Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SAMJ: South African Medical Journal]]> vol. 107 num. 9 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Children of men ...</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Undergraduate antimicrobial stewardship training for pharmacy students: Creating a foundation for containment of antimicrobial resistance in South Africa</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>South African student protests, 2015 -2016: The aftermath viewed through Medical Science Honours students at the University of Cape Town</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Use of social media by health professionals in South Africa</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>30 days in medicine</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Textbook of Global Health</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Ian Wark Simson (1 July 1930 - 25 May 2017)</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Work-based assessment: A critical element of specialist medical training</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Chronic kidney disease</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Recent important strategies in the management of chronic kidney disease</b>]]> The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considerably higher in low- and middle-income countries, which are less able than the developed world to cope with treating advanced renal failure owing to financial constraints. Prevention, early diagnosis and implementation of existing knowledge can improve outcomes. This review presents several recent advances to assist with avoiding and slowing down CKD progression and reducing common comorbid complications. The following are discussed: the possible use of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes-related CKD; recent inexpensive important developments in the treatment of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease; prevention of acidosis and the early dietary reduction of red meat consumption; and the therapeutic lowering of uric acid in persistent hyperuricaemia. Finally, an active and monitored exercise programme should be undertaken whenever possible. All of these recommendations have been shown to significantly slow the progression of CKD and increase cardiovascular protection. <![CDATA[<b>Commercial herbal medicines used as African traditional medicines: Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster interferes with a rapid urine drug screening test</b>]]> BACKGROUND. The prevalent use of African traditional medicine by the general public has been reported. With commercialisation and marketing, some of the herbal medicines (HMs) used are readily available over the counter, most of them promoted as immune boosters. These commercial HMs have not been taken through clinical trials and other tests that would validate their composition and safety, and other properties such as their effect on laboratory diagnostic tests. OBJECTIVE. To investigate the cross-reactivity of selected HMs with commonly tested drugs of abuse (DoA) using a qualitative rapid urinalysis assay. METHODS. The six HMs selected were bought from local pharmacies. A rapid urinalysis screening test was performed with the Instant View Multi-Drug of Abuse Test kit from Labstix Diagnostics. Drug-free urine (DFU) was pooled from samples donated by healthy volunteers. Urine samples that had tested positive for DoA were obtained from a pharmacology laboratory. Aliquots of the urine samples were spiked with the HMs in neat and diluted form, and tested at various time intervals. RESULTS. The results for the DFU samples spiked with the HMs remained negative. There were no significant changes in pH or specific gravity of the samples. The results of samples that had tested positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were not altered by five of the HMs when spiked at 40% v/v. The HM Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the THC test. CONCLUSION. An important finding is that the herbal mixture Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the cannabinoid screening test. It adds to the list of substances that may be potential adulterants of urine for screening tests. <![CDATA[<b>How front-line healthcare workers respond to stock-outs of essential medicines in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa</b>]]> Shortages of essential medicines are a daily occurrence in many of South Africa (SA)'s public health facilities. This study focuses on the responses of healthcare workers to stock-outs, investigating how actors at the 'front line' of public health delivery understand, experience and respond to shortages of essential medicines and equipment in their facilities. Findings are based on focus groups, observations and interviews with healthcare workers and patients at healthcare facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of SA, conducted as part of the Mzantsi Wakho study. The research revealed a discrepancy between 'informal' definitions of stock-outs and their reporting through formal stock-out management channels. Front-line healthcare workers had designed their own systems for classifying the severity of stock-outs, based on the product in question, and on their potential to access stocks from other facilities. Beyond formal systems of procurement