Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SAMJ: South African Medical Journal]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0256-957420180002&lang=es vol. 108 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Early-life exposures to environmental tobacco smoke and indoor air pollution in the Drakenstein Child Health Study: Impact on child health</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>The African Hospitalist Fellowship</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>30 days in medicine</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Failure to perform assisted deliveries is resulting in an increased neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality: An expert opinion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The need to perform assisted vaginal delivery (AVD) has been regarded as self-evident. In high-income countries, rates of AVD range between 5% and 20% of all births. In South Africa, the rate of AVD is only 1%. This has resulted in increased neonatal morbidity and mortality due to intrapartum asphyxia, and increased maternal morbidity and mortality due to a rise in second-stage caesarean deliveries. In this article, we address the possible causes leading to a decrease in AVD and propose measures to be taken to increase the rates of AVD and subsequently reduce morbidity and mortality. <![CDATA[<b>Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir) pre-exposure prophylaxis roll-out among South African university students: Lots of positives, but let us keep an eye on possible surprises</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has fundamentally altered the natural history of HIV/AIDS, sharply reducing HIV-related morbidity and prolonging longevity. However, there seems to be a resurgence in HIV infection rates in some parts of the world that has prompted consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis (pre-EP) and vaccination. Despite their good viral suppression profiles, most drugs used as part of ART also have unwanted adverse drug reactions/effects (ADRs). In this article we acknowledge the utility of pre-EP in combating HIV transmission, but we also highlight the need to prepare for management of other unexpected outcomes such as ADRs and viral resistance, to ensure the success of the programme. <![CDATA[<b>Is there transparency in the pricing of medicines in the South African private sector?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Recent investigations by the Competition Commission of South Africa (SA) of suspected excessive pricing of cancer medicines in SA by three global pharmaceutical companies have once again drawn attention to increasing medicine pricing transparency and warrant further public debate. <![CDATA[<b>Burkitt's lymphoma: The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the outcome of treatment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The prevalence of HIV in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) patients and the outcome of treatment in Cameroon were unknown. Records of all patients diagnosed with BL at three Cameroon Baptist Convention hospitals were reviewed to ascertain the recorded HIV status and outcome of treatment. Of 979 patients diagnosed with BL, 717 were tested for HIV and 11 (1.5%) were HIV-positive. Three of eight patients treated with both cyclophosphamide (CPM)-based chemotherapy and antiretrovirals were alive at 62, 96 and 111 months, respectively. The HIV rate was comparable to that of 1% for the general population of children aged <15 years. Low-cost high-frequency CPM was the only available treatment option for BL and was associated with 37.5% long-term survival in a resource-limited setting. <![CDATA[<b>The development of hospital-based palliative care services in public hospitals in the Western Cape, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es With the recent approval of a South African (SA) National Policy Framework and Strategy for Palliative Care by the National Health Council, it is pertinent to reflect on initiatives to develop palliative care services in public hospitals. This article reviews the development of hospital-based palliative care services in the Western Cape, SA. Palliative care services in SA started in the non-governmental sector in the 1980s. The first SA hospital-based palliative care team was established in Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital in 2001. The awareness of the benefit of palliative care in the hospital setting led to the development of isolated pockets of excellence providing palliative care in the public health sector in SA. This article describes models for palliative care at tertiary, provincial and district hospital level, which could inform development of hospital-based palliative care as the national policy for palliative care is implemented in SA. <![CDATA[<b>Validation of the Simplified Motor Score in patients with traumatic brain injury at a major trauma centre in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: This study used data from a large prospectively entered database to assess the efficacy of the motor score (M score) component of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Simplified Motor Score (SMS) in predicting overall outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVE: To safely and reliably simplify the scoring system used to assess level of consciousness of trauma patients in the acute setting. METHODS: A retrospective observational review of the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service hybrid electronic medical registry database was performed during the period January 2013 - December 