Scielo RSS <![CDATA[HTS Theological Studies]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0259-942220080001&lang=en vol. 64 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Preface to the jubilee number dedicated to Prof Dr C R de Beer, Vice-Rector, University of Pretoria, on the occasion of Universary of Pretoria's centenary</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The University of Pretoria's centenary celebration in 2008</b>: <b>a message of congratulation from the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b><i>HTS Theological Studies</i></b><b> and<i> Verbum et Ecclesia</i></b>: <b>the journals of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria: Historical overview and strategic planning</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article celebrates the centenary of the University of Pretoria (UP) in 2008. The editors of Verbum et Ecclesia and HTS Theological Studies, the two theological journals associated with the Faculty of Theology at UP, reflect on the journals' historical roots, editorial focuses, distinctive features, subscription and language statistics and on their' contribution to support the academic study of theology and related disciplines. The Faculty of Theology was founded in 1917 and celebrated its ninetieth birthday in 2007. The origin of its journals dates back to 1943. This article discusses the challenges that academic journals face in South Africa and undertakes strategic planning for the future. A concluding addendum, consisting of statistical diagrams with regard to the journals' profile during the last five years, illustrates the argument. <![CDATA[<b>The contribution of the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NHKA) to theological training at the Transvaal University College</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The ideal of theological training of candidates for the ministry of the Dutch Reformed Church (NHK) found its first (formal) expression in 1884. Difficult ecclesiastical, social and economic circumstances (including the consequences of the First and Second Anglo-Boer Wars) prevented dreams and plans from being realised. The opening of a Pretoria division of the Transvaal University College (TUC) in 1908 created new opportunities, but it would take another eight years before planning for theological training at the TUC could start. The NHK and the Presbyterian Church were involved as denominational partners in this undertaking. This phase lasted from 1917 to 1933. These humble beginnings laid the foundation for the theological training of ministers at university level - a paradigm which is still applicable in South Africa today. <![CDATA[<b>Early Presbyterian influences at the University of Pretoria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Presbyterianism, through two significant personalities, provided an important impetus to the formation and development of the early University of Pretoria. Their contribution has to be understood in terms of the contexts of their Scottish Presbyterian heritage, South Africa in the early years of the twentieth century and the state of higher education prevalent at that time. Together these contexts may be described as political, religious and educational. Prof AC Paterson made significant contributions both in teaching and administration at the institutional level. Prof E Macmillan made his contribution in the field of teaching, but never divorced from the very context where ministry has to be exercised. <![CDATA[<b>Voices carry</b>: <b>an archaeology of the Hervormd approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en From the investigative premise of a Foucauldian archaeology of knowledge, this article attempts to unearth the layers of ideas which constituted the Hervormd approach to doing theology over the past century. Digging into seemingly disassociated bodies of theological precedents, the article anatomizes four layers of ideas in a series of diverse orientations towards theology, namely the (1) ethical, (2) confessional and (3) dialectical orientations, and stemming from a Kantian orientation in particular, (4) the validity of ‘the philosopher’s voice’ in the often tense relationship between theology and philosophy. Respecting the inexplicit nature of this multifarious kind of theology, the author calls for an ongoing estimation of the diversity of voices within the Hervormd approach, rejecting any attempt to integrate these different layers of thought into a monolithic enterprise of knowledge about God and the world. <![CDATA[<b>Om die horison te verken</b>: <b>op soek na 'n eietydse homiletiese hermeneutiek</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The exploration of the horizons: Searching for a contemporary homiletic hermeneutics In this article, the author takes up the Ricoeurian idea of a dual hermeneutic. The article emphasizes the need for critical homiletics, not only to make the invaluable and necessary recourse to a "hermeneutics of suspicion" but also moves beyond it to a "hermeneutics of recollection" that is sympathetic to religion. The concept of a second naiveté is also considered in relation to the dialectic between the two hermeneutical extremes. <![CDATA[<b>Ecclesia reformata semper reformanda</b>: <b>die ongemaklike eis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ecclesia reformata semper reformanda - a hard to do command This article is a reworked version of the Moderator's opening address at