and supply, healthcare workers had established vast networks of alternative communication and action, often using personal resources to procure medical supplies. Stock-outs were only reported when informal methods of stock-sharing did not secure top-up supplies. These findings have implications for understanding the frequency and severity of stock-outs, and for taking action to prevent and manage stock-outs effectively. <![CDATA[<b>Facilitating access to adolescent sexual and reproductive health services through legislative reform: Lessons from the South African experience</b>]]> South Africa (SA) has progressive legislation enabling adolescents to access various sexual- and reproductive-health services (SRH) independently, without consent from parents or legal guardians. This article reviews the SA legislative framework for adolescent access to SRH interventions. It outlines the five approaches adopted in current legislation to address adolescents' capacity to independently consent to specified health interventions, based on age, capacity and public policy requirements, or combinations thereof. Rather than subsume various health interventions under the umbrella of medical treatment, SA has separately legislated on many SRH interventions (e.g. HIV testing, contraceptives and terminations of pregnancy, among others). We identify strengths and weaknesses of the SA approach, and conclude with lessons learned from the SA experience which could inform discussion and debate on the most appropriate ways for countries to consider law reform that facilitates adolescent access to SRH services. <![CDATA[<b>Building capacity for development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines</b>]]> Robust, reliable and transparent methodologies are necessary to ensure that clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) meet international criteria. In South Africa (SA) and other low- and middle-income countries, upskilling and training of individuals in the processes of CPG development is needed. Since de novo CPG development is time-consuming and expensive, new emerging CPG-development approaches (adopting, contextualising, adapting and updating existing good-quality CPGs) are potentially more appropriate for our context. These emerging CPG-development methods are either not included or sparsely covered in existing training opportunities. The SA Guidelines Excellence (SAGE) team has responded innovatively to the need for CPG training in SA. We have revised an existing SA course and developed an online, open-access CPG-development toolkit. This Guideline Toolkit is a comprehensive guideline resource designed to assist individuals who are interested in knowing how to develop CPGs. Findings from the SAGE project can now be implemented with this innovative CPG training programme. This level of CPG capacity development has the potential to influence CPG knowledge, development, practices and uptake by clinicians, managers, academics and policy-makers around the country. <![CDATA[<b>Orbital apex syndrome after trauma in a 6-year-old - a rare occurrence</b>]]> Orbital apex syndrome is rare, but can occur as a consequence of trauma from fracture of the medial orbit. This case report highlights the fact that a high index of suspicion is needed when a patient presents with a facial injury, especially in children who cannot give an account of the actual events that transpired. Radiological investigation should be done early when an underlying injury is suspected in a trauma patient. A low threshold for computed tomography should be maintained when proptosis and vision loss are present. <![CDATA[<b>Declining prevalence of duodenal ulcer at endoscopy in Ile-Ife, Nigeria</b>]]> BACKGROUND. Duodenal ulcer is the most common peptic ulcer disease worldwide. In the past, sub-Saharan Africa has been described as an area of mixed prevalence for peptic ulcer disease, but recent reports have disputed this. Changes in the prevalence of duodenal ulcer have been reported, with various reasons given for these. OBJECTIVE. To describe the change in endoscopic prevalence of duodenal ulcer at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (OAUTH), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between January 2000 and December 2010. METHODS. This was a retrospective, descriptive study of patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the endoscopy unit of OAUTH between January 2000 and December 2010. The data were obtained from the endoscopy register, demographic indices, presenting symptoms and post-endoscopic diagnoses being retrieved for each patient. The study period was divided into the years 2000 - 2004 and 2005 - 2010, the frequencies of duodenal ulcer and other post-endoscopic diagnoses being compared between these two time periods to see whether there were changes. RESULTS. Over the study period, 292 patients (15.8%) were diagnosed with duodenal ulcer, second only to 471 patients (26.2%) with acute gastritis. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer for 2000 - 2004 was 22.9% (n=211 patients) compared with 9.2% (n=81) for 2005 - 2010 (p<0.001). CONCLUSION. There was a significant decline in the endoscopic prevalence of duodenal ulcer over the decade. <![CDATA[<b>Osteosarcoma outcomes at a South African tertiary hospital</b>]]> BACKGROUND. Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour. There is a high incidence of late presentation in the developing world, posing additional challenges in the treatment of this aggressive disease. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate clinical outcomes of patients with osteosarcoma at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH), a tertiary hospital in South Africa, and compare these with similar studies in the developing world. METHODS. This was a retrospective study of 61 patients treated at CMJAH between 2007 and 2011, with a minimum follow-up of 1.3 years (range 1.3 - 6.3). RESULTS. An average of 4.5 months elapsed before patients were first seen at the CMJAH tumour unit. Fifty-eight patients (95.1%) initially sought conventional medical care. Three patients (4.9%) presented with pathological fractures. All the patients underwent biopsy, performed an average of 3 weeks after arrival at the tumour unit. In most cases the delay was due to limited access to magnetic resonance imaging. Most patients (n=41, 67.2%) were at Enneking stage 2B, 4 (6.6%) were at stage 2A and 16 (26.2%) were at stage 3. Of the patients, 13 (21.3%) underwent limb salvage procedures, 33 (54.1%) had amputations, 4 (6.6%) refused further treatment and 11 (18.0%) received palliative care only; 55 patients (90.2%) received chemotherapy. Two patients developed local recurrence, one of whom had an amputation and the other further wide excision. Two patients received palliative radiotherapy. Of the patients, 82.0% were HIV-negative, 4.9% HIVpositive and the rest of unknown status. At the time of the study, all but two patients, who came from other countries, were traceable or known to have died. Our overall 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 62.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.1 - 73.9) and 38.1% (95% CI 24.6 - 51.4), respectively. Male patients and those with a higher Enneking stage had a poorer prognosis. CONCLUSION. Although most patients sought conventional medical care, unacceptable delays worsened survival. However, our survival rates are better than those in other developing countries. We advocate that professional, public and political awareness of osteosarcoma be improved as a matter of urgency, to facilitate rapid tertiary referral and expedite management. <![CDATA[<b>Central-line-associated bloodstream infections in a resource-limited South African neonatal intensive care unit</b>]]> BACKGROUND. The rate of central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in South African (SA) public sector neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is unknown. Tygerberg Children's Hospital (TCH), Cape Town, introduced a neonatal CLABSI surveillance and prevention programme in August 2012. OBJECTIVES. To describe CLABSI events and identify risk factors for development of CLABSI in a resource-limited NICU. METHODS. A retrospective case-control study was conducted using prospectively collected NICU CLABSI events matched to four randomly selected controls, sampled from the NICU registry between 9 August 2012 and 31 July 2014. Clinical data and laboratory records were reviewed to identify possible risk factors, using stepwise forward logistic regression analysis. RESULTS. A total of 706 central lines were inserted in 530 neonates during the study period. Nineteen CLABSI events were identified, with a CLABSI rate of 5.9/1 000 line days. CLABSI patients were of lower gestational age (28 v. 34 weeks; p=0.003), lower median birth weight (1 170 g v. 1 975 g; p=0.014), had longer catheter dwell times (>4 days) (odds ratio (OR) 5.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 - 25.4); p=0.04) and were more likely to have had surgery during their NICU stay (OR 3.5 (95% CI 1.26 - 10); p=0.01). Significant risk factors for CLABSI were length of stay >30 days (OR 20.7 (95% CI 2.1 - 203.2); p=0.009) and central-line insertion in the operating theatre (OR 8.1 (95% CI 1.2 - 54.7); p=0.03). Gram-negative pathogens predominated (12/22; 54%), with most isolates (10/12; 83%) exhibiting multidrug resistance. CONCLUSION. The TCH NICU CLABSI rate is similar to that reported from resource-limited settings, but exceeds that of high-income countries. Prolonged NICU stay and central-line insertion in the operating theatre were important risk factors for CLABSI development. Intensified neonatal staff training regarding CLABSI maintenance bundle elements and hand hygiene are key to reducing CLABSI rates. <![CDATA[<b>Residual allergenicity of amino acid-based and extensively hydrolysed cow's milk formulas</b>]]> BACKGROUND. Criteria for labelling infant feeds as suitable for the dietary management of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) rely on proving the hypoallergenicity of such feeds or clinical studies showing that the feeds are tolerated by 90% of children with proven CMPA. South African (SA) labelling legislation does not indicate what testing is necessary to prove hypoallergenicity. OBJECTIVES. To evaluate all extensively hydrolysed cow's milk formulas and amino acid-based formulas available in SA for residual allergen content, protein size and amino-acid content. RESULTS. All amino-acid and extensively hydrolysed formulas were found to be similar in composition, with no residual cow's milk allergens detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, proteins were absent and only small molecules in the size