Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Kronos]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0259-019020190001&lang=pt vol. 45 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Angola: Nationalist Narratives and Alternative Histories</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Monumental Relations: Connecting Memorials and Conversations in Rural and Urban Malanje, Angola</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Angola's staggering oil wealth and histories of conflict and inequality make for tempting binary narratives of power and exploitation, which, however, suffice neither for accuracy nor action. This article uses a relational geographical perspective to go beyond simple binaries by jointly analysing the central 4 February Plaza in the heart of Malanje City, and the proposed new rural memorial for the Baixa de Kassanje revolt located east of the city in Kela Municipality. Drawing on news, ethnography and historical records, I situate the 4 February Plaza in the city's broader history of settler colonialism and point to its current tensions, ironies and practical and political uses in the city's daily geography. The Kassanje memorial is relatively unknown and has languished since a first pilot model village was announced by President Agostinho Neto during a 1979 visit. I discuss plans and media coverage about building a Kassanje village project and a new memorial and monument, as well as constructing new housing and social infrastructure in the area. I also examine claims to reestablish 4 January as a national holiday for martyrs of colonial repression (including in Kassanje) and to provide military pensions to people affected by the Kassanje revolt. Analysis shows how such plans and discussion of the revolt reveal both diverse voices in conversation as well as significant changes in dominant narratives about the revolt. More generally, the Kassanje discussions points to rural geographies of nationalism (and their accompanying monuments), which entail their own specificity as well as connections with urban areas. Similarly, understanding both monuments in their provincial contexts - and likewise their connections with Luanda - can provide new perspectives to work that has focused on Luanda and larger cities. <![CDATA[<b>A Memory of Concrete: Politics of Representation and Silence in the Agostinho Neto Memorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Focusing on the Memorial Antônio Agostinho Neto (MAAN) in Angola as the case study to analyse materialisations of memory, the article attempts to read the political representations of this monument by analysing its main narratives, questioning its silences and unpacking its impact on public memory. To do so, the article is divided into three parts. The first section engages with the relevant academic literature on southern African memorialisation and provides a brief description of the MAAN. The second and third sections consider Richard Werbner's notion of elite memorial-ism to produce a two-dimensional analysis, referencing the absence of MPLA narrative and symbols in the MAAN while noting how it became inaccessible to the ordinary Angolan population, a result of more ample dynamics of state society relations in the country. It concludes that the logics of social hierarchy that have promoted the marginalisation of segments of the population have impacted the MAAN's ability to contribute to the new ways Angolans are imagining the nation. <![CDATA[<b>Fighting over the Archive: Politics and Practice of the Art World in Angola</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Focusing on the Memorial Antônio Agostinho Neto (MAAN) in Angola as the case study to analyse materialisations of memory, the article attempts to read the political representations of this monument by analysing its main narratives, questioning its silences and unpacking its impact on public memory. To do so, the article is divided into three parts. The first section engages with the relevant academic literature on southern African memorialisation and provides a brief description of the MAAN. The second and third sections consider Richard Werbner's notion of elite memorial-ism to produce a two-dimensional analysis, referencing the absence of MPLA narrative and symbols in the MAAN while noting how it became inaccessible to the ordinary Angolan population, a result of more ample dynamics of state society relations in the country. It concludes that the logics of social hierarchy that have promoted the marginalisation of segments of the population have impacted the MAAN's ability to contribute to the new ways Angolans are imagining the nation. <![CDATA[<b>Reflections on Angola's 1992 Election: A Photo Essay</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Focusing on the Memorial Antônio Agostinho Neto (MAAN) in Angola as the case study to analyse materialisations of memory, the article attempts to read the political representations of this monument by analysing its main narratives, questioning its silences and unpacking its impact on public memory. To do so, the article is divided into three parts. The first section engages with the relevant academic literature on southern African memorialisation and provides a brief description of the MAAN. The second and third sections consider Richard Werbner's notion of elite memorial-ism to produce a two-dimensional analysis, referencing the absence of MPLA narrative and symbols in the MAAN while noting how it became inaccessible to the ordinary Angolan population, a result of more ample dynamics of state society relations in the country. It concludes that the logics of social hierarchy that have promoted the marginalisation of segments of the population have impacted the MAAN's ability to contribute to the new ways Angolans are imagining the nation. <![CDATA[<b>The Spectacle of Guns and Hope</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Focusing on the Memorial Antônio Agostinho Neto (MAAN) in Angola as the case study to analyse materialisations of memory, the article attempts to read the political representations of this monument by analysing its main narratives, questioning its silences and unpacking its impact on public memory. To do so, the article is divided into three parts. The first section engages with the relevant academic literature on southern African memorialisation and provides a brief description of the MAAN. The second and third sections consider Richard Werbner's notion of elite memorial-ism to produce a two-dimensional analysis, referencing the absence of MPLA narrative and symbols in the MAAN while noting how it became inaccessible to the ordinary Angolan population, a result of more ample dynamics of state society relations in the country. It concludes that the logics of social hierarchy that have promoted the marginalisation of segments of the population have impacted the MAAN's ability to contribute to the new ways Angolans are imagining the nation. <![CDATA[<b>Angola 1992 – Hope in the Face of Anguish</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Focusing on the Memorial Antônio Agostinho Neto (MAAN) in Angola as the case study to analyse materialisations of memory, the article attempts to read the political representations of this monument by analysing its main