Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Education]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0256-010020130003&lang=en vol. 33 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>General and special education teachers' relations within teamwork in inclusive education: socio-demographic characteristics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The general objective of this study was to establish the relation between general and special education teachers within teamwork and to define socio-demographic factors that affect teamwork. The sample encompassed 223 general and special education teacher of both genders, age 25 to 60, who are employed in regular elementary schools in Serbia. The general and special education teachers approach data, according to the six dimensions of teamwork, were obtained by means of a standardized questionnaire for teamwork supervision, which contains 60 assertions (Cronbach's a = 0.907). Our research results indicate that there is no significant difference between general and special education teachers in their perception of the four out of six dimensions of teamwork. They are aware of the environment in which teamwork operates, they have similar behaviour and abilities, and they respect similar teamwork values. However, the transition, from traditional to inclusive education, brings the problem of general education teachers' professional identity (p = 0.043) and the meaning of interrelations with special education teachers, the significance of teamwork in broader social sense, and the benefits of teamwork outside the institution (p = 0.049). <![CDATA[<b>Male teachers' experiences of own aggression</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalangaprovince. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding systematic process in order to establish the themes and categories that describe male teachers' experiences of own aggression. Results show that the participants in this sample experience their own aggression in a variety of ways. It appears they primarily experience a loss of power and control that gives rise to aggression. Significantly, participants are aware that they need guidelines to enable them to cope with their aggression. Although there are aggression theories that support and provide an understanding of aggressive behaviour, Transformative Learning Theory seems to offer the best way of bringing about transformative change in individual behaviour, as it raises consciousness and an understanding of the self through self-reflection. <![CDATA[<b>Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive analysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dynamics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment - enabling participation in academic discourse and the implications</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The current study was an exploration of how to develop assessment resources and processes via in-depth interviews with 30 teachers. The focus was on how teachers use and apply different assessment situations. The methodology, which was a predominately qualitative approach and adopted case study design, sought to use a set of criteria based on constructs from literature reviews to evaluate assessments. Thus these characteristics guided the study which included: a brief description of assessment and moderation; assessment materials/resources; assessment objectives; assessment activities; assessment/re-evaluation; and alignment/consistency. The case (one site) and 30 respondents were selected purposively. The study revealed that assessors need to use different methods of assessment depending on the socio-cultural setting of learners' environment and resources, if applicable. We argue that teachers should note the socialisation within their domain as well as the culture of their domain and domain-specific ways of talking, acting, and seeing the world. <![CDATA[<b>Learners' and teachers' perceptions of principals' leadership in Soweto secondary schools: a social justice analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The legislative framework for education in South Africa enforces the democratisation and transformation of education consistent with the values of human dignity, equity, human rights, and freedom. As ex officio members of School Governing Bodies (SGBs) and professional managers of schools, principals should play a pivotal role in providing transformative leadership for social justice in these schools. The purpose of this study was to examine, through a social justice framework, how teachers and learners who are SGB members perceive and experience the principals' leadership in Soweto secondary schools. Five schools were purposefully sampled for this qualitative case study. Data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews and follow-up individual interviews. Findings suggest that learners and teachers experience sampled schools as democratically untransformed with a climate fraught with unfairness, inequity, disregard for human rights, and intolerance of diversity. The leadership behaviour of principals is perceived as a barrier to democratic transformation and social justice and this engenders resistance and threatens management effectiveness. <![CDATA[<b>Does family structure matter? Comparing the life goals and aspirations of learners in secondary schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to compare the goals and aspirations of learners from single- and two-parent families. The study used a quantitative methodology with a cross-sectional comparative group design. The sample consisted of 853 Grade 11 learners from secondary schools in the Northern, Southern and Metro Central education districts in the Western Cape. The data were collected using the Aspirations Index and a short biographical questionnaire. The results suggest that there was a significant main effect of family structure on certain goals and aspirations of learners in secondary schools. These goals and aspirations included wealth, image, personal growth, relationships, and health. Furthermore, learners in single-parent families placed more emphasis on intrinsic goals. <![CDATA[<b>Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in Orange Farm Township</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate everyday life. A qualitative case study was conducted with nine male early high school leavers between the ages of 18 and 25, as well as 12 stakeholders involved in the Orange Farm Township, south of Johannesburg. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations. Narrative analysis revealed complications related to the notions of space and place of the potential participants and the researcher. In the first place, the difficulty was not in identifying participants, but in establishing rapport to the extent that they agreed to participate in the research. Assumptions about space and place gave rise to expectations that had to be managed, and consequently the researcher had to rethink the methodological choices. In particular, participants' perceived real social positions and their relation to different social spaces had to be negotiated. It is suggested that relatively novice researchers, researching male early high school leaving in familiar spaces, can mitigate complications of space, place and stigma during fieldwork by using multiple sources of data and strategic, flexible interviewing techniques. <![CDATA[<b>Lexical inferencing: perceptions and actual behaviours of Turkish English as a Foreign Language Learners' handling of unknown vocabulary</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this study was to examine Turkish English as a Foreign Language Learners' (EFL) handling of unknown words while reading English texts. The study also examines the relationship between these learners' perceptions and actual practices in the employment of knowledge sources while trying to guess the meaning of unknown words. The participants involved in this study were 40 pre-service teacher education students between the ages of 18-22 years old. Data were collected through mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods, namely, by a twofold vocabulary strategy survey and a lexical inference test. Pearson correlation coefficients were conducted to determine what relationships exist among the perceived behaviours and actual practices of learners for unknown words. The results of the correlation analyses identified an insignificant correlation between the actual practices and perceptions of students for the contextual and intralingual knowledge sources. <![CDATA[<b>Using real-worldness and cultural difference to enhance student learning in a Foundation Phase Life Skills module</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Our aim was to explore how real-world experience, inclusive of engagement with cultural differences, influences the quality of students' learning in a Life Skills module in pre-service Foundation Phase teacher education. The study was conducted with 147 students in their final year of the Bachelor of Education (Foundation Phase specialisation), at the University of the Free State. A case study design was employed to collect qualitative data by means of focus group discussions, open-ended questionnaires, and face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The findings of the study suggest that the use of the real world, as a context for authentic learning, enables meaning making, where students gain first-hand experience that allows them to engage with the complexities of preparing to teach in the Foundation Phase. <![CDATA[<b>An investigation of the effectiveness of the modular general English language teaching preparatory program at a Turkish university</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Evaluating existing foreign language programs on a regular basis is essential because program evaluation leads to more effective programs. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the modular intensive general English language teaching program applied at a university in Turkey by investigating students' and English instructors' perceptions of different program dimensions, such as the materials, teaching process, and assessment. The data were collected via questionnaires filled out by students and interviews with the English instructors at the preparatory program. The findings of the study show that the modular system should be discontinued as it has certain drawbacks and should be replaced by a more manageable and feasible system considering specific contextual constraints, such as the number of instructors, classrooms and teaching resources. Also, it was found that there are certain aspects of the curriculum that need to be improved in order to develop a more effective program. It is hoped that this study will lead to more evaluative studies in foreign language teaching programs. <![CDATA[<b>Hazing in orientation programmes in boys-only secondary schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hazing, associated with initiation, aims at taking newcomers from novice status to a status of functional and acknowledged members of a new group. However, the process is often dangerous, injurious, and usually secretive. Hazing may occur as an unauthorised component of institutionally sanctioned orientation programmes commonly held for new students at educational institutions at the beginning of the academic year. This study focuses on the occurrence of hazing elements in orientation programmes (OP) for Grade 8 boys primarily run by Grade 12 learners in boys-only secondary schools in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by administering a researcher-designed questionnaire to a non-probabilistic sample of 296 Grade 12 learners enrolled at three boys-only secondary schools in Johannesburg. The computer assisted analysis strategy included frequency distributions, exploratory factor analysis, and analysis of variance. Findings indicated that respondents generally agreed with regard to the structure, aims, and behaviours common to orientation programmes. Respondents strongly disagreed about the occurrence of physical and sexual abuse and activities aimed at discomfort in the OP; however, respondents showed ambivalence about the occurrence of certain activities, which may deteriorate into hazing. Prior experience of an orientation programme when in Grade 8; length of enrolment in the school, and boarder status affected respondents' perceptions of certain aspects of orientation programmes. <![CDATA[<b>Applicability of the Organisational Climate Description Questionnaire - Rutgers Elementary: a South African case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Organisational Climate Description Questionnaire - Rutgers Elementary (OCDQ - RE) was used to determine the current organizational climate of primary schools in North-West Province, South Africa. This questionnaire evaluates the actions of principals and educators; the current organizational climate in primary schools can be determined from the results. A quantitative research approach, with 904 teachers from 68 schools, was used to determine the applicability of the measuring instrument. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that certain items measuring directive behaviour in the OCDQ-RE grouped with supportive behaviour of the principal. Hence, in this study, these items were regarded as supportive towards the educators and their work by the respondents. According to Cronbach's alpha coefficient the questionnaire can be regarded as reliable. Recommendations are made to render the questionnaire even more applicable for the South African context. <![CDATA[<b>The nature, causes and effects of school violence in South African high schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design is divided into two phases, beginning with the collection and analysis of quantitative data, followed by the collection and analysis of qualitative data. The overall purpose of this design is that the qualitative data help explain or build upon initial quantitative results from the first phase of the study. The advantage of the design is that its two-phased nature makes it uncomplicated to implement and to report on. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a better understanding of the research problem than either approach alone. A pilot study of the questionnaire was conducted in a school outside the province in which the study was done. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.72. This was a high positive coefficient and implied that the questionnaire used was reliable. The study found that bullying, vandalism, gangsterism, indiscipline, intolerance, and corporal punishment were prevalent in schools. Furthermore, the study found that school violence had the following effects on learners: loss of concentration; poor academic performance; bunking of classes; and depression. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail. <![CDATA[<b>Ecological aspects influencing the implementation of inclusive education in mainstream primary schools in the Eastern Cape, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Despite efforts worldwide to ensure quality education for all learners through inclusive education, indications are that many learners, especially those that experience barriers to learning, are still excluded from full access to quality and equitable education opportunities in mainstream primary schools. This article uses a qualitative approach and phenomenological strategy to focus on the ecological aspects influencing the implementation of inclusive education in mainstream primary schools in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 participants from seven schools to gather data, whilst a process of framework analysis was used for the analysis of the data. The investigation revealed that the implementation of inclusive education is not only hampered by aspects within the school environment, but also by aspects across the entire ecological system of education. <![CDATA[<b>Globalisation and the internationalisation of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In a shrinking world, in which a neo-liberal discourse has permeated sub-Saharan African higher education, critical reflection is required to assess the merits and demerits of globalisation. Research, intensive discussion and hearings conducted over a two-year period by the Task Force on Higher Education and Society, convened by the World Bank and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the purpose of exploring the future of higher education in the developing world, led to the conclusion that without more and better higher education, developing countries would find it increasingly difficult to benefit from the global knowledge economy. A decade later, we argue for a radical change in the traditional discourse on globalisation because of the emergence of countries such as China, South Africa, India, and Brazil as global players in the world economy. These emerging global powers, reframe the political and imperial philosophy at the epicentre of globalisation discourse - an economic creed, through their mutual consultation and coordination on significant political issues. Their economic and military capabilities enable them to influence the trade regime and thereby strengthen the voice of the developing world as a whole. In relation to this paper's inquiry, the cooperation of these emerging powers gives the free enfranchised people of the world an opportunity to choose a different path of international relations (internationalisation) formed on more liberal lines, as opposed to the neo-liberal economic rationality of globalisation. This paper therefore examines globalisation and internationalisation of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa, a field in which increased knowledge production and distribution open up opportunities for users, institutions and societies. Against a background of chronic economic uncertainty we examine the influence of major international institutions on the direction of higher education, in particular teacher education. Drawing on relevant literature and our own experience, reflexively, we argue that the tendency, towards free market regulation ideologies, privileges neo-liberal global knowledge discourses, such that they impose on higher education a need to respond across a range of fields. <![CDATA[<b>New spaces for researching postgraduate Education research in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002013000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Universities in South Africa during apartheid reflected the racialised politics of the period. This gave rise to divisive descriptors such as 'historically white/black'; 'English/Afrikaans-speaking' institutions and 'Bantustan' universities. These descriptors signal a hierarchy of social status and state funding. We start by explaining how these apartheid-era institutional arrangements formed socially unjust 'silos' around postgraduate Education researchers and their research. Against this backdrop, we describe a project that surveyed postgraduate Education research at 23 institutions in South Africa between 1995 and 2004 - the first decade of democracy. The products of the survey constitute two spaces. First, there is the physical archive of dissertations and theses from the higher education institutions. This space disrupts the historical differences and physical distances, bringing together the postgraduate Education research of that period. The second space is the electronic bibliographic database of the archive. It is an abstract space that defies traditional shelving arrangements. We argue that this national project broke down the apartheid-era silos that separated the postgraduate Education research of the different higher education institutions in South Africa. In this article we propose that a third space manifests when a researcher works with the project's archive and/or database. It is a space of lived experience. In the interactive moment and space, when the researcher connects with the archive or database, there is the possibility of the researcher generating new understandings and ideas of/about Education research. Although the project described in this article has ended, we found that in the third space of the interactive experienced moment fresh questions about the knowledge produced by postgraduate Education researchers in South Africa, at the critical historical moment of the first decade of democracy, were made possible.