2015. Patients were classified into three groups using their GCS as an injury severity score. These were mild TBI (GCS 13 - 15), moderate TBI (GCS 9 - 12) and severe TBI (GCS <9). The Glasgow M score was specifically evaluated to determine the relationship between the individual motor component and patient outcome. RESULTS: GCS scores and M scores were analysed in a total of 830 patients. There was a decline in survival rate when the M score on admission was <4. The decline was more significant when the M score was <3. Survival rates were 26.8% (11/41) for patients with an M score of 1, 63.6% (14/22) for those with a score of 2, 56.5% (13/23) for those with a score of 3, 80.0% (20/25) for those with a score of 4, and 95.5% (121/128) for those with a score of 5. Of 591 patients with an M score of 6, 580 (98.1%) survived. Mortality rose dramatically with declining SMS. This was highly significant. When the M score was plotted against mortality in 830 patients, there was a correct prediction in 769 cases (accuracy 92.7%, sensitivity 67.6%, specificity 95%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.9037, with a standard deviation (area) of 0.0227. When comparing the SMS against mortality, the accuracy was 77.1%, the sensitivity 84.5% and the specificity 76.4%. The fitted ROC area was 0.891 and the empirical ROC area 0.86. CONCLUSION: The M score component of the GCS and the SMS accurately predict outcome in patients with TBI. In cases where the full GCS is difficult to assess, the M score and SMS can be used safely as a triage tool. <![CDATA[<b>Clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure, adherence to treatment guidelines, and mortality of patients with acute heart failure</b><b>: </b><b>Experience at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: There is limited information on acute heart failure (AHF) and its treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure (HF), adherence to HF treatment guidelines, and mortality of patients with AHF presenting to Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: This sub-study of The Sub-Saharan Africa Survey of Heart Failure (THESUS-HF) was a prospective and observational survey that focused on the enrolment and follow-up of additional patients with AHF presenting to GSH and entered into the existing registry after publication of the primary THESUS-HF article in 2012. The patients were classified into prevalent (existing) or incident (new) cases of HF. RESULTS: Of the 119 patients included, 69 (58.0%) were female and the mean (standard deviation) age was 49.9 (16.3) years. The majority of prevalent cases were patients of mixed ancestry (63.3%), and prevalent cases had more hypertension (70.0%), diabetes mellitus (36.7%), hyperlipidaemia (33.3%) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (36.7%) than incident cases. The top five causes of HF were cardiomyopathy (20.2%), IHD (19.3%), rheumatic valvular heart disease (RHD) (18.5%), cor pulmonale (11.8%) and hypertension (10.1%), with the remaining 20.1% consisting of miscellaneous causes including pericarditis, toxins and congenital heart disease. Most patients received renin-angiotensin system blockers and loop diuretics on discharge. There was a low rate of beta-blocker, aldosterone antagonist and digoxin use. Rehospitalisation within 180 days occurred in 25.2% of cases. In-hospital mortality was 8.4% and the case fatality rate at 6 months was 26.1%. CONCLUSION: In Cape Town, the main causes of AHF are cardiomyopathy, IHD and RHD. AHF affects a young population and is associated with a high rate of rehospitalisation and mortality. There is serious under-use of beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists and digoxin. Emphasis on the rigorous application of treatment guidelines is needed to reduce readmission and mortality. <![CDATA[<b>Neonatal and paediatric bloodstream infections: Pathogens, antimicrobial resistance patterns and prescribing practice at Khayelitsha District Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of neonatal and paediatric community-acquired and healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) at South African (SA) district hospitals is under-researched. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective review of neonatal and paediatric BSI (0 - 13 years) at Khayelitsha District Hospital, Cape Town, SA, over 3 years (1 March 2012 - 28 February 2015). METHODS: We used laboratory, hospital, patient and prescription data to determine BSI rates, blood culture yield and contamination rates, pathogen profile, antimicrobial resistance, patient demographics, BSI outcome and antibiotic prescribing practice. RESULTS: From 7 427 blood cultures submitted, the pathogen yield was low (2.1%, 156/7 427) while blood culture contamination rates were high (10.5%, 782/7 427). Paediatric and neonatal BSI rates were 4.5 and 1.4/1 000 patient days, respectively. Gram-positive BSI predominated (59.3%); Staphylococcus aureus (26.8%) and Escherichia coli (21.6%) were common pathogens. The median patient age was 3 months, with a predominance of males (57.7%) and a 12.8% prevalence of HIV infection. Crude BSI-associated mortality was 7.1% (11/156), the death rate being higher in neonates than in infants and children (6/40 (15.0%) v. 5/116 (4.3%), respectively; p=0.03) and in patients with Gram-negative compared with Gram-positive bacteraemia (6/66 (9.1%) v. 5/89 (5.6%), respectively; p=0.5). Most BSI episodes were community-acquired (138/156; 88.5%), with high levels of extended-spectrum P-lactamase (ESBL) carriage among Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli isolates (5/5 (100%) and 8/33 (24.2%), respectively). Antimicrobial management of BSI was inappropriate in 30.6% of cases (45/147), including incorrect empirical antibiotic (46.7%), dual antibiotic cover (33.3%) and inappropriately broad-spectrum antibiotic use (17.