range of amino acids and possibly of very small oligopeptides were detected. CONCLUSIONS. These findings indicate that the formulas are extremely likely to be compliant with the definition of hypoallergenicity as tolerance in 90% of proven sufferers from cow's milk allergy. The formulas may therefore be labelled as suitable for the dietary management of infants with CMPA. <![CDATA[<b>A review of antenatal corticosteroid use in premature neonates in a middle-income country</b>]]> BACKGROUND. Antenatal corticosteroid (ANS) use in premature neonates has become a standard of practice. However, there is low ANS coverage in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). Recent studies have questioned the efficacy of ANSs in such countries. OBJECTIVE. To review the use of ANSs in preterm neonates at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH), South Africa. METHODS. This was a retrospective observational study of all neonates with a birth weight of 500 - 1 800 g born at CMJAH between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2016. Neonatal and maternal characteristics of neonates exposed to ANSs were compared with those of neonates who were not exposed. RESULTS. The ANS coverage of the final sample was 930/2 109 (44.1%). The mean (standard deviation (SD)) birth weight was 1 292.4 (323.2) g and the mean gestational age 30.2 (2.9) weeks. Attending antenatal care and maternal hypertension were associated with increased use of ANSs, whereas vaginal delivery was associated with decreased use. In neonates weighing <1 500 g, the use of ANSs was associated with decreased mortality, decreased intraventricular haemorrhage and decreased patent ductus arteriosus. There was no association between ANSs and respiratory distress syndrome, necrotising enterocolitis, sepsis or need for respiratory support in all premature neonates, and no association with improved outcomes in those weighing &gt;1 500 g. CONCLUSION. The benefits of ANSs in terms of neonatal morbidity in this study were not as marked as those published in high-income countries. A randomised controlled trial may be indicated in LMICs. <![CDATA[<b>White blood cell count and C-reactive protein together remain useful for diagnosis and staging of acute appendicitis in children</b>]]> BACKGROUND. Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common acute surgical condition of the abdomen, and the most commonly misdiagnosed. OBJECTIVE. To analyse the white blood cell count (WBCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) contribution to the diagnosis of AA in children. METHODS. This was a retrospective study of 943 consecutive patients operated on with the preoperative diagnosis of AA, in whom preoperative WBCC and CRP had both been measured. Postoperatively, the patients were divided into three groups: normal appendix (no AA), simple AA and complicated AA. RESULTS. Of the 943 patients, 616 (65.3%) had simple AA. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age for this group was 9.8 (3.2) years (p<0.01 v. complicated AA), the mean WBCC was 16.5 (5.0) χ 10(9)/L (p<0.01 v. complicated AA and no AA), and the mean CRP level was 304.8 (409.5) nmol/L (p<0.01 v. complicated AA). The mean age of the patients with complicated AA (283/943, 30.0%) was 7.9 (3.7) years, the mean WBCC was 17.7 (6.2) χ 10(9)/L (p<0.01 v. no AA) and the mean CRP level was 1 076.2 (923.8) nmol/L (p<0.01 v. no AA). The mean age of the patients with no AA (44/943, 4.7%) was 8.8 (3.2) years, the mean WBCC was 13.1 (5.3) χ 10(9)/L and the mean CRP was 361.9 (447.6) nmol/L. The WBCC was normal in 113/899 patients with appendicitis (12.6%) and CRP in 139 (15.5%). Both the WBCC and CRP were normal in 17 patients with appendicitis (1.9%). The best receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained for WBCC when comparing all AA with no AA: cut-off point 15.0 χ 10(9)/L, sensitivity 65%, specificity 68%, area under the curve 0.70. The best ROC curve for CRP was obtained when comparing simple AA with complicated AA: cut-off point 361.9 nmol/L, sensitivity 74%, specificity 74%, area under the curve 0.81. CONCLUSIONS. The WBCC is helpful in diagnosing simple AA and CRP in diagnosing complicated AA. If both are normal, AA is very unlikely. Together the WBCC and CRP are useful tools in diagnosing and staging AA. <![CDATA[<b>The spectrum and outcome of paediatric traumatic brain injury in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa has not changed over the last two decades</b>]]> OBJECTIVES. This retrospective review of a prospectively entered and maintained hybrid electronic trauma registry was intended to develop a comprehensive overview of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents and to compare it with previous audits from our local environment and from other developing world centres. All TBI patients admitted to hospital were included in this study. We reviewed the age, gender, outcomes, radiological findings and treatment of the patients. METHODS. All patients aged <18 years old who were admitted by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS) with TBI between December 2012 and December 2016 were included in this audit. RESULTS. During the 4-year period under review, a total of 563 children and adolescents were treated for TBI by the PMTS. The median age was 6.4 years and 29% (n=165) were females. The mechanism of TBI was