the 68th General Assembly of the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa in October 2007. Against the fourth-century background of Emperor Constantine's "church politics", the paper reflects on the first-century rhetoric of the Apostle Paul in 2 Corinthians 10:3ff and 17ff about non-worldly, divine weapons of warfare, and about boasting and self-commendation. It shows how Paul understood oral rhetorical words as theatrically performed by employing the genre of the so-called "Fool's speech" by means of which Paul argues that masks disguise the authentic identity of Christ-followers. Paul's rhetoric is applied in the article as an appeal to the modern-day church to be ecumenically open and anthropologically inclusive. The article demonstrates the uneasiness of some members in the institutional church to proceed along a path of ongoing reformation (ecclesia reformata semper reformanda). <![CDATA[<b>A place to share</b>: <b>some thoughts about the meaning of territory and boundaries in our thinking about God and humanity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article proffers some thoughts in reply to the following question: how can we think about God in a theology that takes into account the concept of place in such a way that we are able to live together in a salvific way with others, sharing a place as equals? Concepts such as "territory" and "territoriality" are helpful, because they can be linked with "identity" and the need to feel safe. Boundaries and boundary markers such as walls play an important role in conflicts. The possibility of a "liminal space" at a boundary where eye-to-eye relationships may be possible helps to make "the other", the stranger, a human being with her/his own needs and vulnerability. Using the Israeli/Palestinian conflict as an example, images of God and their impact on the possibility of sharing the land are explored. Hagar, herself a stranger, experiences God's life-saving attention and names God "God of seeing". <![CDATA[<b>Being Biblical?</b> <b>Slavery, sexuality, and the inclusive community</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The use of the Bible in ethical debate has been central for the last two millennia. Current debates about sexuality, or the position of women in church leadership, are marked by both, or all, sides of the argument using Scripture. However, this has been true of many issues in the past. This is demonstrated in the debate about slavery two hundred years ago. Careful analysis of the use of Scripture in both the justification and critique of apartheid reveals how both sides quoted Scripture in its various modes, such as rules, principles, paradigms, and overall world-view. The biographical nature of the Gospels means that we must set Jesus’ rigorous ethical teaching in the context of the narrative of his deeds, including his open and welcoming acceptance of all people. It was an inclusive community of interpretation which changed the debates about slavery and apartheid, and a similar inclusive community is needed today. <![CDATA[<b>"The Arabs" in the ecclesiastical historians of the 4<sup>th</sup>/5<sup>th</sup> centuries</b>: <b>effects on contemporary Christian-Muslim relations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Historical inquiry into the origin and history of "the Arabs" has long been a part of Western Orientalist literature. However, Christian scholars from the 7th century onward sought to understand the rise of Islam from within a Biblical framework. This article looks at how the early church historians of the 4th and 5th centuries viewed "the Arabs" and passed on those images to their ecclesiastical descendents. It aims to argue that the pejorative image of "the Arabs" as uncultured pagan barbarians of late antiquity was extended to Muslims in the 7th century and transferred into the Latin derogatory term "the Saracen". This negative image has been perpetuated in Western Christian literature and continues to color Western Evangelical Christian and Dispensational images of "the Arabs". The article shows that such perceptions have as much to do with the cultural stereotypes disseminated from the ecclesiastical historians as they do with Biblical hermeneutics. <![CDATA[<b>Justice with mercy</b>: <b>about a contemporary Palestinian theology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Arab Christianity has a long history, longer than the history Christianity has in many European countries, a fact we seem to have forgotten in the west. According to Acts 2:11, some Arabs together with several other people of different nationalities were present when Peter gave his address to the crowd on the first Pentecost day after the ascension of Christ. Even if this piece of information is not historically true, there is no doubt that Christianity spread to the Arab world fairly early, probably in the beginning with some Judaeo-Christians, who moved to Arabia, and later on as a result of a mission to the gentiles. Already in antiquity the Bible was translated from the Greek Septuagint into Arabic. <![CDATA[<b>Sexuality and partnership</b>: <b>aspects of theological ethics in the field of marriage, unmarried and homosexual couples</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The attitudes towards sexuality in Western society are undergoing dramatic change. One of the main problems sexual ethics has to deal with today is the question whether the church should acknowledge unmarried long-term