Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SAMJ: South African Medical Journal]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0256-957420100011&lang=en vol. 100 num. 11 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Millennium development goals</b>: <b>how are we doing?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>HPCSA disciplinary action</b>: <b>'custodian of professional morals?'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Accreditation of training courses in good clinical practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Ethical challenges in an age of overpopulation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Clumsy patient-friendly regulations could strip 25 000 of MPS cover</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Possible MPS eviction 'an unmitigated disaster'</b>: <b>patient litigator</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The most accurate spear at Hlabisa</b>: <b>a Goko doctor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>FASD</b>: <b>De Aar mums get beyond the 'tippling point'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Protection of human participants in health research</b>: <b>a comparison of some US federal regulations and South African research ethics guidelines</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Maternal deaths associated with eclampsia in South Africa</b>: <b>lessons to learn from the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths, 2005 - 2007</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Cytomegalovirus duodenitis, pseudotumour and cholangiopathy in advanced HIV</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Bryan Williams</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Davey's companion to surgery in Africa. 3rd ed.</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The human genome and molecular medicine</b>: <b>promises and pitfalls</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Rotational conjunctival flap surgery reduces recurrence of pterygium</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Heliotherapy</b>: <b>a South African perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The research objective was to gather and collate data that will enable dermatologists to quantify exposure to solar radiation so that they can give accurate advice to patients using heliotherapy, thereby minimising harm from sun exposure. Other patients can also be advised regarding ultraviolet index (UVI) and sun safety. The concept of minimal erythema dose per hour (MED/h) may be useful in future research into solar radiation and its effects on skin cancer. <![CDATA[<b><i>Helicobacter pylori</i> prevalence in dyspeptic patients in the Eastern Cape province</b>: <b>race and disease status</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: We examined Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric-related morbidities at Livingstone Hospital, Port Elizabeth, to determine the prevalence and risk factors for infection according to race, endoscopic diagnosis, age and sex. METHODS: Gastric biopsies were collected from 254 consecutive patients and H. pylori was isolated on Columbia agar base supplemented with 7% sheep's blood and Skirrow's supplement containing trimethoprim (2.5 mg), vancomycin (5 mg) and cefsulodin (2.5 mg). Amphotericin (2.5 mg) was added to the medium. Recovered isolates were identified following standard microbiology and biochemical techniques. Presumptive isolates were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the glmM gene. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the univariate association between H. pylori infection and the possible risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to measure the strength of association, using EPI INFO 3.41 software. p-values <0.05 were required for significance. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 66.1% (168/254). Of the 168 positive subjects, H. pylori prevalence was highest in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (32.7%; 55/168), and lowest (0%; 0/168) in those with atypical oesophageal reflux disease and gastroduodenitis, respectively. The prevalence of infection was highest among coloureds (68.4%; 89/130) and lowest in whites (59.5%; 25/42). Prevalence increased with age. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H. pylori is high in dyspeptic patients in Eastern Cape province. Gender, antibiotic treatment and alcohol consumption may be risk factors for infection. These findings are of clinical and epidemiological significance. <![CDATA[<b>Pharmacological testing in Horner's syndrome</b>: <b>a new paradigm</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en For more than three decades, topical cocaine has been used to confirm the diagnosis and hydroxyamphetamine to localise the causative lesion in oculosympathetic palsy or Horner's syndrome. More recently, other drugs have demonstrated the ability to point to the diagnosis or anatomical site. Apraclonidine and phenylephrine, given their similar diagnostic efficacy and increased availability, may have superseded cocaine and hydroxyamphetamine as firstline pharmacological testing agents in Horner's syndrome. <![CDATA[<b>Genetic variations in androgen metabolism genes and associations with prostate cancer in South African men</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: In South Africa white men have the highest incidence of prostate cancer (PCa), coloured (mixed ancestry) men have an intermediate incidence, and low incidences are reported for black and Asian men. It has been suggested that ethnic differences in incidence and mortality of PCa are related to genetic variations in genes that regulate androgen metabolism. We investigated the role of genetic variants in the androgen metabolism genes and the probability of developing PCa in South African coloured and white men. METHODS: Genotype and allele counts and frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A5, CYP3A4 and CYP3A43 were assessed in coloured men (160 case individuals, 146 control individuals) and white men (121 case individuals, 141 control individuals). RESULTS: A genetic association indicating an increased probability of developing PCa was observed with the G allele of the SNP rs2740574 in CYP3A4 in coloured men, the A allele of rs776746 (CYP3A5) and the G allele of rs2740574 (CYP3A4) in white men, and the G allele of rs2740574 and the C allele of rs501275 (CYP3A43) in the combined ethnic groups analysis. In addition, we identified allele combinations (termed haplotypes) with significantly higher frequencies in the PCa case individuals than in the control individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the role of variants in genes that regulate androgen metabolism and the probability of developing PCa. The study paves the way to identify other genetic associations in South African men, and to establish genetic profiles that could be used to determine disease progression and prognosis. <![CDATA[<b>South African guideline for management of ischaemic Stroke and transient ischaemic attack 2010</b>: <b>a guideline from the South African Stroke Society(SASS) and the SASS Writing Committee</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010001100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: In South Africa white men have the highest incidence of prostate cancer (PCa), coloured (mixed ancestry) men have an intermediate incidence, and low incidences are reported for black and Asian men. It has been suggested that ethnic differences in incidence and mortality of PCa are related to genetic variations in genes that regulate androgen metabolism. We investigated the role of genetic variants in the androgen metabolism genes and the probability of developing PCa in South African coloured and white men. METHODS: Genotype and allele counts and frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A5, CYP3A4 and CYP3A43 were assessed in coloured men (160 case individuals, 146 control individuals) and white men (121 case individuals, 141 control individuals). RESULTS: A genetic association indicating an increased probability of developing PCa was observed with the G allele of the SNP rs2740574 in CYP3A4 in coloured men, the A allele of rs776746 (CYP3A5) and the G allele of rs2740574 (CYP3A4) in white men, and the G allele of rs2740574 and the C allele of rs501275 (CYP3A43) in the combined ethnic groups analysis. In addition, we identified allele combinations (termed haplotypes) with significantly higher frequencies in the PCa case individuals than in the control individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the role of variants in genes that regulate androgen metabolism and the probability of developing PCa. The study paves the way to identify other genetic associations in South African men, and to establish genetic profiles that could be used to determine disease progression and prognosis.