, might not be achieved without an effective agricultural extension service that is strongly linked to research. It was also found that public sector extension work is a necessity for the growth of the industry, but is limited by inadequate resources, bureaucratic work and the multidimensional work requirements. A need has been identified by the government to encourage the participation from the private sector in agricultural extension and research development. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of extension service(s) and socio-economic characteristics on the livelihood of Nguni cattle development project beneficiaries in North West Province: a tobit-ols regression approach</b>]]> The place of extension and advisory service(s) in enhancing farmer's knowledge, skills, as well as technologies cannot be overemphasised. This study was carried out in the North West Province of South Africa, with the aim of assessing the effect of the extension service(s) combined with socio-economic characteristics on the livelihood of the Nguni Cattle Development Project beneficiaries. Random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 128 beneficiaries from the 187 beneficiaries involved in the project. A final 76 beneficiaries participated in the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for the data analysis. The descriptive results showed that an average age of 55 years was recorded in the study, respondents were predominantly male and married, with an average household size of five people, having 16 years of farming experience, and with an average farm size of 400.5 hectares. Ordinary Least Square regression and the Tobit regression model were tested and found to be a good fit to the data. Furthermore, variables such as gender (p<0.05), cattle rearing experience (p<0.05), extension visits (p<0.10), marketing strategies/ opportunities (p<0.05), cattle production (p<0.10), and milk production (p<0.10) were found to have a significant association with the livelihood of the beneficiaries in the study. Based on the current findings, urgent and timely policy interventions are needed in providing relevant information through extension and advisory services to the beneficiaries of this programme in order to enhance their productivity and livelihood. <![CDATA[<b>Extension and advisory services: the African renaissance</b>]]> This paper highlights the establishment of development organisations on the African continent and beyond, namely the New Partnership for Africa's Development's Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP), the African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS), and Southern Africa Regional Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (SARFAAS), country forums (CF), and the Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services (GFRAS). These organisations can be considered as a source of renaissance in agricultural advisory services. They have facilitated the development of structures that advocate for extension and advisory services. These organisations have brought focus, and initiated debate on the concept of extension. The importance of such services is promoted as a means of assisting marginalised farmers and encouraging countries to adopt "pro-poor" approaches to farmer development. A literature review and expert opinion for analysis is provided to illustrate the findings, indicating different understandings of the concept of extension, and that extension actors are organised in sub-regional networks and countries as a link to GFRAS, AFAAS, and the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), sub-program CAADP. GFRAS has developed downloadable learning materials to stimulate debate and provide evidence for the importance of Extension and Advisory Services (EAS). Such information could help to strengthen the knowledge base needed to guide farmers' activities both globally and nationally. In conclusion, some recommendations are made to further promote advisory services in Africa, and beyond. <![CDATA[<b>Research themes, authors and methodologies in the South African Journal of Agricultural Extension: an analysis of publications 1999-2014</b>]]> The South African Journal of Agricultural Extension (SAJAE) is a scientific journal that acts as the mouthpiece for the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE), which was established in 1966, and through which it publishes articles and disseminates research information. This study examined the primary and secondary research themes and ascertained the prolific authors and the research methods and designs that were prevalent in the SAJAE issues published from 1999 to 2014. A total of 177 articles were reviewed and a total of 33 primary research themes (PRTs) and 36 secondary research themes (SRTs) were identified. The most emerging themes are "diffusion, and adoption of innovation". Two hundred and fifty-six SAJAE authors were identified, with G. H. Düvel being identified as the most prolific author. Moreover, quantitative research methods were the most common, with survey design being most prevalent. It is subsequently recommended that periodic reviews of SAJAE be conducted, as well as comparative reviews with similar journals. A collaborative approach was suggested. <![CDATA[<b>Community gardens as a strategy for coping with climate shocks in Bikita District, Masvingo, Zimbabwe</b>]]> Drought is the most important climate shock affecting rural farmers this century. In a bid to reduce the effects of climate shocks, coping strategies are being investigated. Community gardens is one such strategy. The purpose of the study was to objectively look at the dynamics involved in community gardens, that is, the significance the gardens have on poverty, food security and income of rural farmers. The study was carried out in Bikita District, Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe. Rural farmers in this area have been hit hard by drought and the effect climate change has had on agricultural production. The main findings of the study showed that community garden participants are mainly women. Many farmers expressed ignorance on the existence and risks associated with climate shocks but agreed that temperatures have increased and rainfall has decreased in the past decade. Several farmers indicated that they do not acquire income from sale of their crops and vegetables, as most are used for household consumption. However, those getting an income use it for basic necessities, children's education and maintaining their farm business. Although there were some constraints, water insufficiency being the largest, community gardens provided many benefits, including social, economic and environmental benefits. <![CDATA[<b>Assessing farmer involvement in collective action for enhancing the sorghum value chain in Soroti, Uganda</b>]]> Farmer associations have been widely promoted in Uganda to bridge institutional gaps among smallholder farmers, however, their role in the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) value chain and factors influencing membership to these associations have not been well documented. This study was conducted to assess the role of these farmer associations and socio-economic factors influencing membership. A survey questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 120 sorghum farmers in six sub-counties of Soroti, Uganda, where associations are established. A binomial logit regression model was employed to ascertain socio-economic factors that influenced membership to farmer associations. Results showed that 65% of respondents belonged to a farmer association. Regarding benefits of farmer associations, 55.8% of the respondents received training in sorghum agronomy, 39.2% were trained on postharvest management, 35% engaged in collective marketing, 43.3% received credit and 3.3% processed sorghum as part of value addition for increased income. Gender and extension contacts significantly (P<0.05) influenced membership to farmer associations. Even with adequate resources (human and financial), the most critical factors in the process of building functional farmer associations is gender and extension contacts. <![CDATA[<b>The socio-economic profile of urban farming and non-farming households in the informal settlement area of the Cape Town Metropole in South Africa</b>]]> Households in the informal settlement area of the Cape Town Metropolitan area face different challenges in terms of poverty and food security. Livelihood of households are determined by the social and economic circumstances these households subside in. A thorough analysis of these indicators is imperative to initiate development planning. This study looks at average household size, the average age of the household head, gender, education, ethnic group and household income. The average household size was 4.32 members, while the average age was 50. More female headed households formed part of the study, while 40.1% of the household heads had obtained some secondary level of education. Furthermore, most households were African and their main source of income came from formal salaries and wages. The results showed that additional sources of income are required to run a household, therefore, means of increasing household income, and in return, increasing food security, need to be investigated.