Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Education]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0256-010020180004&lang=pt vol. 38 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Reducing bullying in schools by focusing on school climate and school socio-economic status</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper is a secondary analysis, using data from the South African 2015 cycle of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). TIMSS is a trend study that assesses Mathematics and Science achievement and is designed to measure changes in the education system over time. The participants of the study included 12,514 learners from 292 schools, where a national sample of schools and learners are selected, making the study nationally representative. A multiple regression was conducted to respond to the main aims of the study, which is, firstly, to investigate the association between school climate and the prevalence of bullying in schools. Secondly, to determine if the socioeconomic status of the school is associated with incidences of bullying at the school. The results show that learners are less likely to be bullied when they feel a sense of belonging to the school they attend, they are confident, and when they are constantly engaged in the classroom. A significant gender bias exists where boys are bullied more often than girls. It has also been found that students who are often bullied obtain a significantly lower score in Mathematics than their counterparts. The findings demonstrate the need for schools to monitor the nature and frequency of bullying, so that targeted interventions can be designed, implemented and monitored on a regular basis. <![CDATA[<b>Bullies, victims and bully-victims in South African schools: Examining the risk factors</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt School bullying is a complex social phenomenon that negatively impacts the psychosocial well-being of students, as well as the overall culture and climate of schools. Designing appropriate interventions to combat bullying in South African schools requires nuanced information about this phenomenon. This paper examines the extent and nature of bullying in schools located in different and unequal socio-economic contexts. It then examines the risk factors associated with being a victim of bullying. Self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of 12,514 Grade Nine South African students, who participated in the 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, was used. Data were subjected to analysis using independent samples f-tests and hierarchical generalised linear modelling. The results revealed different patterns of bullying victimisation and perpetration by the socio-economic status (SES) of the school, with students attending schools with a low SES reporting higher levels of bullying. Factors resulting in higher odds of being a victim were students' gender and psychosocial characteristics. Perpetration as a risk factor for victimisation (bully-victims) was found across bullying types. The results suggest that students play different participant roles as bully and victim, and that the two behaviours reinforce one another. <![CDATA[<b>The geographies of bullying in a secondary school context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This study, undertaken at a secondary school in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, sought to research bullying - a phenomenon seen globally as a major social problem that has a serious impact on the wellbeing of children and the youth. Participants were eight Grade 10 learners, 4 male and 4 female. The research tradition was a narrative inquiry as the aim was to foreground the participants' stories of the places and spaces of bullying at the school. Data generation involved individual and focus group interviews. Data was analysed using thematic content analysis guided by theoretical concepts from New Childhood Studies and Children's Geographies. The findings indicate that bullying is a serious problem at the school and has a negative impact on the wellbeing of children. Children emerged as social actors who were able to provide insight into the kinds of bullying they experienced and how they constructed 'bullying' as a phenomenon. The study was able to capture the reality of the children's experiences of the complex power-laden spaces and places of bullying at the school. The study shows that bullying is situated in a context and an in-depth analysis of context is necessary to capture the intricacies of the phenomenon. <![CDATA[<b>Bullying in school toilets: Experiences of secondary school learners in a South African township</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article reports on a qualitative study that explored bullying in the learner toilets of a township secondary school in South Africa and the reasons for its persistence in this particular school. The exploratory study used focus group discussions to collect data to address the research question. Newman's 'defensible space' framework, which stipulates that the design of an area, as well as its physical settings, can facilitate violence, informs data analysis. In the study, learners experienced toilets as the most dangerous areas inside their school, reporting that they encountered a lot of bullying in these spaces. In particular, bullying in the school toilets was characterised by violence, including physical and sexual assaults, as well as criminal activity (mostly muggings) and threats of violence. According to learners, the toilets and what happened within them were removed and hidden from the teachers' view and supervision, leaving the victims at the mercy of the bullies and perpetrators of violence. Informed by these findings, we conclude that because of their physical design and location within the school, which made it difficult to exercise any supervisory duties or to enforce security measures and protect learners, the toilets in this school remained indefensible spaces. <![CDATA[<b>Social work intervention to address the phenomenon of bullying amongst learners in the school setting: A literature review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Bullying incidents amongst learners are realities that have made, and continue to make news headlines internationally, and South Africa is not immune to such incidents. The phenomenon of bullying not only affects the bully and the victim, but also the school, parents, and communities in general. In this paper, the researcher highlights factors that may be associated with bullying amongst learners in the school setting. The ecosystems perspective is also discussed as the theoretical framework for the paper. The last step describes how the social worker can address the bullying phenomenon using different methods of practice. The researcher relies on the literature review method, and his practical experience as a social worker having previously worked with several learners. This paper concludes with relevant recommendations. <![CDATA[<b>A comparison of gender, age, grade, and