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens (notably ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae) were common in community-acquired BSI. Paediatric clinicians at district hospitals require ongoing training in antibiotic stewardship and blood culture sampling. <![CDATA[<b>Characteristics and early outcomes of children and adolescents treated with darunavir/ritonavir-, raltegravir- or etravirine-containing antiretroviral therapy in the Western Cape Province of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for third-line treatment regimens in HIV-infected children with antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure. Data are limited on darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r)-, raltegravir (RAL)- and etravirine (ETR)-containing regimens in treatment-experienced children from resource-constrained settings receiving these drugs as part of routine care. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and early outcomes of treatment-experienced children (<20 years of age) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa treated with DRV/r-, RAL- or ETR-containing regimens. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of treatment-experienced children receiving a DRV/r-, RAL- or ETR-containing regimen as recommended by a paediatric expert review committee, based on HIV drug resistance testing. RESULTS: Thirty-five children of median age 8.8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 5.5 - 11) who had received ART for a median of 6.9 years (IQR 5 - 9.9) and started a DRV/r-, RAL- or ETR-containing regimen were included. Before starting such a regimen, the median CD4+ lymphocyte count and HIV-1 RNA level were 405.5 cells/uL (IQR 251.5 - 541) and 28 314 copies/mL (IQR 5 595.5 - 120 186.5) (log 4.5 (IQR 3.7 - 5)), respectively, in 24 subjects with available results. After a median of 2 years (IQR 1.3 - 4) on treatment, 29/30 (96.7%) and 23/30 (76.7%) subjects with available results had HIV-1 RNA levels of <400 and <50 copies/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study found DRV/r-, RAL- and ETR-containing regimens to be effective in a group of treatment-experienced children and adolescents with multidrug-resistant HIV. Although the treatment regimens in this study were individualised based on HIV genotyping results, further research evaluating the safety and efficacy of standardised third-line treatment regimens in children of all ages is needed. <![CDATA[<b>Heroin detoxification during pregnancy: A systematic review and retrospective study of the management of heroin addiction in pregnancy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: There is general consensus that methadone maintenance is the gold standard in the management of pregnant heroin users. However, in South African state hospitals, methadone withdrawal is the routine procedure offered to these patients, as methadone maintenance programmes are unavailable in the public sector. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the literature on heroin detoxification in pregnancy, and to document pregnancy outcomes in heroin users detoxified with methadone at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, from 2006 to 2010. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken to identify key publications on the management of heroin addiction in pregnancy. Patients for the study were identified from the GSH methadone registry, and data were collected from the clinical files. RESULTS: A total of 20 relevant publications were identified and reviewed. Early case reports described an increased risk of stillbirths and fetal distress after methadone detoxification, but more recent case series involving larger numbers of patients showed positive outcomes. In our study, six pregnant patients received methadone withdrawal over a 5-year period at GSH, and all the neonates had good Apgar scores and were discharged home within 3 days of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence on the management of heroin addiction during pregnancy, and the only two guidelines identified suggest that methadone maintenance is preferable to methadone withdrawal. The favourable pregnancy outcomes in this small sample of patients managed with methadone withdrawal suggest that it may be safe and deserves further study. <![CDATA[<b>Colorectal cancer in South Africa: An assessment of disease presentation, treatment pathways and 5-year survival</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in South Africa (SA), and the sixth most lethal. Approximately 25% of patients will have synchronous metastatic disease at the time of their primary CRC diagnosis. Although chemotherapy is used in most stages of the disease, surgical resection of the primary tumour and metastases remains the most successful treatment modality to achieve cure or prolong survival. To date, no data on CRC presentation and management have been published in SA. OBJECTIVES: To determine CRC presentation, general management patterns and overall survival in the SA private healthcare sector. METHODS: A retrospective review of a private healthcare funder's database from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2015. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th revision) (ICD-10) diagnosis codes were used to identify colorectal cancer and liver and/or pulmonary metastatic disease. Procedure codes assigned to hospital admissions were used to identify type of surgical treatment. Chemotherapy was identified by the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System of medicines. Treatment patterns were determined and 5-year survival rates for these were calculated. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression was used for between-group comparisons of survival. Data analysis was carried out using SAS version 9.4 for Windows. RESULTS: A total of 3 412 patients were included in the study, 2 267 with CRC only and 1 145 with liver (LM) or pulmonary metastases (PM). The mean age was 64.1 years (range 21 - 97), and 54.6% were male; these did not differ statistically between the study groups. Twenty percent of patients with LM or PM underwent surgical resection of their metastases. Five-year survival rates following surgical resection of all disease for CRC only, CRCLM, CRCPM and CRCLMPM were 71.7%, 57.3%, 31.5% and 26.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SA CRC patients treated in the private healthcare sector have similar disease presentation to that in published international series, with similar outcomes following various treatment pathways; however, it seems that fewer resections of metastases are undertaken compared with international trends. <![CDATA[<b>Safety and affordability of an elective Saturday list at Pietersburg Hospital, Limpopo, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: The backlog of patients waiting for operations continues to be a problem in many public hospitals in South Africa (SA), with elective surgery procedures being postponed for up to 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of death in hospital or out of hospital within 30 days of an elective procedure performed on a Saturday, and to determine the cost incurred by paying staff members who perform these operations. METHOD: A prospective, observational descriptive cohort study of all patients undergoing inpatient general surgery operations during weekdays and weekends between 1 September 2015 and 31 August 2016 (1 year) at Pietersburg Hospital (PBH), Limpopo, SA. Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, USA) was used to analyse and derive descriptive statistics. The finance department at the hospital calculated the overtime pay for theatre staff who operated on Saturdays. RESULTS: The study included 1 352 operations (607 elective and 745 emergency procedures). Saturday elective operations contributed 133/607 (22%), and the rate of death for these operations was 1.5%. The most common procedures performed on a Saturday were hernia repair and amputation. The cost for 8 hours of work on a Saturday was ZAR13 900, amounting to a total of ZAR333 600 for 24 Saturdays. CONCLUSION: Performing minor surgery on a Saturday had a mortality rate of 1.5%, and a theatre staff cost of ~ZAR2 317 per patient, excluding surgeons' fees. If surgeons were to be paid the costs would be ZAR3 450 per patient. <![CDATA[<b>Physical activity levels in urban-based South African learners: A cross-sectional study of 7 348 participants</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: Establishing profiles of physical activity (PA) is critical in tackling the chronic diseases associated with lack of PA and avoiding healthcare costs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate PA levels in urban-based South African (SA) primary school learners. METHODS: The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children was completed by 7 348 learners (3 867 males and 3 481 females) aged 8 -14 years, of whom 49% were white, 39% black and 12% from other ethnic groups. Differences in PA levels by ethnic origin and province were determined using an analysis of covariance after adjusting for gender (p<0.05). Bonferroni corrections controlled for multiple comparisons. A fitted regression model examined age-related differences in PA adjusting for province. RESULTS: Of SA learners aged 8 - 14 years, 57% (n=4 224) engaged in moderate levels of PA. Thirty-one percent (n=2 247) did not meet internationally recommended amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Overall, males reported higher PA levels than females (p<0.0001). PA levels declined with age from 11 to 14 years by 14% and 20% in males and females, respectively. Black learners had higher PA levels than white learners (p=0.0039). There were also significant differences in PA levels between the provinces (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of differences in PA levels between gender, age and ethnic groups, and between provinces. A targeted approach to increase PA in high-risk populations in SA is warranted. Increased PA will help reduce the risk of chronic diseases and will contribute to the health of SA's population and the growth of the country's economy. <![CDATA[<b>Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by deficiency of the 21-hydoxylase (21-OH) enzyme is the most common form of CAH worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of CAH due to 21-OH deficiency, and its clinical presentation and biochemical profiles in affected children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective subset analysis of 44 children with confirmed CAH. RESULTS: All the children had classic CAH. The majority (59.8%) had classic salt-wasting (CSW) CAH and 40.1% had simple virilising (SV) CAH. The median age of presentation was 8.1 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4.5 - 11) in the SV group and 2 months (IQR 2 weeks - 5 months) in the CSW group (p=0.0001). No difference in age of presentation was noted between males and females (p=0.541). The clinical presentation was significantly different between the CSW and SV groups, and between males and females in the CSW group (p<0.0001). Most of the females with 46,XX CSW CAH (66.7%) presented with disorders of sex development (DSD), while the remaining 33.3% presented with DSD and dehydration and shock. All the males with 46,XY CSW CAH presented with dehydration and shock. Overall, 37.9% (11/29) of the children were obese or overweight at presentation. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-dependent central precocious puberty was observed on follow-up in 29.4% (10/34) of the children at a median of 6.7 years (IQR 5 - 7.7). CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of CAH is delayed in males and females in both SV and CSW forms of the disorder, which probably contributes to under-reporting of cases and a high mortality rate. <![CDATA[<b>Five-year follow-up of participants diagnosed with chronic airflow obstruction in a South African Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) survey</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: A community-based prevalence survey performed in two suburbs in Cape Town, South Africa (SA), in 2005, using the international Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) method, confirmed a prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) in 23.1% of adults aged &gt;40 years. OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical course and prognosis over 5 years of patients with CAO identified in the 2005 survey. METHODS: Patients with CAO in 2005 were invited to participate. Standard BOLD and modified questionnaires were completed. Spirometry was performed using spirometers of the same make as in 2005. RESULTS: Of 196 eligible participants from BOLD 2005, 45 (23.0%) had died, 8 from respiratory causes, 10 from cardiovascular causes and 6 from other known causes, while in 21 cases the cause of death was not known. On multivariate analysis, only age and Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 4 disease at baseline were significantly associated with death. Of the 151 survivors, 11 (5.6% of the original cohort) were unavailable and 33 (16.8%) declined or had medical exclusions. One hundred and seven survivors were enrolled in the follow-up study (54.6%, median age 63.1 years, 45.8% males). Post-bronchodilator spirometry performed in 106 participants failed to confirm CAO, defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of <0.7, in 16 participants (15.1%), but CAO was present in 90. The median decline in FEV1 was 28.9 mL/year (interquartile range -54.8 - 0.0) and was similar between GOLD stages. The median total decline in FVC was 75 mL, and was significantly greater in GOLD stage 1 (-350 mL) than in stages 2 or 3 (-80 mL and + 140 mL, respectively; p<0.01). Fifty-eight participants with CAO in 2005 (64.4%) remained in the same GOLD stage, while 21 (23.3%) deteriorated and 11 (12.2%) improved by &gt;1 stage. Only one-third were receiving any treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence, morbidity and mortality of CAO and COPD in SA are high and the level of appropriate treatment is very low, pointing to underdiagnosis and inadequate provision of and access to effective treatments and preventive strategies for this priority chronic non-communicable disease. <![CDATA['Acne in South African black adults: A retrospective study in the private sector']]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742018000200019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: A community-based prevalence survey performed in two suburbs in Cape Town, South Africa (SA), in 2005, using the international Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) method, confirmed a prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) in 23.1% of adults aged &gt;40 years. OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical course and prognosis over 5 years of patients with CAO identified in the 2005 survey. METHODS: Patients with CAO in 2005 were invited to participate. Standard BOLD and modified questionnaires were completed. Spirometry was performed using spirometers of the same make as in 2005. RESULTS: Of 196 eligible participants from BOLD 2005, 45 (23.0%) had died, 8 from respiratory causes, 10 from cardiovascular causes and 6 from other known causes, while in 21 cases the cause of death was not known. On multivariate analysis, only age and Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 4 disease at baseline were significantly associated with death. Of the 151 survivors, 11 (5.6% of the original cohort) were unavailable and 33 (16.8%) declined or had medical exclusions. One hundred and seven survivors were enrolled in the follow-up study (54.6%, median age 63.1 years, 45.8% males). Post-bronchodilator spirometry performed in 106 participants failed to confirm CAO, defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of <0.7, in 16 participants (15.1%), but CAO was present in 90. The median decline in FEV1 was 28.9 mL/year (interquartile range -54.8 - 0.0) and was similar between GOLD stages. The median total decline in FVC was 75 mL, and was significantly greater in GOLD stage 1 (-350 mL) than in stages 2 or 3 (-80 mL and + 140 mL, respectively; p<0.01). Fifty-eight participants with CAO in 2005 (64.4%) remained in the same GOLD stage, while 21 (23.3%) deteriorated and 11 (12.2%) improved by &gt;1 stage. Only one-third were receiving any treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence, morbidity and mortality of CAO and COPD in SA are high and the level of appropriate treatment is very low, pointing to underdiagnosis and inadequate provision of and access to effective treatments and preventive strategies for this priority chronic non-communicable disease.