relationships. The debate about the acknowledgement of homosexuality as a form of human sexuality equal to heterosexuality is aiming towards the acknowledgement of the equal status of homosexual partnerships and heterosexual marriages as a final consequence. In addition to these issues the article also discusses the issue of the blessing of unmarried or homosexual couples. In light of such public blessings and their liturgical form, the article aims to discuss the question about the promise such blessings holds according to Christian ethics. <![CDATA[<b>Die Problematik des Begriffes <i>hebraica veritas</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The formal problematic of the concept hebraica veritas Proceeding from the importance of the concept of hebraica veritas in terms of both its original intention and of the opposing positions on Holy Scripture entertained by the Roman Catholic tradition and the emerging Protestant views during the Reformation, a brief discussion of the meaning and early context of the concept is given. The formal problematic of the hebraica veritas as found in the Tanak is addressed vis-à-vis its latinised version in the Greek text tradition. Jerome's use of the concept is analysed on the basis of his textual justification for it. Pneumatological and salvation-historical dimensions are identified, and the function of the concept as self-identification over against Judaism is discussed, as well as its implications for delimiting the canon. It is concluded that the concept needs to be foregrounded anew in light of its significant impact in the context of accounting for the concepts of Holy Scripture, canon and therefore canon-based endeavours to construe a "biblical theology" of the "whole Bible". <![CDATA[<b>History and theory of Scripture translations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpret-ations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these "theoretical frames", namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary-functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history. <![CDATA[<b>God our king</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article discusses whether the metaphor of "king" can still be used in Christian God-talk. Firstly, it is argued that the "king" metaphor for God is an indispensable key metaphor in both the Old and the New Testament. "King" has become a root metaphor in the canonical text of the Old Testament and Jesus' proclamation of the coming kingdom of God presupposes that God is king. Secondly, the Biblical meanings of the metaphor are explored. God's kingship implies his authority and power to fight the forces of evil, to liberate and lead his people and to control the events of history. Modified by Jesus Christ, God's kingship is universal, non-violent and in accordance with his love. Then, the use of the metaphor in contemporary God-talk is considered. Because "king" is the only metaphor that can give expression to God's ultimate highness and authority, it cannot be replaced by others. In the concluding section the "king" metaphor for God is conceptually explained in terms of the relationship, the agency and the power of God it implies. <![CDATA[<b>Telling time in the Fourth Gospel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en When we begin the task of telling time in the Fourth Gospel, we bring something not found in any previous study, namely, a model of time articulated by cross-cultural anthropologists (Bordieu, in Pitt-Rivers 1963:55-72, Ayoade, in Wright 1984:71-89). As much as we admire Davies' study, she has no notes to her chapter on time nor any citations in her bibliography to indicate that she has any conversation partners, much less cultural experts, a deficit to be filled in this study. Learning to tell time entails three theoretical considerations: a definition of time, key classifications of it, and special attention to what the ancients meant by past, present and future. With these lenses we are prepared to do as thorough a study as we can on telling time in the Fourth Gospel. As we consider each classification, we will suggest a brief meaning of it from the experts on time, then present a body of Greco-Roman materials illustrative of the classification, and finally use it to gather and interpret data in John. Proving the native existence of these classifications for telling time in antiquity is essential for readers to have a background against which to compare their usage with that of the Fourth Gospel. <![CDATA[<b>Women, honor, and context in Mediterranean antiquity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Much has been written about how the social structures of honor and shame affected women in Mediterranean antiquity. Sometimes "honor and shame" are taken out of context and used as absolute opposites, an oversimplification. Rather, honor and shame function as coordinates within a complex matrix of other societal factors. Chief among them are kinship, social hierarchy, economic control and effective social networking. Some contemporary studies from southern Europe help illuminate this pattern. The complexity and variation present in the social dynamics of these contemporary cultures indicate that the same kind of complexity and variation must have been present in ancient cultures too. <![CDATA[<b>Postcolonial theory as a hermeneutical tool for Biblical reading</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article, postcolonial theory is presented as