experiences of authoritarian parenting amongst traditional and cyberbullying perpetrators</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this study, we explore the differences between learners who perpetrate cyberbullying and traditional bullying in Gauteng with regard to their sociodemographic characteristics and the level of self-reported, authoritarian parenting they experienced. This study was conducted on Grade Six and Seven learners from four primary schools in Benoni, Gauteng (N = 279). Pupils completed an adapted version of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (R-OBVQ) and items from the Parenting Practices Questionnaire (PPQ), which measured the authoritarian parenting style. Results revealed that grade was significantly associated with both traditional and cyberbullying perpetration; Grade Six learners were significantly more likely to have perpetrated traditional bullying behaviours, χ² (3, N = 272) = 9.26, p < .05, and Grade Seven learners were more likely to have perpetrated cyberbullying behaviours, χ2 (1, N = 272) = 5.96, p < .05. Age was significantly associated with cyberbullying perpetration only, with older learners more likely to perpetrate such behaviours, χ² (2, N = 272) = 9.24, p < .05. Both types of bullying were significantly related to self-reported, authoritarian parenting, therein suggesting that this parenting style is more prevalent in the households of bullying perpetrators. <![CDATA[<b>Victims' experiences of learner challenging behaviour in primary schools in Phoenix, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Victims' experiences of learner challenging behaviour in South African primary schools are an ongoing problem that is cause for concern, where additionally, the parents of the perpetrators are unapologetic, and defending their wrongdoing. In this scenario, there is little teachers can do to address ill-disciplined learners. In effect, teacher helplessness has further intensified the problem in primary schools. To establish the way in which the victims experience challenging behaviour, face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of six learners (N = 6). Results indicate that the victims continuously suffer at the hands, and indeed the feet, of violent learners. Furthermore, as their cries go unheard, the problem remains persistent. Since schools have been failing to respond effectively to learner challenging behaviour, this article recommends immediate intervention by the Department of Basic Education (DBE) to offer a more constructive solution to this problem, one that will effect change and offer relief and protection to the victims. The article concludes that victims continue to suffer, with little or no safeguarding from teachers. Future research ought to include the role of teachers in safeguarding learners against learner victimisation and challenging behaviour in primary schools. <![CDATA[<b>Understanding bullying relationally</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article, bullying in South African schools is conceptualised regarding both the phenomenon and the leadership style using a relational framework. An instrumental case study nested in social constructivism was applied. I employed semi-structured interviews, including some open-ended questionnaires, based on the same interview questions. Research participants were sampled purposively, after selecting a few schools that were part of a larger research project investigating bullying with the aim of countering this problem. To this end, I sourced data from 12 principals in these schools to inquire into their leadership style, and the possible ways in which a relational stance might assist in combatting this social and educational dilemma in schools. Empirical data revealed that in many cases where the school principals honed values such as care and relational attributes in their daily leadership practices, learners were more likely to respond to the relational and caring practices that they witnessed and experienced. A relational leadership style could assist in countering bullying, setting caring and supportive examples for both teachers and learners, adding much worth to a favourable educational landscape. <![CDATA[<b>Adolescent girls' behavioural characteristics and their vulnerability to bullying in Manzini high schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Incidences of school bullying appear to be on the rise in most schools across the globe, and schools in Swaziland are no exception. Sadly, adolescent girls appear to be most susceptible to being bullied. This study considers how some of the traits of young girls tend to expose them to incidences of bullying. The approach was qualitative and employed the multiple case study research design in which data was obtained through focus group discussions (FGDs) involving 24 girls from three schools, by purposive sampling. Content analysis was employed to analyse data from the FGD. Results show the relevance of Routine Activities Theoretical framework in explaining the incidences of bullying among adolescent girls. Low self-esteem and the feeling of loneliness appeared as two major characteristics making girls more susceptible to incidences of bullying. Data interpretation suggests that loneliness tends to expose the girls as suitable targets. Schooling presents a lonely and unprotected experience for girls, where likely offenders take advantage of their isolation. The authors argue that the schooling experiences of adolescent girls require urgent intervention, in which curriculum experts ought to consider bullying lessons for both girls and boys. <![CDATA[<b>Editorial: The Nature and Extent of Bullying in a Developing Country Context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-01002018000400010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Incidences of school bullying appear to be on the rise in most schools across the globe, and schools in Swaziland are no exception. Sadly, adolescent girls appear to be most susceptible to being bullied. This study considers how some of the traits of young girls tend to expose them to incidences of bullying. The approach was qualitative and employed the multiple case study research design in which data was obtained through focus group discussions (FGDs) involving 24 girls from three schools, by purposive sampling. Content analysis was employed to analyse data from the FGD. Results show the relevance of Routine Activities Theoretical framework in explaining the incidences of bullying among adolescent girls. Low self-esteem and the feeling of loneliness appeared as two major characteristics making girls more susceptible to incidences of bullying. Data interpretation suggests that loneliness tends to expose the girls as suitable targets. Schooling presents a lonely and unprotected experience for girls, where likely offenders take advantage of their isolation. The authors argue that the schooling experiences of adolescent girls require urgent intervention, in which curriculum experts ought to consider bullying lessons for both girls and boys.