Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Missionalia]]> vol. 47 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Graphic text, graphic depiction - Genesis 22 and its interpretation on a Louvre miniature plaque</b>]]> In this contribution in honour of colleague Nico Botha, the habit of debate between him and the author is here continued, namely of discussing Bible text and current interpretation. That model of dialogical engagement is used here to enlarge the understanding, through an artwork in the Louvre, the interpretation possibilities of one of the most disturbing Bible passages, Genesis 22. <![CDATA[<b>A young church in mission or maintenance mode? - A case study of the Bantu Presbyterian Church of South Africa (1923-1999)</b>]]> The formation of the Bantu Presbyterian Church of South Africa in 1923 was much criticised for being the result of a racist policy; yet, had racism not been prevalent in South Africa at the time, its formation might have been unnecessary as part of the missionary outreach of the United Free Church of Scotland. For better or worse it was established and in such matters there was no going back. However, its mission was hindered by attempts to control it externally by the Scottish Church and internally by missionaries and their Mission Council. This was an unwritten maintenance approach which, in essence, militated against their missionary purpose. The first ten years of its history testify to this. Its subsequent history bears witness to the attempt to make it an authentic African missionary church open to the ecumenical scene. <![CDATA[<b>A critical reflection on the indigenous church leadership that behaves like modern-day pharoahs - The lutheran church as a case study as we search for servant leadership that is liberating and transformative</b>]]> The article argues that when the indigenous leadership of churches in Africa took over it was a welcome relief, a process that must never be reversed. That take-over followed the cry for a moratorium and for indigenous leadership that was not given space by white missionaries who were at the forefront of the colonisation process. In this article, a question is raised as to whether indigenous leadership is offering leadership that is qualitatively different from that of white missionaries who were also regarded as modern-day Pharaohs and who were incapable of liberating and transforming the church and society. Sadly, indigenous leadership is emulating the behaviours and tendencies of those who were seen as modern-day Pharaohs and subsequently the church is not able to be true to its nature and mission work. The article looks at the ancient Pharaohs and their tendencies and concludes that there are some similarities between the leadership of missionaries and indigenous leadership. The article makes a case for different leadership that is selfless, ethical and service-oriented as taught and embodied by Jesus Christ. <![CDATA[<b>Paternalism, dependency or partnership? - A case study on the Reformed Churches in South Africa</b>]]> In cross-cultural missions, there is always a danger of paternalism. Paternalism produces a culture of dependency in the indigenous church. This study aims to consider whether paternalism and resulting dependency also featured in the mission work of the Reformed Churches in Southern Africa. How were the principle and implementation of mission policy of the Synod, and how was the reality of mission work between the white and the black churches in the Reformed Churches in Southern Africa? The Reformed Churches in South Africa mission work will be investigated through a case study in the Klerksdorp, Orkney, Stilfontein and Hartbeesfontein area. As a result, the Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika remains paternalistic and dependent, and needs a new strategy for missions to overcome them. Therefore, the relationship of biblical partnerships, as new strategy in the Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika to overcome tendencies of paternalism and dependency in the missionary situation, may be suggested. <![CDATA[<b>AIC theologies and western missions - A South African analysis</b>]]> African Independent Churches are groups of churches emerging out of western mainline church experiences. They have increased into many small groups with variant names of their interest. The process of constant breakaways gave them the urge to multiply and gain autonomy. The mainline churches constantly criticise the disadvantaged of this uncontrollable proliferation for lack of theological focus. In South Africa, they are in both large and small faith groups. They are, however, growing irrespective of the theological concern of the mainline scholars and researchers. Since they have evolved over many years alongside the mainline churches, they are aware of such criticisms. As a result, they are compelled to work on a strategy to develop their theology to public spaces. The founding leaders and visions form the core of their theologies. Their biblical faith learned from their founders' leadership and visions. They are Africans who want to teach themselves the Christian ways anchored in their traditional heritages. Can African Independent Churches ever have their own unique theologies? This is the core-interest approach to this article. <![CDATA[<b>Scottish missionary perceptions and images of amaXhosa in the nineteenth century</b>]]> This article gives an analysis of the origins and early beginnings of mission stations among amaXhosa during the nineteenth century, which gradually became a centre of missionary activities among amaNgqika and amaGcaleka. This article analyses the history of the arrival and activities of the missionaries, east and west of the Nciba (Kei) River, in the nineteenth century. It also examines the role of the missionaries in shaping the relations among the traditional leaders and the colonial governors. The activities of the Scottish missionaries among amaXhosa are closely tied to the decline of traditional authority, power, control and influence, disintegration of amaXhosa chiefdoms and kingdom attended to by a loss of land and lives. The colonial government's forceful removal of amaNgqika from Ciskei in 1878 and resettlement in Gcalekaland is also brought to surface, as it is an example in point of how amaXhosa were rendered weak and fragile by the colonial governing authorities.