a tool for Biblical interpretation, in an attempt to find colonial intentions (be they political, cultural or economic) that informed and influenced the writer's context. Although criticism has been levelled at the church and other religious institutions for having, consciously or unconsciously, facilitated colonial conquests and imperial establishment all over the world, postcolonial theory calls them to a constructive reading that enables readers to see the concerns of the universal mission of justice. Postcolonial theory, as a tool for Biblical interpretation, deals with the Bible as a "cultural product" in time and space. However, as part of socio-scientific method, postcolonial theory encounters some crucial translation problems such as ethnocentrism and anachronism. Nevertheless, whatever hermeneutical tool the reader uses, it must yield two important things from Scripture reading: discovering life and discovering faith. <![CDATA[<b>Das Messiasgeheimnis und die Spruchquelle</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Messianic Secret and the Sayings Source Q The article represents a new way of looking at the complexity with regard the "Messianic Secret" as a tribute to William Wrede, who was born almost 150 years ago. Wrede advocated a literary and historical solution to the Messianic Secret found in the Synoptic Gospels. The article aims to resolve the riddle by also taking the Sayings Source Q into consideration. Q is seen as located in the disciple group of John the Baptist and this group's adherents. The article argues that Mark developed the Messianic Secret as theme to adapt the unmessianic message of Q. As effect, Mark initiated a "christological" use of this motif within the church. The thesis of the article represents a modification that is a progression of some of the author's earlier opinions. <![CDATA[<b>Matthew, Paul and the origin and nature of the gentile mission</b>: <b>the great commission in Matthew 28:16-20 as an anti-Pauline tradition</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Great Commission at the conclusion of Matthew's Gospel is one of its key texts. In this tradition the risen Christ overturns the previous restriction of the mission to Israel alone and demands that the disciples evangelise all the nations. The gospel they were to proclaim included observance of the Torah by Jew and Gentile like. Matthew's account of the origin and nature of the Gentile mission differs from Paul's view as it is found in the epistle to the Galatians. Paul maintains that he had been commissioned by the resurrected Lord to evangelise the Gentiles and that the gospel he was to preach did not involve obedience to the Torah. The later and alternative version of Matthew can be understood as an attempt by the evangelist to undermine these claims by Paul. Such an interpretation is consistent with Matthew's anti-Pauline polemic that emerges elsewhere in the Gospel. <![CDATA[<b>Waren Judas en Thomas gnostici? </b><b><i>Het evangelie naar Johannes met gnostische ogen gelezen</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jude and Thomas, were they Gnostics? Reading the Gospel according to John from a Gnostic perspective The discoveries of Gnostic texts since the mid of the twentieth century challenge biblical scholarship to read New Testament texts from new points of view. It is remarkable that Jesus' disciples who are prominently present in Gnostic texts, especially Jude, Thomas and Philip are also more conspicuous characters in the Gospel of John than in the Synoptics. This challenges scholars to read these sections in relation to Gnosticism. The article aims at reading the scenes dealing with Jude and Thomas in John's gospel with a Gnostic framework in mind. These texts gain more profile than by a traditional reading which is often based on a psychological understanding of Jude and Thomas. The article demonstrates that the author of John's gospel uses these passages in an anti-Gnostic discourse. Thomas is a Gnostic who could fully understand Jesus' words in a Gnostic way until he encounters the bodily risen Lord. Jude does not make such a conversion and disappears in the night. These are the option for Gnostics: either convert to the type of Christianity the Gospel of John teaches or being lost in darkness. <![CDATA[<b>'n Kritiese analise van die begrip ratifikasie volgens die Gereformeerde Kerkreg</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A critical analysis of the concept ratification according to Reformed church polity This article reflects critically on the view that local churches should in a separate act, after major assemblies have taken their resolutions, ratify the decisions before it could be regarded as valid and binding. Attention is given to the following aspects: The meaning of expressions such as ratum facere and ratum habere in law and church polity; perspectives from the Reformational approach on issues such as the authority of decisions of major assemblies and a critical evaluation of the arguments of protagonists in favour of ecclesiastical ratification. <![CDATA[<b>Christian Theology at the University</b>: <b>on the threshold or in the margin?