Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koedoe]]> vol. 59 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Using genetics to prioritise headwater stream fish populations of the Marico barb, <i>Enteromius motebensis</i> Steindachner 1894, for conservation action</b>]]> South Africa has a relatively large number of threatened freshwater fish species and limited resources to implement conservation programs. Enteromius motebensis was regionally prioritised for action because of its conservation status and flagship status in a nationally important aquatic ecosystem. Genetic diversity of E. motebensis in headwater refugia of the Groot Marico River Catchment was assessed to determine if genetic diversity is important for conservation planning for this species. The results of the genetic analysis indicate that some prioritisation was possible, with two populations showing evidence of recent isolation. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: We recommend that at least three populations be prioritised for conservation action to ensure maintenance of most of the remaining genetic diversity of the species. <![CDATA[<b>Tsetse flies should remain in protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal</b>]]> The proposal to eradicate tsetse flies from South Africa, including its protected areas, via the sequential aerosol technique combined with the sterile insect technique to reduce trypanosomiasis in cattle did not present an appropriate analysis of the impacts that implementation of the proposal would have on biodiversity. Not only would the implementation of the proposal be contrary to South African laws protecting and conserving biodiversity, but it would also have negative consequences for the conservation of biodiversity. Some of the negative consequences are reviewed, including extirpations and negative impacts on ecological and ecosystem processes and services. Alternative strategies to control trypanosomiasis in cattle effectively in a more environment-friendly manner are presently available and others will almost certainly become available in the not-too-distant future. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Environmental protection, promotion of conservation and sustainable use of the environment are all deeply seated in South Africa's law. Rural livestock husbandry considerations and biodiversity conservation are not mutually exclusive and the importance of one cannot supersede the other. The eradication proposal is seen to be environmentally damaging and therefore it is concluded that the purpose of this proposed eradication exercise is unconstitutional, contrary to various multilateral agreements South Africa has entered into and contrary to good environmental governance. <![CDATA[<b>Patch-occupancy survey of elephant (<i>Loxodonta africana</i>) surrounding Livingstone, Zambia</b>]]> Wild elephants represent the biggest human-wildlife conflict issue in Livingstone, Zambia. However, little is known about their movements. This survey investigated elephants' habitat use outside a core protected and fenced zone that forms part of Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, Zambia. Using 'patch-occupancy' methodology, indications of elephant presence (feeding behaviour, dung and tracks) were surveyed. The survey aimed to assist proposed future monitoring exercises by defining the geographical extent that should be considered to improve accuracy in species abundance estimates. Results were supplemented using collected indications of elephant presence from prior monitoring exercises, and during this survey. Elephant presence was confirmed up to 8 km from the boundary of the protected core habitat, focussed in: (1) an unfenced zone of the national park, (2) along a road leading from the national park to the Dambwa Forest to the north and (3) along two rivers located to the west (Sinde River) and east (Maramba River) of the core area. Detection probability of elephant presence was high using these methods, and we recommend regular sampling to determine changes in habitat use by elephants, as humans continue to modify land-use patterns. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Identification of elephant ranging behaviour up to 8 km outside of the Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park in southern Zambia will assist in managing human-elephant conflict in the area, as well as in assessing this seasonal population's abundance