narratives, questioning its silences and unpacking its impact on public memory. To do so, the article is divided into three parts. The first section engages with the relevant academic literature on southern African memorialisation and provides a brief description of the MAAN. The second and third sections consider Richard Werbner's notion of elite memorial-ism to produce a two-dimensional analysis, referencing the absence of MPLA narrative and symbols in the MAAN while noting how it became inaccessible to the ordinary Angolan population, a result of more ample dynamics of state society relations in the country. It concludes that the logics of social hierarchy that have promoted the marginalisation of segments of the population have impacted the MAAN's ability to contribute to the new ways Angolans are imagining the nation. <![CDATA[<b>'Outsiders' and 'Insiders': Post-Conflict Political Violence and Reconciliation in Malanje, Angola</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focuses on some episodes from the prolonged Angolan conflict that can potentially broaden our understanding of the past. The analysis is centred on and describes the ways in which this traumatic experience has been represented in the official domestic narrative, relegating local or regional dynamics - such as in Malanje - to the margins. In my opinion, these dynamics are nonetheless of major importance in a discussion of the post-conflict period in Angolan society. The argument is based on the assumption that, although there are always contradictions between local micro-narratives which affect the processes of negotiation,1 the micro-narratives presented in this article assist in the interpretation of the official political-military rituals that are carried out by the Angolan state as an act of appeasement towards the past - with varied and sometimes contradictory implications for the process of national reconciliation. <![CDATA[<b>'Can we name ourselves Savimbi?': Crevice Moments and Spaces of National Reimagination in the Angolan Scouts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper presents an analysis of contemporary citizenship in one group of Angolan boy scouts in 2014. It uses Shiera El-Malik's notion of 'crevice moments'¹ to explore specific instances of dialogue and action which reveal opening and possibility within a largely closed state that have thus far not been reflected in existing scholarly literature. The paper further considers the reasons for scouting's popularity in post-war Angola, arguing that its military structure, religious basis, and focus on 'adventure' and social interactions have made it a highly desirable space for young people in a context where few opportunities exist for leisure activities. Finally, scouting enables a reconstitution of military and ideological symbols including uniforms, the socialist ideological construction of 'the new man,' and 'nature' in a way that, as one scout leader put it, is 'fit for peace'. In this process, past, present and future are reconstituted by a movement that itself is formed and transformed in contradiction and colonial echo. <![CDATA[<b>Mbailundu Remembered: Colonial Traces in Post-Civil War Angola</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article traces connections between structures, identities and forms of collective belonging that impacted social relations in Angola from roughly the 1880s to 2013. In the absence of a coherent, centralised state structure, both during Portuguese colonialism and after independence in 1975, communities coalesced around regional and ethnic identities that had begun hardening under colonial rule. These structures of conflict and inequality animated the Angolan civil war (1975-2002). Through the lens of oral histories and collective memories of the early twentieth century, as well as archival records, I show how Angola's exclusionary identity politics were forged during colonial times and have persisted into the 21st century. Focusing on the Umbundu speaking kingdom of Mbailundu, in Angola's central highlands, this article suggests that colonial structures of belonging and exclusion continue to affect political life in 21st century Angola by maintaining stark divisions between people of different regional, ethnic and religious backgrounds. A fractured picture of belonging and loyalty emerged out of settler colonial structures in Angola and continues to reverberate in the political intrigues that overshadow everyday life. <![CDATA[<b>Marissa J. Moorman, <i>Powerful Frequencies. Radio, State Power and the Cold War in Angola, 1931-2002</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article traces connections between structures, identities and forms of collective belonging that impacted social relations in Angola from roughly the 1880s to 2013. In the absence of a coherent, centralised state structure, both during Portuguese colonialism and after independence in 1975, communities coalesced around regional and ethnic identities that had begun hardening under colonial rule. These structures of conflict and inequality animated the Angolan civil war (1975-2002). Through the lens of oral histories and collective memories of the early twentieth century, as well as archival records, I show how Angola's exclusionary identity politics were forged during colonial times and have persisted into the 21st century. Focusing on the Umbundu speaking kingdom of Mbailundu, in Angola's central highlands, this article suggests that colonial structures of belonging and exclusion continue to affect political life in 21st century Angola by maintaining stark divisions between people of different regional, ethnic and religious backgrounds. A fractured picture of belonging and loyalty emerged out of settler colonial structures in Angola and continues to reverberate in the political intrigues that overshadow everyday life. <![CDATA[<b>Jessica Krug , <i>Fugitive Modernities: Kisama and the Politics of Freedom</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-01902019000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article traces connections between structures, identities and forms of collective belonging that impacted social relations in Angola from roughly the 1880s to 2013. In the absence of a coherent, centralised state structure, both during Portuguese colonialism and after independence in 1975, communities coalesced around regional and ethnic identities that had begun hardening under colonial rule. These structures of conflict and inequality animated the Angolan civil war (1975-2002). Through the lens of oral histories and collective memories of the early twentieth century, as well as archival records, I show how Angola's exclusionary identity politics were forged during colonial times and have persisted into the 21st century. Focusing on the Umbundu speaking kingdom of Mbailundu, in Angola's central highlands, this article suggests that colonial structures of belonging and exclusion continue to affect political life in 21st century Angola by maintaining stark divisions between people of different regional, ethnic and religious backgrounds. A fractured picture of belonging and loyalty emerged out of settler colonial structures in Angola and continues to reverberate in the political intrigues that overshadow everyday life.