blunt trauma in 96% (n=544) of cases, with 4% (n=19) suffering penetrating trauma. The penetrating mechanisms included impalement by a cow horn and miscellaneous injuries due to saws, axes, barbed wire, spades, stones and knives. The blunt mechanisms included falls (n=102), assaults (n=108), collapse of a building (n=28), bicycle-related injury (n=14), falling off a moving vehicle (n=280), motor vehicle accident (MVA; n=59), pedestrian vehicle accident (PVA; n=183) and animal-related injuries (n=8). There were 454 (80%) mild, 67 (12%) moderate and 42 (7%) severe cases of TBI. A total of 48 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and 23 were admitted to the high care unit. Nine patients died. All the deaths were in the MVA and PVA group. The spectrum of TBI as diagnosed on computed tomography scans was nonspecific cerebral contusion (n=92), depressed skull fracture (n=70), sub-arachnoid haemorrhage (n=60), extradural haemorrhage (n=41), intracerebral haemorrhage (n=19), free air (n=19), subdural haemorrhage (n=13), intraventricular haemorrhage (n=9). A total of 62 (11%) patients required surgery. CONCLUSION. There is a significant burden of paediatric TBI in Pietermaritzburg. The majority of TBI was related to blunt trauma and assaults were very common. Although the short-term outcomes are good, the long-term consequences are poorly understood. Injury prevention programmes are needed to help reduce this burden of disease and a nationwide trauma registry is long overdue. <![CDATA[<b>Concomitant HIV infection in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients is hard to recognise and should be tested for routinely in areas of high endemicity</b>]]> BACKGROUND. Over the past three decades much has changed in the treatment and outcomes of patients suffering concurrently from both multiple myeloma (MM) and HIV. While the prevalence of MM appears to be higher in HIV-positive individuals than in those who are uninfected, early recognition of patients suffering from both diseases is difficult and little information is available on their demographics and clinical presentation. OBJECTIVE. To compare the presenting features of HIV-positive patients diagnosed with MM with those of HIV-negative patients. METHODS. A single-centre, retrospective cohort study included 16 HIV-positive and 73 HIV-negative patients diagnosed with MM, in order to compare variables related to the clinical presentation of both conditions. RESULTS. HIV-positive patients presented with MM at a significantly younger age, and had fewer osteolytic lesions, less renal impairment and lower neutrophil counts. Disease stage, gender, pathological fractures, bone marrow plasmacytosis, plasmacytomas and lymphocyte counts were comparable, emphasising the difficulty of identifying these patients. The HIV-positive patients had relatively high CD4 counts and a low prevalence of abnormal Freelite kappa/lambda ratios. All HIV-positive patients presented with paraproteins of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) type, implying a possible relationship between MM and an IgG response to HIV antigens. CONCLUSIONS. On the basis of our findings and literature on the treatment of both diseases, we suggest that HIV be tested for routinely in younger MM patients, especially in areas with a high prevalence of HIV. The integration of our results into the sparse knowledge on the role of HIV infection-related MM provides possible new insights into the interaction between these diseases. <![CDATA[<b>A third of patients treated at a tertiary-level surgical service could be treated at a secondary-level facility</b>]]> BACKGROUND. South Africa (SA) has an overburdened public healthcare system. Some patients admitted to Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH), SA, may not require tertiary care, but the numbers and details are uncertain. Clinical research in SA is limited by scarce skills and limited access to data. OBJECTIVE. To determine the proportion of and length of stay for secondary-, tertiary- and quaternary-level patients discharged from the Department of Surgery at CMJAH over 1 year. METHODS. This is a retrospective analysis of electronic discharge (ED) summaries from the Department of Surgery at CMJAH between 1 April 2015 and 1 April 2016. An SQL query of the database generated a .csv file of all discharges with the following fields: database reference number, length of stay and level of care. The details of each record were verified by MBBCh V students, using a defined level-of-care template and the full discharge summary. The data were reviewed by a senior clinician. RESULTS. There were 3 007 discharge summaries - 97 were not classifiable, two were test records and one was a duplicate. These 100 records were excluded. There were no primary-level records. Secondary-level patients represented 29% (854) of those discharged and 19% of total bed days. Tertiary- and quaternary-level patients together represented 71% of the total and 81% of bed days. The average length of stay was 4.31 days for secondary, 6.98 days for tertiary and 9.77 days for quaternary level-of-care allocation. CONCLUSION. Almost one-third (29%) of patients discharged from CMJAH's Department of Surgery were deemed suitable for secondary-level care. These patients had a shorter length of stay and comprised 19% of total bed days. Students and electronic databases represent an important research resource. <![CDATA[<b>New-onset diabetes after transplant: Incidence, risk factors and outcome</b>]]> BACKGROUND. The outcome of renal transplantation depends on achieving effective immunosuppression while minimising the consequences of such treatment. The occurrence of new-onset diabetes in the post-transplant period has been associated with several risk factors including some immunosuppressive medication. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors associated with new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) could enable risk stratification of patients in the pre-transplant period, with the goal of applying measures that will reduce the incidence. OBJECTIVES. To ascertain the incidence of and clinical and genetic risk factors that predispose to NODAT, and to examine its effect on the outcome of renal transplantation. METHODS. We performed a retrospective cohort review of all renal transplants at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between 2004 and 2008. Patients who were lost to follow-up or had pre-transplant diabetes or primary non-function were excluded. A subset of the cohort who gave informed consent was enlisted for genetic tests. RESULTS. We identified 111 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The incidence of NODAT was 18.0% (n=20 patients). Risk factors for NODAT included age at transplant (p=0.03), body weight (p=0.04), treatment for acute cellular rejection (p=0.02) and polycystic kidney disease as the cause of renal failure (p=0.005). None of the genes investigated (TCF7L2 rs11196205, rs12255372 and rs7903146 and HNFlß rs1800575, rs121918671 and rs121918672) was found to be significantly associated with the risk of NODAT. The genotype frequencies for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms studied were closer (although not identical) to those reported for Caucasians than to those reported for the Yoruba (black) population in West Africa. Overall patient survival was 78% at five years, while graft survival was 72%. There was no significant difference in patient or graft survival between the group with NODAT and the group without. CONCLUSIONS. NODAT was common in renal transplant recipients. Some risk factors predate transplant and could be used to risk-stratify patients to determine appropriate risk-reduction strategies. The genetic determinants for NODAT in this population may differ from those reported elsewhere. NODAT had no impact on patient or graft survival in this cohort. <![CDATA[<b>Age-group differences in risk perceptions of non-communicable diseases among adults in Diepsloot township, Johannesburg, South Africa</b><b>: A cross-sectional study based on the Health Belief Model</b>]]> BACKGROUND. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) occur simultaneously with an ageing HIV-positive population, resulting in premature deaths in persons <70 years of age. Poor risk perception of NCDs results in poor adoption practices of NCD preventive measures. There is a gap in age-related research regarding risk perceptions of NCDs among the SA population. OBJECTIVE. To investigate age-group differences in risk perceptions of NCDs based on the Health Belief Model. METHODS. This cross-sectional design used secondary data obtained from Community AIDS Response (CARe), Johannesburg, SA. Data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in Extension 2 (Blocks I, J, K and L) of Diepsloot township, Johannesburg, SA. The Pearson χ² test of independence was used to examine the relationship between age groups and risk perceptions of NCDs. A p<0.05 value was considered statistically significant. RESULTS. A total of 2 135 participants were included in the analysis, of whom 71.5% were young adults (18 - 35 years). The mean age of the study participants was 32.1 (standard deviation 9.87) years. Significant associations were found between age groups and risk perceptions of NCDs. More middle-aged adults than young adults and older-aged adults perceived family history (74.00% v. 72.74% v. 62.39%, p=0.045) and smoking (83.80% v. 77.20% v. 74.31%, p=0.004) as risk factors that would increase their risk of NCDs. A higher proportion of older-aged adults than young adults and middle-aged adults perceived effects on life and family (89.91% v. 77.39% v. 75.40%, p=0.004) as risks of NCD morbidities. More middle-aged adults than young adults and older-aged adults perceived the usefulness of not smoking (84.60% v. 81.06% v. 74.31%, p=0.028) as an effective NCD preventive measure. More young adults than middle-aged and older-aged adults considered health check-ups (59.31% v. 58.00% v. 41.28%, p=0.001) as a time-consuming process to prevent risks of NCDs. CONCLUSION. Young adults had poorer risk perceptions of NCDs than middle-aged and older-aged adults in Diepsloot township, resulting in poor practice of NCD preventive measures among young adults in the area. This may be due to the misunderstanding of the concept of invulnerability, possibly resulting from the limited access and exposure to NCD-related information among young adults compared with middle-aged and older-aged groups. This highlights the need to expand public health education programmes to increase outreach to the young adult population and increase accessibility to information relating to NCD risks, and encourage adoption of NCD preventive measures.