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The essay discusses challenges regarding the position and role of Christian Theology in twenty-first century university contexts. Questions asked include the following: How will a theology that is oriented to (Reformed) Christian Theology develop itself at universities worldwide, within contexts of secularisation and globalisation? What important strategic choices will it have to make? It is argued that answers to such questions inter alia relate to how Christian Theology responds to three crucial choices: (1) Being truthful to its biblical orientation and calling; (2) Accounting critically for its position on the threshold of interdisciplinary and interreligious dialogue; and (3) Being connected to the life stories of people. <![CDATA[<b>Afwesigheid van God en teenwoordigheid van "god(e)" in Hooglied</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The absence of and the presence of "god(s)" in the Song of Songs The absence of the Israelite God in the Song of Songs is conspicuous. The poet of the Song is far too sophisticated to attribute this to a slip of the mind. Among many reasons offered for the absence of Israel's societal stereotype of God, might the Song's alternative views on gender relations, within a love setting, perhaps be a reason for prohibiting the "ultimate Patriarch" to interfere? Interestingly the Song contains quite a number of other notions of counter-intuitivity (= gods) confirming humans' propensity, since early evolution, to create gods to fulfil certain needs. Although it is an ancient love-song the Song has much to offer on gender and god constructs and the implications thereof for the civilization of society today. <![CDATA[<b>Christian ethical perspectives on marriage and family life in modern Western culture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The past four decades witnessed a tremendous and wide-ranging change in family patterns in Western societies. Amongst these changes are phenomena such as growing number of divorces, births out-of-wedlock, and the absence of fathers because of globalisation, same-sex marriages and cohabitation of people without a marriage contract. Western societies are typified as "high-divorce societies". Furthermore, in the United States the number of couples cohabiting has increased eightfold since 1970 and it is fair to conclude that the situation is similar in other Western societies. The purpose of the article is to deal with these patterns from a Reformed perspective. The central theoretical argument is that these developments can be perceived as a crisis in view of the Biblical perspectives on marriage and family life. However, the Biblical perspectives not only offer a clear indication of healthy marriage and family life entail, but also indicate that a Christian attitude in marriage and family life can serve as a remedy for the damage caused by the new trends. <![CDATA[<b>Die kerk, die huwelik en seks</b>: <b>'n morele krisis?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The church, marriage and sex - a moral crisis? Within Western societies the church is challenged by a new sexual "morality". Seemingly, the traditional theological answers do not address the challenge sufficiently. The incompetence of the church to change people's minds leads to a moral crisis. This article is an attempt to create awareness that the church has no choice but to review her traditional stance. This awareness will only surface once we are prepared to acknowledge that our traditional views were influenced by different contexts through the ages. Therefore it is necessary, in a postmodern context, to theologically reflect afresh within this context. <![CDATA[<b>The "sanctity" of marriage - an archaeology of a socio-religious construct</b>: <b>mythological origins, forms and models</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of the article is to argue that the sexual difference between female and male should be regarded as soteriologically indifferent. Though a biological reality of being human, sexuality is profoundly influenced by social constructs and the institution of marriage itself is a social construct. In this article the biological and social aspects are taken into account in a theological approach which on the one hand is interested in the relationship between God and human beings, and on the other in the way in which the Bible elucidates sexuality and marriage. The article indicates that the idea of sexual intercourse between a man and a woman as being equal to God-given "holy matrimony" has mythological origins. It focuses on these origins and on the multifarious forms of marital arrangements and models. <![CDATA[<b>"Op die aarde net soos in die hemel"</b>: <b>matteus se eskatologie as die koninkryk van die hemel wat reeds begin kom het</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en "On earth as it is in heaven": Matthew's eschatology as the kingdom of heaven that has come In the article time as both "imagined" and "experienced" is explained against the background of the first-century Mediterranean conceptualisation of time. This reading scenario is seen as over against a modern Eurocentric ethnocentric interpretation of the concept "apocalyptic-eschatology". The aim of the article is to argue that Matthew's narration of the demolition of the temple in Jerusalem concurs with his belief that the first followers of Jesus experienced the vision of the coming of the Son of man and that both these experiences are presented in Matthew as though Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection are incidents of the past. Matthew's eschatology centres on the view that the final consummation of time has already begun. The article explores the ethical appeal which is communicated through such an eschatological reading scenario. This appeal is summarised by Jesus' words "On earth as it is in heaven". The article consists of a conversation about core issues in mainstream interpretations of what Matthew's eschatology could be within the narrative's plot as it contextualised in formative Christianity and formative Judaism. The view assumed in this article is that the "time" and the experiences of Matthew's church and those of Jesus and his disciples are considered to be integrated within the history of Israel. <![CDATA[<b>Eskatologie en koninkryk in die Markusevangelie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Eschatology and kingdom in Mark This article investigates the concepts of eschatology and kingdom in Mark from a narratological point of view. Special attention is given to the narrator’s use of story time and plotted time, the narrative function of Mark 13, and the Son of man sayings in the Gospel. The two most important conclusions reached are that Mark uses the Son of man sayings in a non titular way, and that the coming of the son of man (parousia) refers to Jesus’ vindication by God at his resurrection. In Mark the kingdom is equated with Jesus’ new household, a household that replaces the temple. The concepts of kingdom (new household), eschatology and son of man are thus so closely linked in Mark’s narrative that eschatology is the kingdom and the kingdom is eschatology. A possible socio-historical setting for Mark’s community, in which the above understanding of the concepts of kingdom, eschatology and Son of man sayings would have made sense, is also postulated. <![CDATA[<b>Apologie vir die Christelike lewenswyse en etiek</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Apology for a Christian way of life and ethics Many young Afrikaners have turned their backs on the Calvinistic churches in South Africa. Many of them have difficulty with the Christian morality. Works of by "Boetman" and Koos Kombuis are analysed in order to get acquainted with present-day thinking of the critics of the Afrikaans churches. This article proposes a positive reception of the moral tradition of the Early Church. A short overview of the basic aspects of the ethics of the early church fathers and apologists is given. Whether the critics would embrace a morality of caring, remains an open question. The author is convinced that this morality is the better one. The critics are invited to rethink Christian morality and ethics. <![CDATA[<b>Space, time and group identity in Jubilees 8-9</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jubilees 8-9 is a rewriting of Genesis 10. It changed a depiction of Israel's identity in genealogical terms into one using spatial terms. This ideological construct was based on a Noah tradition and on Biblical texts describing the ideal borders of the land allotted to Israel. Using a triad of space, time and identity the author of Jubilees advanced his conviction of who the true Israel was. He emphasized the holiness of their land and demarcated the borders of the territory that God allotted them. <![CDATA[<b>Post-Reformation Reformed sources and children</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>Ephesians</i></b>: <b><i>empowerment to walk in love for the unity of all in Christ</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100034&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>The stem cell debate</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100035&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>Darwin and intelligent design</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100036&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>The fathers of the church</i></b>: <b><i>a comprehensive introduction</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100037&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>Spiritual emotions</i></b>: <b><i>a psychology of Christian virtues</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100038&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>The Bonhoeffer legacy post-holocaust perspective</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100039&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>A people’s history of Christianity, Vol 5</i></b>: <b><i>reformation Christianity</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100040&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>Defeating depression</i></b>: <b><i>real help for you and those who love you</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100041&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>Martin Luther’s message for us today</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100042&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>Jürgen Moltmann Eine Lebensgeschichte, herausgegeben von W Raum</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100043&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children." <![CDATA[<b><i>Render to God</i></b>: <b><i>new testament understanding of the divine</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222008000100044&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article suggests that the topic "children" received considerable attention in the post-Reformation era - the period of CA 1565-1725. In particular, the author argues that the post-Reformation Reformed sources attest of a significant interest in the education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic "children."